855 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2015
    1. tomb of the illustrious Hampden and the field on which that patriot fell

      John Hampden (1594-1643): English parliamentary leader who opposed Charles I. He was killed in battle at Chalgrove Field, near Oxford.

      "Hampden, John." The Columbia Encyclopedia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2015. Credo Reference. Web. 5 Dec. 2015.

    2. ennui

      "ennui, n.": The feeling of mental weariness and dissatisfaction produced by want of occupation, or by lack of interest in present surroundings or employments.

      "ennui, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015.

    3. the lovely Isis

      The Thames River is traditionally called the Isis in the section that runs through Oxford. RIver Thames

    4. Oxford.

      A city in the South East region of England. Oxford Wikipedia

    5. Edinburgh, but to visit Windsor, Oxford, Matlock, and the Cumberland lakes,

      The capital city of Scotland. Edinburgh Wikipedia

    6. Perth

      A city in central Scotland. Perth Wikipedia

    7. intercourse

      "intercourse, n.": Social communication between individuals; frequent and habitual contact in conversation and action; dealings.

      "intercourse, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015.

    8. St. Paul's towering above all, and the Tower famed in English history

      An Anglican cathedral that sits on Ludgate Hill, the highest point in London. St. Paul's Cathedral Wikipedia

    9. Gravesend, Woolwich, and Greenwich

      Towns/districts in and around London, England.

    10. Thames

      The second longest river in the United Kingdom, and the longest river that flows entirely through England. Image Description River Thames Wikipedia

    11. we resolved to post the remainder of our way,

      "post, v.": To travel with relays of horses, originally as a courier or bearer of letters.

      "post, v.2." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015.

    12. Cologne

      The currently fourth-largest city in Germany. Cologne Wikipedia

    13. ——The sounding cataract Haunted him like a passion: the tall rock, The mountain, and the deep and gloomy wood, Their colours and their forms, were then to him An appetite; a feeling, and a love, That had no need of a remoter charm, By thought supplied, or any interest Unborrow'd from the eye. [Wordsworth's "Tintern Abbey".]

      Expressing nature in poetry. William Wordsworth - "Tintern Abbey

    14. Pays de Vaud

      In Switzerland Image Description

    15. La Valais

      In Switzerland Image Description

    16. verdant

      "verdant, adj.": Green with vegetation; characterized by abundance of verdure.

      "verdant, adj." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015.

    17. Lucerne and Uri

      Large lakes in Switzerland. View from Lucerne toward Uri

    18. Mainz.

      The capital city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany. Mainz Wikipedia

    19. Mannheim

      A city in the southwestern part of Germany. Mannheim Wikipedia

    20. Rotterdam

      A city in South Holland, the Netherlands. Rotterdam Wikipedia

    21. Rhine.

      The second longest river in Central and Western Europe. Image Description Rhine Wikipedia

    22. bourne

      "bourne | bourn, n.": The limit or terminus of a race, journey, or course; the ultimate point aimed at, or to which anything tends; destination, goal. (Somewhat poetic: often fig.)

      "bourne | bourn, n.2." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015.

    23. and my present sensations strongly intimated that the fiend would follow me and exempt my family from the danger of his machinations

      "machination, n.": An instance of plotting or (usually malicious) contrivance; an intrigue, plot, or scheme. Now usu. in pl.

      "machination, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015.

      Victor believes that the creature will follow through on his promise to follow him wherever he goes, meaning that his loved ones are safe, at least for now, from the creature's plots.

    24. Strasbourg

      An eastern French city that sits close to the German border. It's an important transportation hub, as many river, rail, and roadways are located here.

      Strasbourg Wikipedia

    25. dilatory

      "dilatory, adj.": Given to or characterized by delay; slow, tardy.

      "dilatory, adj.1 and n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015.

    26. engagement

      "engagement, n.": A formal promise, agreement, undertaking, covenant.

      "engagement, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015.

      Here, Victor must complete his engagement with the creature and create a female mate before he can enter an engagement of marriage to Elizabeth.

    27. candour

      "candour | candor, n.": Freedom from mental bias, openness of mind; fairness, impartiality, justice.

      "candour | candor, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015.

    28. exordium

      "exordium, n.": The beginning of anything; esp. the introductory part of a discourse, treatise, etc.; ‘the proemial part of a composition’ (Johnson).

      "exordium, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015.

      Without any previous context, Victor is afraid of what his father believes is causing his unhappiness and how he plans to resolve it.

    29. disquisition

      "disquisition, n.": Diligent or systematic search; investigation; research, examination.

      "disquisition, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 5 December 2015.

    30. Chapter 18

      Victor does a lot of travelling in the few following chapters. These maps are useful in following along with him on his journey.

      Frankenstein's Journey

      Locations in "Frankenstein"

    31. Yet even thus I loved them to adoration; and to save them, I resolved to dedicate myself to my most abhorred task

      Even though he is against creating another creature, Victor is willing to do it to save the ones he loves. He knows that it could be a great mistake.

    32. Geneva

      Located in Switzerland where the Rhône river exits Lake Geneva. Geneva Wikipedia

    33. Chamounix

      Located in the Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France. Image Description Chamounix (Chamonix) Wikipedia

    34. siroc

      "sirocco, n.": An oppressively hot and blighting wind, blowing from the north coast of Africa over the Mediterranean and affecting parts of Southern Europe (where it is also moist and depressing).

      "sirocco, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 4 December 2015.

    35. kid

      "kid, n.": The young of a goat

      "kid, n.1." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 4 December 2015.

    36. unremitting attentions of my friend

      "unremitting, adj.": Of an activity, condition, process, etc.: continuing without pause or reduction in intensity; continuous, constant, incessant.

      "unremitting, adj." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 4 December 2015.

    37. diligences

      "diligence, n.": A public stage-coach.

      "diligence, n.2." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 2 December 2015. Image Description

    38. aspect

      "aspect, n.": The look which one wears; expression of countenance; countenance, face.

      "aspect, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 2 December 2015.

      Victor couldn't stand the appearance of the creature. He had high hopes, but they are crushed when the creature turns out hideous.

    39. incipient

      "incipient, adj.": Beginning; commencing; coming into, or in an early stage of, existence; in an initial stage.

      "incipient, adj. and n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 4 December 2015.

    40. I then thought that my father would be unjust if he ascribed my neglect to vice or faultiness on my part, but I am now convinced that he was justified in conceiving that I should not be altogether free from blame. A human being in perfection ought always to preserve a calm and peaceful mind and never to allow passion or a transitory desire to disturb his tranquillity. I do not think that the pursuit of knowledge is an exception to this rule. If the study to which you apply yourself has a tendency to weaken your affections and to destroy your taste for those simple pleasures in which no alloy can possibly mix, then that study is certainly unlawful, that is to say, not befitting the human mind. If this rule were always observed; if no man allowed any pursuit whatsoever to interfere with the tranquillity of his domestic affections, Greece had not been enslaved, Caesar would have spared his country, America would have been discovered more gradually, and the empires of Mexico and Peru had not been destroyed.

      Victor is admitting that he was to blame for the creature's destruction. He acknowledges that a perfect man would not pursue something that would disrupt his tranquility.However, this "rule" is not always followed. He allowed himself to get caught up in the pursuit of knowledge and he references historical instances where the disobeying of the rule caused trouble on a larger scale.

    41. venerable

      Venerable is defined as being valued and respected because of old age. The cottagers respect the old man, De Lacey; this is apparent since the creature uses venerable a number of times to describe the old man and also goes into detail about the love shared between the inhabitants of the cottage.

      "Venerable." Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster. Web. 17 Nov. 2015. http://beta.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/venerable

    42. There was a show of gratitude and worship in his attachment to my mother, differing wholly from the doting fondness of age, for it was inspired by reverence for her virtues and a desire to be the means of, in some degree, recompensing her for the sorrows she had endured, but which gave inexpressible grace to his behaviour to her.

      This statement expresses how unlike Victor is from his parents. His father loved Victor's mother very much, and he expressed his love for her. Victor's father never minded of the age difference between him and his wife. Victor's father loved his wife so much to compensate for all of the hard times she went through with her father, and all of the sorrow she endured. Victor, on the other hand, did not do this with The Creature. The Creature experienced much sorrow, because no one wanted to give him company. Victor, The Creature's own creator, did not love him to compensate for all of the hard times he endured. This shows that Victor did not learn much from his parents.

    43. Like one who, on a lonely road, Doth walk in fear and dread, And, having once turned round, walks on, And turns no more his head; Because he knows a frightful fiend Doth close behind him tread. [Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner."]

      Reference to Samuel Taylor Coleridge's "The Riime of the Ancient Mariner" a long poem about a Mariner who must endure multiple curses after shooting an albatross (generally signified bad luck at sea) off his ship. In the end, the Mariner must travel the land and tell his tale to persuade others to love God's creatures.

      "Ancient Mariner, the Rime of The." Brewer's Curious Titles. Ed. Ian Crofton. London: Chambers Harrap, 2002. Credo Reference. Web. 2 Dec. 2015.

      This specific passage can be taken quite literally in line with Victor's actions. He is actually walking through the streets to escape the "frightful fiend", his creation.

    44. Dutch schoolmaster in The Vicar of Wakefield: 'I have ten thousand florins a year without Greek, I eat heartily without Greek.'

      From The Vicar of Wakefield (1766) by Oliver Goldsmith.

      "Vicar of Wakefield, The." The Cambridge Guide to Literature in English. Ed. Ian Ousby. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Credo Reference. Web. 2 Dec. 2015.

      Clerval is explaining here that his father didn't necessarily believe in his need for higher education ("Greek"), but he convinced him to allow a journey of discovery anyway.

    45. Safie related that her mother was a Christian Arab

      A Christian Arab is someone who is ethnically Arab and a follower of Christianity. The Islamic conquest had often resulted in Arab Christians being persecuted for not being Muslim, which could explain why Safie's mother was forced into being a slave.


    46. I heard of the difference of sexes, and the birth and growth of children, how the father doted on the smiles of the infant, and the lively sallies of the older child, how all the life and cares of the mother were wrapped up in the precious charge, how the mind of youth expanded and gained knowledge, of brother, sister, and all the various relationships which bind one human being to another in mutual bonds. "But where were my friends and relations? No father had watched my infant days, no mother had blessed me with smiles and caresses; or if they had, all my past life was now a blot, a blind vacancy in which I distinguished nothing. From my earliest remembrance I had been as I then was in height and proportion. I had never yet seen a being resembling me or who claimed any intercourse with me. What was I?

      Only after learning about the family unit, different sexes, and relationships does the creature realize that he has never experienced any of this. He has not encountered an individual who shares his appearance or resembles him whatsoever. This brings up self-discovery and he questions what he is. De Lacey is the father of Agatha and Felix and Felix and Safie are in love with one another, but the creature does not have parents or a lover. He learns alongside Safie from Volney's Ruins of Empires, about western civilization, hierarchy, and race. But Volney also prompts the idea of a desire for a mate in this text and it is likely that the creature learns to adopt this desire as well in order to have a sense of identity.

      Komisaruk, Adam. "'so Guided by a Silken Cord': Frankenstein's Family Values." Studies in Romanticism 38.3 (1999): 409. JSTOR.

    47. Volney's Ruins of Empires

      This refers to a radical work by Constantin François de Chasseboeuf, Comte de Volney called Les Ruines, ou méditations sur les révolutions des empires or The Ruins, or Meditations on the Revolutions of the Empires. This controversial work was published during the beginning of the French Revolution in 1791 and included many Enlightenment ideals. It also critiqued the paradigms and ideologies around the world, most notably Christianity. Percy Bysshe Shelley had a strong reaction to this text and responded by writing the poem "Queen Mab" in 1813.

      Mazzeo, Tilar J. "Volney, Constantin François de Chasseboeuf, Comte De 1751-1820." Encyclopedia of the Romantic Era, 1760-1850. Ed. Christopher John Murray. London: Routledge, 2003. Credo Reference. Web. 2 Dec. 2015.

    48. Whence, I often asked myself, did the principle of life proceed?

      Victor is wondering where life originates. This is a key question that inspires his experiments. He seeks to find if there could possibly be another way to create life scientifically.

    49. As I applied so closely, it may be easily conceived that my progress was rapid. My ardour was indeed the astonishment of the students, and my proficiency that of the masters.

      Victor was so devoted to and absorbed in his work that he came to master the science quickly.

    50. I had admired the perfect forms of my cottagers—their grace, beauty, and delicate complexions; but how was I terrified when I viewed myself in a transparent pool! At first I started back, unable to believe that it was indeed I who was reflected in the mirror; and when I became fully convinced that I was in reality the monster that I am, I was filled with the bitterest sensations of despondence and mortification. Alas! I did not yet entirely know the fatal effects of this miserable deformity.

      This paragraph is another allusion to John Milton's Paradise Lost, where Eve looks at her reflection in a lake and begins to discover her identity. Eve is also startled at her appearance at first but she realizes that she is looking at herself. The creature does the same thing here, though instead of being fair or attractive like Eve, he sees that he is frightening. This experience allows him to realize that he is in fact different from others.

      Komisaruk, Adam. "'so Guided by a Silken Cord': Frankenstein's Family Values." Studies in Romanticism 38.3 (1999): 409. JSTOR.

    51. Safie arrived from Constantinople to join him

      Constantinople was the capital of the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires and it is now present day Istanbul, which is located in north western Turkey. Both Safie and her father are from somewhere in Turkey.

      Image Description

      "Constantinople." The Columbia Encyclopedia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2015. Credo Reference. Web. 30 Nov. 2015.

      "Istanbul." The Columbia Encyclopedia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2015. Credo Reference. Web. 30 Nov. 2015.

    52. 'Good night sweet Safie.' He sat up much longer, conversing with his father, and by the frequent repetition of her name I conjectured that their lovely guest was the subject of their conversation.

      The name Safie could refer to an African talisman or amulet called saphie, which was a piece of paper with prayers from the Koran written on it. These saphies were thought to hold virtues and were often used for protection. Mary Shelley mentions in her journal that her and her husband Percy read Mungo Park's Travels in the Inferior Districts of Africa which described African culture, especially the influence of Islam there. Park's writings seem to have influenced Mary Shelley to include Muslims in Frankenstein.

      Neff, D. S. "Safie/Saphie: Mungo Park's “Travels In The Interior Districts Of Africa” And The De Lacey Episode In “Frankenstein”." Anq 21.1 (2008): 45. Biography Reference Bank (H.W. Wilson). Web. 1 Dec. 2015.

    53. I distinguished several other words without being able as yet to understand or apply them, such as 'good,' 'dearest,' 'unhappy.'

      The first words the creature learns may be of some significance. In the previous lines, he learns the names of the cottagers and their labels but also "good," "dearest," and "happy." The cottagers to him are inherently good and also dear, but he notices they are unhappy and suffering from poverty and hunger. These words may also be able describe the creature himself. He wants to be good like the cottagers, not some sort of evil entity. He desires affection or someone to view him as dear. But because of his terrifying appearance, he will never be able to accomplish this and is left "unhappy."

    54. In one of these was a small and almost imperceptible chink through which the eye could just penetrate. Through this crevice a small room was visible,

      The creature is able to view the cottagers through this small crevice. While it is the creature's narrative, he ultimately tells the story of these cottagers and his narration of them acts as a framing device. Their story is within the creature's and his story is in turn within Victor Frankenstein's.

    55. Felix conducted the fugitives through France to Lyons and across Mont Cenis to Leghorn,

      Lyons is a city located in east central France. In the 15th century, it was a silk center in Europe, raising silkworms in order to create silk.

      Image Description

      Mont Cenis is an Alpine pass on the border of France and Italy.

      Image Description

      Leghorn refers to Livorno, a city on the western coast of Tuscany, Italy, which is known for its fishing industry and major shipyards. Leghorn is the anglican spelling of Livorno.

      Image Description

      Felix had led them from the eastern part of France, through the Mont Cenis pass, and down the coast of Italy to Livorno so the Turk could escape execution.

      "Lyons, City, France." The Columbia Encyclopedia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2015. Credo Reference. Web. 1 Dec. 2015.

      "Cenis, Mont." The Columbia Encyclopedia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2015. Credo Reference. Web. 1 Dec. 2015.

      "Livorno." The Columbia Encyclopedia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2015. Credo Reference. Web. 1 Dec. 2015.

      "Livorno (Leghorn)." Thames & Hudson Dictionary of the Italian Renaissance , the. Ed. J. R. Hale. London: Thames & Hudson, 2006. Credo Reference. Web. 1 Dec. 2015.

    56. the unfortunate Muhammadan

      Muhammadan, or Mohammedan, means of or relating to Muhammad or Islam.

      The monster's narration refers to the Turkish merchant as a Muhammadan, indicating that the Turk is in fact Muslim.

      "Mohammedan." Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2015. http://beta.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/mohammedan

    1. And they were enemies: they met beside The dying embers of an altar-place, Where had been heap’d a mass of holy things For an unholy usage; they raked up,        60 And shivering scraped with their cold skeleton hands The feeble ashes, and their feeble breath

      Man has been divorced form god as Byron envisions the ashes of the corporeal institutions as the final remnants of the religious impulse. After the enlightenment, religion received a critical reevaluation and Byron, along with Percy Shelly, criticized the fundamentals of Christianity. In "Darkness," people have become entirely removed from spirituality.

      Freeborn, Richard. Frankenstein and Bazarov. New Zealand Slavonic Journal. (1994). 33-44. JSTOR. Web. Nov. 2015.

    2. Even dogs assail’d their masters

      There are many references to Dante's Inferno. This one recalls the dogs of the Inferno tearing living flesh.

      Zakrzewski, Christopher, A. Toward A Reassessment of Mickiewicz' "Ciemosc." Canadian Slavic Papers. 19.4. December 1997: 468-80. JSTOR. Web. Nov. 2015.

    3. And gnash’d their teeth and howl’d: the wild birds shriek’d, And, terrified, did flutter on the ground.

      A horrifying image with biblical wording. The sate of man has been reduced to a violent, beastly, and primitive form. The primeval fear of this desolate landscape is manifest in man and animal alike has given voice to a primal death rattle. The Darkness has regressed the world back to its primitive origins.

      Tritt, Michael. Byron's "Darkness" and Asimov's "Nightfall." Science Fiction Studies 8. 1 (1981): 26-8. JSTOR. Web. Nov. 2015.

    4. Happy were those who dwelt within the eye Of the volcanoes, and their mountain-torch: A fearful hope was all the world contained;

      This is an allusion to the eruption of Mt. Tambora in 1815. The fall-out from this led to the unseasonable weather and the apocalyptic expectations that followed. This was considered in Europe "the year without summer."

      Vail, Jeffery. The Bright Sun was Extinguished: The Bologna Conspiracy and Byron's Darkness. Wordsworth Circle. Summer 1997: 183-192. Rpt. in Nineteenth-Century Literature Criticism. Vol. 204. Literature Criticism. Web. Nov. 2015.

    5. And they did live by watchfires—and the thrones,        10 The palaces of crowned kings—the huts, The habitations of all things which dwell, Were burnt for beacons; cities were consumed,

      These lines describe primitive frenzy to establish light in a world enveloped by darkness. The need for light is so dire that the inhabitants of this world are wiling to destroy all accomplishments of civilization to illuminate the darkness. This also implies a complete deterioration of social and political structure.

      Tritt, Michael. Byron's "Darkness" and Asimov's "Nightfall." Science Fiction Studies 8. 1 (1981): 26-8. JSTOR. Web. Nov.2015.

    6. and the icy earth Swung blind and blackening in the moonless air

      As life extinguishes on Earth, the planet itself is removed form the cosmos. The once verdant Earth is now lifeless and frozen as it floats aimlessly away from the sun into primordial dark.

      Freeborn, Richard. Frankenstein and Bazarov. New Zealand Slavonic Journal. (1994). 33-44. JSTOR. Web. Nov.2015.

    7. I HAD a dream, which was not all a dream,

      The original title of Darkness was A Dream. Byron wrote this poem in July of 1816 in the Villa Diodati, near Geneva. This poem was published that same year along with another celebrated work of his, Prisoner of Chillon.

      Mackay, Mary, A. Sketch Club Drawings for Byron's "Darkness" and Scot's "Lay of the Minstrels."Master Drawings. Vol. 35 No. 2 Summer, 1997. 142-154. JSTOR. Web. Nov. 2015.

    8. 476. Darkness

      Byron's metaphorical, "last man" poem inspired by an Italian astronomer's apocalyptic prediction that the sun would die on July 18th 1816. Europe was experiencing strange weather phenomenon such as crop failures and untimely cold spells. The nameless astronomer was known as "the mad Italian prophet"and his end of days rhetoric caused hysteria in many European cities.

      Vail, Jeffery. The Bright Sun was Extinguished: The Bologna Conspiracy and Byron's Darkness. Wordsworth Circle. Summer 1997: 183-192. Rpt. in Nineteenth-Century Literature Criticism. Vol. 204. Literature Criticism. Web. Nov. 2015.

    9. The Moon, their mistress, had expired before; The winds were wither’d in the stagnant air,        80 And the clouds perish’d; Darkness had no need Of aid from them—She was the Universe!

      What makes this poem unique is the finality of this vision. Many religions/mythologies offer an end-times scenario. These contain violent struggle and otherworldly upheaval but with a promise of new life or re-birth. Byron's apocalyptic nightmare offers no hope of a continuation of life; only the true finality to a world once thought anthropocentric extinguished of all life forever.

      Pordzik, Ralph. The Poetry of Lastness: Reconsidering a Neglected Motif in Early Nineteenth-Century Literature. Anglia. 128.3. 406-30. Rpt. in Nineteenth-Century Literature Criticism. Vol. 314. Literature Criticism. Web. Nov. 2015.

    10. Seasonless, herbless, treeless, manless, lifeless, A lump of death—a chaos of hard clay.

      Byron was inventive in his words here, as he used negation to convey the true absence of life after Darkness.

      Pordzik, Ralph. The Poetry of Lastness: Reconsidering a Neglected Motif in Early Nineteenth-Century Literature. Anglia. 128.3. 406-30. Rpt. in Nineteenth-Century Literature Criticism. Vol. 314. Literature Criticism. Web. Nov. 2015.

    11. The populous, and the powerful was a lump,

      Byron here remarks that in the apocalypse, all revolution and class structure would be meaningless as the world would become one universal struggle against death.

      Vail, Jeffery. The Bright Sun was Extinguished: The Bologna Conspiracy and Byron's Darkness. Wordsworth Circle. Summer 1997: 183-192. Rpt. in Nineteenth-Century Literature Criticism. Vol. 204. Literature Criticism. Web. Nov. 2015.

    12. and vipers crawl’d        35 And twined themselves among the multitude, Hissing, but stingless—they were slain for food:

      George Turner, a millenarian and student of prophetess Joanna Southcott, was quoted in the Morning Chronicle that a priest namaed Carillo made an apocalyptic prediction that Naples would be destroyed by heavenly fire and the survivors would be eaten by serpents.

      Vail, Jeffery. The Bright Sun was Extinguished: The Bologna Conspiracy and Byron's Darkness. Wordsworth Circle. Summer 1997: 183-192. Rpt. in Nineteenth-Century Literature Criticism. Vol. 204. Literature Criticism. Web. Nov. 2015.

    13. and beheld        65 Each other’s aspects—saw and shriek’d, and died— Ev’n of their mutual hideousness they died,

      There is a festering sense of misanthropy in this section of Darkness. The fear and paranoia of the Italian prophecy led to mistrust, suicide and mutual human disdain.

    1. The loud wind never reach'd the ship,   Yet now the ship moved on!   Beneath the lightning and the Moon 330  The dead men gave a groan.     They groan'd, they stirr'd, they all uprose,   Nor spake, nor moved their eyes;   It had been strange, even in a dream,   To have seen those dead men rise.
      In the lightning and moonlight, the dead bodies of the crewmen rise. Wordlessly and with dead eyes, they return to their positions aboard the ship and continue their duties. In modern terms, we would say that the crewmen turned into...
      If the Oxford English Dictionary is correct, Coleridge probably wasn't aware of this term; they attribute the first recorded use of the term 'Zombi' to Robert Southey's "History of Brazil" in 1819. The roots can be traced back to the Creole word 'zonbi,' a person reanimated but devoid of free will, typically due to witchcraft or voodoo. Southey uses the term to refer to the elected chief of the maroons in Pernambuco.
      Linda Troost, Professor of English and coordinator of the Professional Writing program at Washington and Jefferson College, instead traces the first printed use of zombie back further than Southey’s usage. In 1697, Pierre-Corneille Blessebois Le Zombi du grand Pérou, when a woman is tricked into thinking she’s an invisible spirit. She traces a definition more like our modern one to 1726, A History of the Voyages and Travels of Capt. Nathaniel Uring:
      “At the Death of a Person, it is customary for them to kill Hens, and sprinkle Blood both without and within-side the House . . . thereby they prevent the Spirit of the dead Person from coming to give Zumbi to any of the future inhabitants; the Word Zumbi signifies the Apparition of the dead Person, they being the Opinion to whomsoever it shall appear the Person will presently die.”
      Troost references two other examples of the term in English texts, a French translation of the French History of Okano in 1788 and a story in the European Magazine from 1799, both appearing before the OED’s listed 1819 Southey reference. With that insight, it is significantly more likely that Coleridge is aware of this reference.

      Works cited:

      Troost, Linda. "The Undead Eighteenth Century." The Eighteenth-Century Intelligencer (March 2011): 1-11.

      "zombie, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 9 October 2015.

      "Zombie." The Ashgate Encyclopedia of Literary and Cinematic Monsters. Jeffrey Andrew Weinstock and Jeffrey Andrew Weinstock. Surrey: Ashgate Publishing, 2014. Credo Reference. Web. 9 Oct 2015.


  2. Nov 2015
    1. It makes a goblin of the sun.

      Here, Rossetti is citing his sister Christina's work "The Goblin Market".

    2. Priapus

      According to The Norton Anthology of English Literature, Priapus is "A Greek fertility god, whose symbol was the phallus."

      Abrams, Meyer H. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 9.th ed. New York. Norton, 2012. 1486. Print.

    3. Paphian

      According to The Norton Anthology of English Literature, Paphian means "Of Paphos, a city on Cyprus that was the site of a famous temple of Aphrodite (the Roman Venus), also, a term for prostitute."

      Abrams, Meyer H. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 9.th ed. New York. Norton, 2012. 1486. Print.

    4. psyche-wings

      According to The Norton Anthology of English Literature, Psyche-wings refer to "The soul, often symbolized by a butterfly that escaped the body after death. Also, in the well-known story told by Apuleius, Psyche was a maiden beloved by Cupid."

      Abrams, Meyer H. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 9.th ed. New York. Norton, 2012. 1484. Print.

    5. riddle

      The riddle here, according to The Norton Anthology of English Literature is "what walks on four legs in the morning, three at noon, and three in the evening?" and the answer is "man, at different ages".

      Abrams, Meyer H. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 9.th ed. New York. Norton, 2012. 1484. Print.

    6. sphinx

      According to The Norton Anthology of English Literature, the sphinx is described as a monster with a lion's body, bird's wings, and woman's face. This comes from the Greek mythology.

      Abrams, Meyer H. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 9.th ed. New York. Norton, 2012. 1484. Print.

    7. Your lamp, my Jenny, kept alight, Like a wise virgin's, all one night!

      These lines are referring to the Biblical parable of the ten virgins in Matthew 25: 1-13. Matthew 25: 1-4 says, "Then the Kingdom of Heaven will be like ten virgins who took their lamps and went to meet the bridegroom. Five of them were foolish, and five were wise. For when the foolish took their lamps, they took no oil with them, but the wise took flasks of oil with their lamps." It's very interesting that the speaker compared Jenny to the wise virgin's because she is obviously not a virgin.

      Wellman, Jack. "Parable of the 10 Virgins: Summary, Meaning and Commentary." Christian Crier. Web. 27 Nov. 2015. http://www.patheos.com/blogs/christiancrier/2014/11/11/parable-of-the-10-virgins-summary-meaning-and-commentary/.

    8. JENNY.

      For more information, please visit:

      Starzyk, Lawrence. "Rossetti's Jenny: Anesthetizing the Whore." Papers on Language and Literature. 44: (Summer 2000) 242-248. Literature Criticism Online. Web.

      Rodgers, Lise. “The Book and the Flower: Rationality and Sensuality in Dante Gabriel Rossetti's "Jenny"”. The Journal of Narrative Technique 10:3 (1980): 156–169. JSTOR. Web.

    9. Like a rose shut in a book

      Here we have a rose shut in a book. Could this mean that sensuality is trapped in rationality?

    10. With Raffael's, Leonardo's hand

      This line refers to the painters Raphael and Leonardo da Vinci.

    11. Till in the end, the Day of Days, page: 125   At Judgment

      These lines are referring to the Christian belief in Judgment Day, which is described in Revelation 20:11-15: "Then I saw a great white throne and him who was seated on it. The earth and the heavens fled from his presence, and there was no place for them. And I saw the dead, great and small, standing before the throne, and books were opened. Another book was opened, which is the book of life. The dead were judged according to what they had done as recorded in the books. The sea gave up the dead that were in it, and death and Hades gave up the dead that were in them, and each person was judged according to what they had done. Then death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. The lake of fire is the second death. Anyone whose name was not found written in the book of life was thrown into the lake of fire."

      "Bible Gateway Passage: Revelation 20:11-15 - New International Version." Bible Gateway. Web. 27 Nov. 2015. <https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Revelation 20:11-15&version=NIV>.

    12. Of the same lump (as it is said) For honour and dishonour made, Two sister vessels. Here is one.

      Here we have the Romans 9:21 reference again, which seems to be contrasting Nell and Jenny, rather than the speaker and Jenny.

    13. My cousin Nell is fond of fun, And fond of dress, and change, and praise, So mere a woman in her ways: And if her sweet eyes rich in youth Are like her lips that tell the truth, 190 My cousin Nell is fond of love. And she's the girl I'm proudest of. Who does not prize her, guard her well? The love of change, in cousin Nell, Shall find the best and hold it dear: The unconquered mirth turn quieter page: 124   Not through her own, through others' woe: The conscious pride of beauty glow Beside another's pride in her, One little part of all they share. 200 For Love himself shall ripen these In a kind soil to just increase Through years of fertilizing peace.

      There seems to be a shift in the poem here. The speaker describes the "pure woman" here by writing about his cousin Nell. Nell is the exact opposite of Jenny, who is a "fallen woman".

    14. The potter's power over the clay! Of the same lump (it has been said) For honour and dishonour made, Two sister vessels. Here is one.

      These lines are referring to the scripture passage Romans 9:21 which says, "Does not the potter have the right to make out of the same lump of clay some pottery special purposes and some for common use?" This references is very interesting because it tries to convey the idea that some people are created for special or honorable uses and some other people are created for common or dishonorable uses. The speaker seems to use this Biblical reference to contrast himself with Jenny. He seems to believe that he is honorable and she is dishonorable (because of her profession).

      "Bible Gateway Passage: Romans 9:21 - New International Version." Bible Gateway. Web. 27 Nov. 2015. <https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Romans 9:21>.

    15. perhaps you're merely glad That I'm not drunk or ruffianly

      A ruffian is a "strong and violent person (especially a man) who threatens and hurts other people".

      Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster. Web. 16 Nov. 2015. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ruffian.

    16. But while my thought runs on like this With wasteful whims more than enough, I wonder what you're thinking of.

      At this point, one can see the speaker wondering what Jenny is thinking during this encounter. He can't seem to penetrate her thoughts.

    17. serried

      Serried here is defined as "crowded or pressed together". The lines surrounding this word basically suggest that the speaker of the poem has many books and that he has spent a lot of his youth reading them.

      Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster. Web. 16 Nov. 2015. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/serried.

    18. book

      There is that book image again. Books are symbols that represent rationality in this poem, as opposed to flowers which are symbols that represent sensuality in this poem. The rational and the sensual are polar opposites.

      Rodgers, Lise. “The Book and the Flower: Rationality and Sensuality in Dante Gabriel Rossetti's "Jenny"”. The Journal of Narrative Technique 10:3 (1980): 156–169. JSTOR. Web.

    19. Your silk ungirdled and unlac'd And warm sweets open to the waist,

      At this point, one can see that Jenny is obviously exposed below her waist and there is more than likely sexual activity going on here.

    20. Haymarket

      The Haymarket mentioned in this line refers to a street in London that was frequented by women who were prostitutes.

      Abrams, Meyer H. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 9.th ed. New York. Norton, 2012. 1481. Print.

    21. A fiery serpent for your heart.

      One could assume that the serpent referred to in this line could be representative of the Biblical serpent Lucifer.

    22. Why, as a volume seldom read Being opened halfway shuts again, 160 So might the pages of her brain Be parted at such words, and thence Close back upon the dusty sense.

      Here, Jenny is placed in opposition to the image of the book. The speaker can't seem to make his way into Jenny's thoughts. This makes her a "volume seldom read". Since the speaker can't connect with her on an intellectual level, he must connect with her on an emotional level by looking at her beauty.

      "D.G. Rossetti's "Jenny": Eschewing Thinking for Feeling." D.G. Rossetti's "Jenny": Eschewing Thinking for Feeling. 16 Oct. 2004. Web. 16 Nov. 2015. http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/dgr/keefe5.html.

    23. Behold the lilies of the field, They toil not neither do they spin; (So doth the ancient text begin,— Not of such rest as one of these Can share.)

      These lines are referring to the scripture passage Matthew 6:28 which says, "And why do you worry about clothes? See how the flowers of the field grow. They do not labor or spin." This reference is very interesting because at the beginning of the poem Jenny is described as lazy. One can assume that the speaker is comparing the Biblical flowers of the field to Jenny. We also learned earlier that the flower is a symbolic image of sensuality. Using a Biblical text was a very interesting choice for Rossetti here.

      "Bible Gateway Passage: Matthew 6:28 - New International Version." Bible Gateway. Web. 15 Nov. 2015. <https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Matthew 6:28>.

    24. books

      Books are symbols that represent rationality in this poem, as opposed to flowers which are symbols that represent sensuality in this poem. The rational and the sensual are polar opposites.

      Rodgers, Lise. “The Book and the Flower: Rationality and Sensuality in Dante Gabriel Rossetti's "Jenny"”. The Journal of Narrative Technique 10:3 (1980): 156–169. JSTOR. Web.

    25. The lodestar of your reverie?

      A lodestar is "something or someone that leads or guides a person or group of people" and reverie is "a state in which you are thinking about pleasant things". This line is all about the force that guides Jenny to her pleasant thoughts. The speaker is asking Jenny who the source of her reverie is, or whose money the source of her reverie is.

      Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster. Web. 14 Nov. 2015. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/lodestar.

      Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster. Web. 14 Nov. 2015. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/reverie.

    26. Poor shameful Jenny, full of grace

      This line is so fascinating. "Poor shameful Jenny, full of grace." One can see that this woman Jenny carries a lot of shame, but is still capable of receiving grace. This line also serves as an "illusion to the first line of the prayer to the Virgin Mary: 'Hail Mary, full of grace.' " How interesting it is to compare Jenny, a prostitute, to the Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ.

      Abrams, Meyer H. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 9.th ed. New York. Norton, 2012. 1478. Print.

    27. Vengeance of Jenny's case! Fie on her! Never name her, child! ’—(Mrs. Quickly.)

      This quote comes from Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor. The full quote reads "Vengeance of Jenny's case! Fie on her! Never name her child, if she be a whore."

      Abrams, Meyer H. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 9.th ed. New York. Norton, 2012. 1478. Print.

    28. Of Love's exuberant hotbed:

      Exuberant is defined as "very lively, happy, or energetic" or "filled with energy and enthusiasm" and hotbed is defined as "a place of situation where a lot of particular activity is happening or might happen". Within this line, one can see that there is a lot of activity going on- presumably sexual activity.

      Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster. Web. 14 Nov. 2015. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/exuberant.

      "Hotbed Definition in the Cambridge English Dictionary." Hotbed Definition in the Cambridge English Dictionary. Web. 14 Nov. 2015. http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/hotbed.

    29. guinea

      Here, a guinea refers to "a coin of approximately one quarter ounce of gold that was minted in the Kingdom of England and later in the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom between 1663 and 1814". Within this line, one can see that Jenny is fond of kisses and fond of money.

      "Guinea (British Coin)." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 14 Nov. 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guinea_(British_coin).

    30. languid

      Languid is defined as "showing or having very little strength, energy, or activity". Within this line, one can assume that this woman, Jenny, is a lazy but happy woman.

      Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster. Web. 14 Nov. 2015. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/languid.

    1. Porphyro

      Porphyria is also associated with the creation of vampire legends; although there is little evidence to support this. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2398345/

    2. Porphyro,


      • could be associated with Porphyria which is disease around the time of King George who became insane and blind as the disease progressed.
    3. A cruel man and impious thou art:

      Pagan for interrupting christian rituals. Shows that Porphyro can be a portrayal of paganism intervening on Christianity. He is unwelcome in the christian frame of reference.

    4. Sudden a thought came like a full-blown rose, Flushing his brow, and in his pained heart Made purple riot:
      • Keats uses purple and rose(pink) as a way to show the intertwining of the Porphyro and Madeline characters.
      • Made purple riot use of synesthesia
    5. God's help! my lady fair the conjuror plays This very night: good angels her deceive

      Madeline is using magic by believing and following in the rituals.

    6. He found him in a little moonlight room, Pale, lattic'd, chill, and silent as a tomb.

      Keats playing with temperature to show that this stanza is a frame for the main action of the poem; helps set the scene but is distanced from the main point.

    7. Gossip

      Godmother or old friend

    8. Buttress'd from moonlight

      Sheltered from the moonlight; which shown later seems to be the only thing that can cut through the layers of the poem and show reality to the characters and readers

    9. heart on fire

      shows a dramatic raise in temperature; points out that this is the center of the piece and what the rest of the poem revolves around; Madeline and Porphyro's love.

    10. Porphyro

      closely related to purple which appears throughout the poem.

    11. her lambs unshorn


      • Agnes means lamb in Roman (chaste in Greek). it was common practice to bring lambs into church on St. Agnes' Eve and shear them as a form of tribute/worship.
    12. Hoodwink'd with faery fancy; all amort,70 Save to St. Agnes

      Entirely oblivious or dead to the world around her. Blindfolded from reality.

    13. Young virgins might have visions of delight

      Shows a sense of irony because only good, chaste Christian girls can preform this ritual but the point of the ritual is to have an erotic dream with who they believe their future husband will be. Shows that Madeline is a good christian she who is also young and in love but wants a sign to show her if it is pious for her to pursue her romance

    14. already had his deathbell rung

      foreshadowing the Beadsman's fate.

    15. St. Agnes' Eve—Ah, bitter chill it was!

      St. Agnes' Eve is on January 21st which would be in the middle of winter. Keats also uses temperature as a way to distinguish the layers of the poem. The beadsman is on the outer fringe of the plot ; there to provide a sense of the importance of religion in this time period. also gives the poem an older feel since the position of beadsman was used primarily in Scotland in earlier centuries.

    16. At length burst in the argent revelry, With plume, tiara, and all rich array, Numerous as shadows haunting fairily The brain, new stuff'd, in youth, with triumphs gay40 Of old romance

      Keats associates the party guests with objects and shadows to show their insignificance to the main point of the poem. He casts reality into shadow and allows for the reader to get a sense of how Madeline sees the world; as background noise. Also skews reality to allow for the legend of St. Agnes will seem more plausible and possible to the reader.

    17. ST. AGNES


      • Martyred in 304 A.D. in Rome at 13 yrs old for refusing to sacrifice to the pagan gods by losing her virginity to rape. She was tortured and received several marraige proposals to make her comply but she refused to renounce Christianity and was either beheaded and burned or stabbed. She is the patron saint of virgins, engaged couples, and chastity.
    18. Adieu! adieu! thy plaintive anthem fades

      The bird leaves, but from here so does the rest of the sensory imagery other then sight. All that was previously felt is now gone, returning to normality as this bird-ly muse exits.

    19. sod

      I know this means dirt or turf. So referring to himself as "a sod" it is like saying "dumb as dirt." At least here it is out of awe to the singing of the nightingale, to be "dumb-struck."

    20. To cease upon the midnight with no pain

      As to not give up life in some way, but to experience something free of mortal pains through death. Speculative of course.

    21. I have been half in love with easeful Death

      Death comes as an inevitability, but here it comes as morbid curiosity. The narrator is not suicidal, but ponders about death in a way that philosophers would.

    22. soft incense

      Not real incense, just the strong scents of nature. He cannot see what he is smelling in the darkness, making his sense of smell all the more keen.

    23. with the breezes blown

      More tangible feeling imagery then before, everyone will know what a breeze would feel like.

    24. dull brain perplexes and retards
    25. Bacchus

      Bacchus, n. - The god of wine; hence, wine, intoxicating liquor. son of Bacchus: a tippler.

      This must be the Roman equivalent of Dionysus. Note that he states hes not being moved by the god of wine (or intoxication to be specific) but by "the viewless wings of Poesy," which referring to the annotations in our text refers to poetic imagination.

      "Bacchus, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 18 November 2015.

    26. Where palsy shakes a few

      Palsy, n. - 1. a. Paralysis or paresis (weakness) of all or part of the body, sometimes with tremor; an instance of this. In earlier use, freq. with the. Now chiefly with distinguishing word.

      A sign of aging, another numbness to pain reference.

      "palsy, n.1 and adj.1." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 18 November 2015.

    27. beaded bubbles

      Strange, distilled and aged wines do not normally have bubbles formed once poured. The only thing I can think of that would be like a wine and bubbles is champagne. Is this intentionally added?

    28. a beaker full of the warm South

      French wine I would assume, it would be something relate back to the "vintage" he mentions that is from somewhere South of England notable for its wine. So he is drunk currently.

    29. Tasting of Flora and the country green

      To taste like "Flora" or "country green" I think of how a strong smell can have a taste sit at the back of your mouth. I would not expect either of these to taste very good, at the most bitter. Perhaps that connects to the alcohol of the wine.

    30. hemlock I had drunk
    31. drowsy numbness pains

      Would this be considered a contradiction? Feeling numb but somehow a pain? Perhaps its an emotional pain to a physical numbness.

    32. beechen green

      Beechen, adj. - 1. Of, pertaining to, or derived from the beech.

      These trees have a strange look to them. They are quite large and have huge canopies, but their branches are not uniform. They bend and twist in all sorts of directions. Birds will be birds roosting where they can, but why would this "Dryad" and its song be associated with this ghastly tree?

      "beechen, adj." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 18 November 2015.

    33. Dryad of the trees

      Dryad, n. - 1. In Greek Mythol. and Roman Mythol. A nymph supposed to inhabit trees; a wood-nymph.

      It is an interesting connection to portray the nightingale as a highly alluring spirit. Keats really takes a liking to this type of bird.

      "dryad, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 18 November 2015.


      Decided to look up what the bird sounded like. It comes across as shrill and sporadic with no real pattern to it. It holds a listeners attention presumably because you do not know what it will "sing" next.

    35. Beadsman


      • A pensioner provided for by a benefactor in return for prayers, especially one living in an almshouse.
    1. natural philosophy

      Natural philosophy is the study of Earthly things, why they work they way they do, and their physical qualities.

    2. Sir Isaac Newton

      Isaac Newton (b. 1643, d.1727)

      Famous physicist and mathematician who is known for his work and discoveries in the fields of optics, gravity/motion, and mathematics. One of the minds that participated in the Scientific Revolution in the 1700s.

    3. Albertus Magnus

      Saint Albertus Magnus (b. 1200, d. 1280)

      The only scholar during his age to be given the title "The Great". He was a scholar and philosopher that was considered the saint of all who explored within the natural sciences and philosophy.

    4. Paracelsus

      Paracelsus (b. 1493, d. 1541)

      German-Swizz physician that is known for his role in the creation of chemistry within the field of medicine and known for being an alchemist.

    5. In this house I chanced to find a volume of the works of Cornelius Agrippa. I opened it with apathy; the theory which he attempts to demonstrate and the wonderful facts which he relates soon changed this feeling into enthusiasm.

      Cornelius Agrippa (b. 1486, d. 1535)

      Acknowledged as an expert on occultism (belief in the use of supernatural forces/beings). Also acknowledged for his experimentation as an alchemist.

    6. "I WILL BE WITH YOU ON YOUR WEDDING-NIGHT." That, then, was the period fixed for the fulfilment of my destiny. In that hour I should die and at once satisfy and extinguish his malice.

      He doesn't consider that the monster could hurt someone else. The ultimate way to torture someone is not by killing them, but bringing harm to loved ones.

    7. Dante

      Reference to Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy. In this epic poem, Dante travels through the nine levels of Hell and encounters increasingly horrible sins.

      Here, Frankenstein is comparing the monster's appearance to the horrors of Dante's Hell. After having such high expectations, Frankenstein is disappointed in how ugly the monster turned out.

      "Divine Comedy, the." Brewer's Curious Titles. Ed. Ian Crofton. London: Chambers Harrap, 2002. Credo Reference. Web. 18 Nov. 2015.

    8. A new species would bless me as its creator and source; many happy and excellent natures would owe their being to me. No father could claim the gratitude of his child so completely as I should deserve theirs. Pursuing these reflections, I thought that if I could bestow animation upon lifeless matter, I might in process of time (although I now found it impossible) renew life where death had apparently devoted the body to corruption.

      Victor wants to be a father creator; he desires to create a new species as well as bring the dead back to life. Again, he doesn't stop to consider what could happen if something were to go wrong. He is too caught up in his scientific discoveries.

    9. I was like the Arabian who had been buried with the dead and found a passage to life, aided only by one glimmering and seemingly ineffectual light.

      "A reference to one of Sinbad the Sailor's more gruesome adventures from the well-known Arabian Nights cycle - buried alive in a cavern of rotting corpses, in accordance with the arcane marriage laws of an otherwise idyllic island, he survives by murdering his fellow prisoners for their provisions."

      Frankenstein suffers "tunnel vision" just as the Arabian quite literally had. Once Frankenstein had discovered he reanimate lifeless matter, he wanted to directly proceed to his ultimate goal of bringing a dead human back to life. He didn't stop to consider all that had been discovered along the way, or the consequences.

      "Frankenstein - Book Drum." Frankenstein - I Was like the Arabian Who Had Been Buried with the Dead, and Found a Passage to Life - Book Drum. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2015. (http://www.bookdrum.com/books/frankenstein/1134/bookmark/74207.html).

    10. I heard of the discovery of the American hemisphere and wept with Safie over the hapless fate of its original inhabitants.

      The creature identifies with Safie because not only is she learning the language, but she helps the creature learn about the world. They both cry when hearing about the imperial expansion. They are learning about geography and the violence associated with empires expanding and in turn are also learning about race. This is important because Safie is a foreigner; she is Arabian and the creature is similar in that he is almost of his own race, a monstrous one. The things taught by Felix are what stays with the Creature and he thus has an understanding of racial supremacy and possession. His "deformity" makes him feel inferior and he lashes out at numerous points in the story due to this.

      Bugg, John. "'Master of Their Language': Education and Exile in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." Huntington Library Quarterly. 48: 4 (2005), 655-666. JSTOR.

    11. called her, as well as I could distinguish, his sweet Arabian. She did not appear to understand him, but smiled

      Here Shelley includes Orientalism with the introduction of Safie, an Arabian girl with whom Felix is in love. Orientalism is defined as the representation of the Orient, mainly the Middle East, in literature and art. Shelley would have definitely read Orientalist pieces written by Percy Shelley and Lord Byron and her inclusion of it here seems to be a response to the exoticizing nature of Orientalism. It also seems to be a pun on "Arabia Felix" which was the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula.

      Lew, Joseph W. "The Deceptive Other: Mary Shelley's Critique of Orientalism in 'Frankenstein.'" Studies in Romanticism. 30: 2 (1991), 255-283. JSTOR.

      "orientalism, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 17 November 2015.

    12. It was as the ass and the lap-dog; yet surely the gentle ass whose intentions were affectionate, although his manners were rude, deserved better treatment than blows and execration.

      The creature describes himself as a mixture of a donkey and a lap-dog, noting that while donkeys are rude and tend to be uncouth, he means well. The mention of the lap-dog indicates that he is affectionate and simply wants to be shown kindness rather than the violence and denouncing he has been met with before when encountering people.

    13. I ought not to make the attempt until I had first become master of their language, which knowledge might enable me to make them overlook the deformity of my figure

      The creature hopes that his mastery of language will be compensatory for his terrifying appearance, which relates to somewhat to eighteenth to nineteenth century slave narratives where slaves wished to read what their master could read. This is seen in Henry Louis Gates Jr.'s "Trope of the Talking Book" which includes the narrative of James Gronniosaw, a slave who spoke about his curiosity and desire to be able to read and how perplexing it was to watch books "speak" to his master.

      Bugg, John. "'Master of Their Language': Education and Exile in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." Huntington Library Quarterly. 48: 4 (2005), 655-666. JSTOR.

    14. but it was dry; and although the wind entered it by innumerable chinks, I found it an agreeable asylum from the snow and rain.

      As the creature travels, he continues to look for warm and dry places to shelter him from the elements. The creature seeking a warm shelter also parallels his desire for warmth from others. In other words, he desires kindness and sympathy from others but is constantly met with fear and anger, for example when he is driven away by the villagers who thrown stones at him towards the beginning of this paragraph. This fear and anger could be represented by the cold and the rain and snow he experiences.

      Britton, Jeanne M. "Novelistic Sympathy in Mary Shelley's 'Frankenstein.'" Studies in Romanticism. 48: 1 (2009), 3-22. JSTOR.

    15. My sensations had by this time become distinct, and my mind received every day additional ideas. My eyes became accustomed to the light and to perceive objects in their right forms; I distinguished the insect from the herb, and by degrees, one herb from another. I found that the sparrow uttered none but harsh notes, whilst those of the blackbird and thrush were sweet and enticing.

      The idea of tabula rasa, or blank slate, seems to be related here. John Locke's idea that everyone's mind began as a blank slate seems to pair with the creature's gradual discovery of the world around him. Mary Shelley read Locke and she uses this idea to develop the creature. His experience of nature allows him to learn more about the world like distinguishing different plants from one another and which birds make certain sounds.

      Malchow, H. L. "Frankenstein's Monster and Images of Race in Nineteenth-Century Britain." Past & Present. 139 (1993), 90-130. JSTOR.

    16. I found a fire which had been left by some wandering beggars, and was overcome with delight at the warmth I experienced from it. In my joy I thrust my hand into the live embers, but quickly drew it out again with a cry of pain. How strange, I thought, that the same cause should produce such opposite effects!

      The Creature's naivety results in him finding out about the harm fire can pose. This passage foreshadows him burning down the cottage after his attempt at befriending the cottagers ends in disaster. It also alludes to the slave rebellions where slaves would murder whites and set fire to buildings, something a wealthy merchant named Bryan Edwards included in his history about the West Indies. The way the creature is abhorred by others and is troubled by their contempt could imply a parallel between him being racially different, specifically like a black slave.

      Malchow, H. L. "Frankenstein's Monster and Images of Race in Nineteenth-Century Britain." Past & Present. 139 (1993), 90-130. JSTOR.

    17. and it presented to me then as exquisite and divine a retreat as Pandemonium appeared to the demons of hell after their sufferings in the lake of fire.

      Pandemonium is the capital of hell which houses all demons in Paradise Lost by John Milton. Later on in the Creature's narrative, he mentions a number of books he found in the forest, one of them being Paradise Lost. Upon reading this, he identifies with Satan who is cast out of heaven because of his envy towards God. The creature views the hut like a refuge and compares it to the palace Pandemonium, which implies that the creature views himself to be demonic or deserving of being in hell.

      "pandemonium, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 16 November 2015.

      Lamb, John B. "Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and Milton's Monstrous Myth." Nineteenth-Century Literature. 47:3 (1992), 303-319. JSTOR.

    1.  She cried, “Laura,” up the garden, “Did you miss me? Come and kiss me. Never mind my bruises, Hug me, kiss me, suck my juices Squeez’d from goblin fruits for you, Goblin pulp and goblin dew. Eat me, drink me, love me; Laura, make much of me; For your sake I have braved the glen And had to do with goblin merchant men.”

      This paints Lizzie as a sort of divine or epic character. She has ventured to and from the brink of death generally unharmed. She has brought back with her salvation for her sister. She allows her sister to suck the juices off of her, thus restoring her life. It is sort of biblical in a way, reminiscent of Jesus being crucified and rising for our salvation. This would make sense, as the author was a very religious woman. This would clearly rub off on her work.

    2. ne may lead a horse to water, Twenty cannot make him drink. Though the goblins cuff’d and caught her, Coax’d and fought her, Bullied and besought her, Scratch’d her, pinch’d her black as ink, Kick’d and knock’d her, Maul’d and mock’d her, Lizzie utter’d not a word; Would not open lip from lip Lest they should cram a mouthful in: But laugh’d in heart to feel the drip Of juice that syrupp’d all her face, And lodg’d in dimples of her chin, And streak’d her neck which quaked like curd. At last the evil people, Worn out by her resistance, Flung back her penny, kick’d their fruit Along whichever road they took, Not leaving root or stone or shoot; Some writh’d into the ground, Some div’d into the brook With ring and ripple, Some scudded on the gale without a sound, Some vanish’d in the distance.

      The goblins finally show their true animalistic nature here. They attack Lizzy having caught onto her plot. They have always seemed to be cunning but have now blatantly displayed their true insidious nature. They could not force Lizzy to eat however. This scene could represent the goblins raping Lizzy in an attempt to steal her innocence. However, in the end, she triumphs, leaving with her purity intact and the cure for her sister in tow.

    3. Clearer than water flow’d that juice; She never tasted such before, How should it cloy with length of use? She suck’d and suck’d and suck’d the more Fruits which that unknown orchard bore; She suck’d until her lips were sore; Then flung the emptied rinds away But gather’d up one kernel stone, And knew not was it night or day As she turn’d home alone.

      The word "suck'd" is repeated many times in this selection, and carries a bit of eroticism along with it. She appears to become drunk on the goblin fruit, losing track of the time. This did not deter her from sucking to her hearts content, discarding what was used up and sucking some more. It implies a massive indulgence in a loss of purity.

    4. Laura stretch’d her gleaming neck Like a rush-imbedded swan, Like a lily from the beck, Like a moonlit poplar branch, Like a vessel at the launch When its last restraint is gone.

      Laura has lifted her symbolic anchor and let her guard down for these goblin men. She has made the decision to partake in their market and experience what she can. Her innocence is shown in a few lines when she has no money, however that innocence is taken away when the goblins instead choose to take from her body. Hair in this case. But a piece of her is taken nonetheless.

    5. Days, weeks, months, years Afterwards, when both were wives With children of their own; Their mother-hearts beset with fears, Their lives bound up in tender lives; Laura would call the little ones And tell them of her early prime, Those pleasant days long gone Of not-returning time: Would talk about the haunted glen, The wicked, quaint fruit-merchant men, Their fruits like honey to the throat But poison in the blood; (Men sell not such in any town): Would tell them how her sister stood In deadly peril to do her good, And win the fiery antidote: Then joining hands to little hands Would bid them cling together, “For there is no friend like a sister In calm or stormy weather; To cheer one on the tedious way, To fetch one if one goes astray, To lift one if one totters down, To strengthen whilst one stands.”

      This entire conclusion sticks out to the reader. It does not appear to fit in with the rest of the piece at all, and includes a weird little lesson learned type of scenario in which it informs you that there is no friend like a sister... etc. This was clearly inserted for the younger readers (supposedly intended audience) to take something away from the piece. However, to the adults, picking at a deeper reading, this is just a throw away.

    6. One had a cat’s face, One whisk’d a tail, One tramp’d at a rat’s pace, One crawl’d like a snail, One like a wombat prowl’d obtuse and furry, One like a ratel tumbled hurry skurry. She heard a voice like voice of doves Cooing all together: They sounded kind and full of loves In the pleasant weather.

      This scene would stick out to the piece's intended readers... children.

    7. Laura bow’d her head to hear, Lizzie veil’d her blushes: Crouching close together

      Something has embarrassed or surprised the sisters causing them to bow their heads and blush respectively. It is possibly the cries of the goblins urging them to try these fruits.

    8. With clasping arms and cautioning lips, With tingling cheeks and finger tips.

      This along with the blushing implies excitement on the sisters' behalf, in correlation with the danger/unknown element that the goblins bring.

    9. “We must not look at goblin men, We must not buy their fruits: Who knows upon what soil they fed Their hungry thirsty roots?”

      This is the first obvious hint at the sexuality present in this poem. It seems that the sisters are wondering whether they could be made impure by indulging with the goblins. Indulging would obviously include becoming tied to their possibly dirty pasts.

    10. Apples and quinces, Lemons and oranges, Plump unpeck’d cherries, Melons and raspberries, Bloom-down-cheek’d peaches, Swart-headed mulberries, Wild free-born cranberries, Crab-apples, dewberries, Pine-apples, blackberries, Apricots, strawberries;— All ripe together In summer weather,— Morns that pass by, Fair eves that fly; Come buy, come buy: Our grapes fresh from the vine, Pomegranates full and fine, Dates and sharp bullaces, Rare pears and greengages, Damsons and bilberries, Taste them and try: Currants and gooseberries, Bright-fire-like barberries, Figs to fill your mouth, Citrons from the South, Sweet to tongue and sound to eye; Come buy, come buy.”

      Pineapples and the Citrons from the south would have needed to be imported to 19th century England. They do not grow naturally in England's climate, which makes them an interesting choice for the author to place on the goblin merchants' menu.

    11. Morning and evening Maids heard the goblins cry: “Come buy our orchard fruits, Come buy, come buy:

      It is implied that only unmarried females can hear the goblin's cries.

    12. claiming Goblin Market for the project

    1. The rivers, lakes, and ocean all stood still, And nothing stirr’d within their silent depths; Ships sailorless lay rotting on the sea,        75 And their masts fell down piecemeal; as they dropp’d, They slept on the abyss without a surge— The waves were dead; the tides were in their grave

      Coleridge's immortal sea-faring nightmare is referenced here. Byron displays a heavy Ancient Mariner influence with these lines. Compare this passage to the Ancient Mariner: Part 2, lines 107-110; "Down dropt the breeze, the sails dropt down, 'Twas sad as sad could be; And we did speak only to break The silence of the sea!" Also; Part 7, lines 446-449; "Under the water it rumbled on, Still louder and more dread: It reached the ship, it split the bay; The ship went down like lead."

    2. The pall of a past world

      The Romantics were had a tremendous influence on 19th century American writers, especially Edgar Allan Poe. Compare this line with a passage from the final stanza in "The Conqueror Worm". "Out--out are the lights--out all! And, over each quivering form, The curtain, a funeral pall, Comes down with the rush of a storm,"

      The Complete Works of Edgar Allan Poe. Tally Hall Press. Ann Arbor. 1997. 1175. Print

    1. Eftsones I heard the dash of oars,       I heard the pilot's cheer:

      I wasn't sure what the word Eftsones meant so I looked into it. It is an alternate spelling of the word Eftsoons. The definition is as follows, "A modest meane to Mariage, pleasauntly set foorth."

    1. It is interesting that the guest fears the mariner so much. The way he describes the Mariner is reminiscent of someone describing a supernatural encounter. This makes me wonder whether or not the Mariner is a spirit rather than an actual person. He talks about being alone on the ship after everyone has died at sea, and it causes me to wonder whether or not he too has perished, though he claims to have been the only survivor, and his punishment in the afterlife is to wander around telling his story.

    1. Tennyson, “The Lotos Eaters”

      Rob Spadafore

    2. Dante Gabriel Rossetti, “Jenny” (read the Introduction and follow the link to the Poems 1881 First Edition Text). Use this as your starting point for more precise and detailed annotations on the poem.)

      I would like to claim this poem for my annotation project.

    3. Chapters 4-5 with Chapters 17-20: Victor’s project, The Creature’s demand, making a Female Creature (two students may team up on this)
    4. Chapters 11-14: The Creature’s first experiences and the Cottagers (Felix and Safie)

      Jessica Milewski

    5. John Keats, “The Eve of St. Agnes”

      Kelly Boyles

    6. Lord Byron, "Darkness"

      Patrick Herron

    7. John Keats, “Ode to a Nightingale”

      Jonathan Horanic

  3. Oct 2015
    1. O shrieve me, shrieve me, holy man!

      To shrieve a man is to give him forgiveness or penance. In this case the Mariner is begging the holy hermit to release him from his curse.

    2. The selfsame moment I could pray;   And from my neck so free 290  The Albatross fell off, and sank   Like lead into the sea.

      here the Mariner finds beauty in the creatures of the sea and begins to bless them. It is here that the Mariner regains his ability to pray, and as such regains his christian faith. This is symbolized by the Albatross falling into the sea, releasing the Mariner from his pagan superstitions. This indicates a turning point in which the Mariners punishments begin to abate.

    3. Instead of the cross, the Albatross

      Here the Mariner is forced to remove the cross around his neck, and replace it with the dead albatross. The albatross itself embodies superstition, so by switching the cross with the bird the sailors loose sight of their christian beliefs and give way to the more pagan superstitions of the sea. Perhaps this is why the sailors are being punished, for they've lost sight of God due to this bird. Maybe that's why the Mariner shot the albatross: to release his crew from their pagan values. If this holds true, the albatross would then act as a mark of protection against the vengeful spirits that plague the ships journey, explaining why the Mariner is the only survivor (note the second half is speculation).

    4.  The ice did split with a thunder-fit;   The helmsman steer'd us through!

      The men on the ship believed that the Albatross is the reason that the ice broke and allowed the ship to sail on. In reality, the Albatross did not do this. However, sailors were known for their superstitions, and before the Albatross they were stuck, and when the Albatross came, they were saved. They believed this bird was a sacred bird, for without the bird they would not have gotten through the ice.

    5. And cursed me with his eye

      The "eye" is referenced MANY times in this poem. The entire time I have been trying to figure out the importance of the eye, and why Coleridge is expressing the eye so much within this poem. However, this line in the poem is the line which I am able to make a connection as to why the eye is so significant. Throughout history in artwork, the eyes of people were always drawn large or drawn in a way in which they stand out. This is because it is believe that the eyes are the window to the soul within. So perhaps Coleridge is referencing the eye so much to tell us that the Mariner's story is coming from his soul (whether it is true or not) and he is looking into the Wedding Guest's eyes to tell his story from his soul to another soul. In this particular line, the Mariner is cursed with an eye; This is most likely because the Mariner's eye is the direct passageway to his soul.

    6. "The game is done! I've won! I've won!"   Quoth she, and whistles thrice.

      The Woman is referring to gambling, but never says exactly what she was gambling on, and what she won. Perhaps she was gambling on the lives of the crew on the Mariner's ship. The Woman one, so she gets to have the Mariner, and Death gets all of the other men aboard the ship.

    7. The Mariner, whose eye is bright,   Whose beard with age is hoar,620  Is gone: and now the Wedding-Guest   Turn'd from the bridegroom's door.     He went like one that hath been stunn'd,   And is of sense forlorn:   A sadder and a wiser man625  He rose the morrow morn.

      Shifts from the mariner to an un-named narrator to provide the reader with a sense of completion and to show how the mariner's story affects those who he tells it to. Also shows a change in the wedding-guest from a skeptical person to one that easily believes in things that can't really be proven.

    8. And horror follows. For can it be a ship that comes onward without wind or tide?

      Lends a sense of the surreal to the piece. This question foreshadows to the reader that this ship is not there to save them and most likely is a way to further punish the men for their crime against the bird. It makes the reader think of the probability of a ship moving with no force acting on it and could also be a way for the reader to see how mad the crew has become since it is almost impossible for a ship in those days to travel without any wind or tide to carry them; yet the crew still easily believes that a ship could appear and hopes that it will save them.

    9. The ancient Mariner inhospitably killeth the pious bird of good omen

      Reinforces the idea of superstitions and the ability to easily believe by calling the bird pious and a good omen. It gives the reader a better understanding of the death of the Albatross. It adds to the story in a way that leads the reader to believe that the bird was killed unjustly and that maybe the ancient mariner was unbalanced in the past from years on sea and not just from the one experience.

    10.  'The ship was cheer'd, the harbour clear'd,   Merrily did we drop   Below the kirk, below the hill,   Below the lighthouse top.

      The Mariner begins his tale by describing the departure of his crew's ship, while those on the harbor cheered the seamen goodbye as they set sail.

      The ship is described as dropping below buildings of the town, including a kirk, or Scottish church. As the ship sails further from shore, it will appear to those on shore as if it is literally descending into the ocean. This action is ominous, foreshadowing the supernatural events that the Mariner will experience.

      Occasionally, throughout the poem, either the ship or forces (like the sun or wind) are described as either rising up or falling down, just like a ship rising and falling atop the ocean's waves.

    11.  Higher and higher every day,   Till over the mast at noon——'

      *In reference to an earlier annotation: Note the rising action of the sun the Mariner is describing before being interrupted by the wedding guest.

    12. death-fires

      Coleridge is probably referring to a phenomenon known as St. Elmo's fire, in which electricity discharges from a pointed object, creating a glowing orb or spark. These "death-fires" often occur during thunder storms or within a high electric field. This phenomena was often associated with a spiritual omen. Since these electric discharges happen only in areas of high energy, and there is no visible storm, we can assume that the Mariner and his ship are now in some supernatural area of spiritual power.

    13. Under the keel nine fathom deep,   From the land of mist and snow,   The Spirit slid: and it was he 380  That made the ship to go.

      "keel" a. The lowest longitudinal timber of a ship or boat, on which the framework of the whole is built up; in boats and small vessels forming a prominent central ridge on the under surface; in iron vessels, a combination of iron plates taking the place and serving the purpose of the keel of a wooden vessel.Parts of a ship

      "fathom" b. The length covered by the outstretched arms, including the hands to the tip of the longest finger; hence, a definite measure of 6 feet (formerly for some purposes less: see quot. 1728), now chiefly used in taking soundings (but see quot. 1968).

      According to these definitions, the Spirit from the South Pole slid down into the sea underneath the ship to a depth of around 54 feet to make it go.

      Works Cited "keel, n.1." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 9 October 2015. "fathom, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Web. 9 October 2015.

    14. And now, all in my own countree,   I stood on the firm land!

      Location: After his long and trying journey on the sea, the Mariner has been returned to solid ground in his home country, rescued by the Pilot, his son, and the Hermit. This change in location also signifies a change in the Mariner's fate. He paid for shooting the Albatross with the curses during his journey, but returning home, he enters a new curse; he must travel the lands and tell his story so that others may treat nature with respect.

    15. the learned Jew, Josephus

      Flavius Josephus was a Jewish priest, scholar, and historian. He participated in the first Jewish revolt against Roman rule. Once defeated, he was taken before Vespasian (the future Roman Emperor) and assumed the role of a prophet, foretelling that Vespasian would become Emperor, to save his life. He was taken prisoner, but eventually released after his prophecy was deemed credible, and he then joined the Roman cause.

      Works Cited "Flavius Josephus". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 09 Oct. 2015 http://www.britannica.com/biography/Flavius-Josephus.

    16.  I bit my arm, I suck'd the blood, 160  And cried, A sail! a sail!

      The imagery in this stanza is of dehydration, where the crew is weary and hot to the point of not having a wet enough mouth to speak. These two lines in particular stand out;

      1. The Mariner has seen something and had to convey it to his crew. However, due to his condition he needed something to be able to wet his mouth to speak. He purposely harms himself for the sake of his crew by biting into his arm so hard he wet his mouth with blood. This is an interesting contrast to the punishment the crew gave him by forcing him to hang the Albatross around his neck, because here he harms himself in order to perhaps save his crew.

      2. The Mariner cries out that he sees a sail of a ship, but as we read on said ship are life and death incarnate who hail their ship and board as to play dice for the mens' souls. The question is if these figures are all just hallucinations brought on dehydration. This would mean that what the Mariner is really addressing the worry of the lives of his crew in a metaphorical sense, and most of it forms as doubt. Will his crew live or die? Is what he seeing real or not? Both ideas become personified in this shift into hallucination.

    17. And to teach, by his own example, love and reverence to all things that God made and loveth.

      Here is the ending moral of the Mariner's story, as well as the moral conclusion of the poem itself. The last four stanzas cover the importance in treating nature with respect, but it is more direct in this gloss. Coleridge writes this as if the "note taker" had summarized eight lines of moral guidance into a single sentence like that of a fable. As the story of the Mariner, it is an chilling message that stresses to the wedding attendant to be a wiser man and not be humbled as low as he had for shooting the Albatross.

      Looking at it as a message to the reader, it carries a similar idea, but allows one to follow Coleridge's Unitarian beliefs in context. This connection the Mariner had with nature is that of a rise and fall, but yet in the fall he experiences a moment of wonder looking out at the world (in this case the sea-snakes prior) that allows him to live on. In this way, its less of a moral story but more of a sudo-religious journey trough ones travels while sharing his world with the purest forms nature could provide (as well as be personified within the text).

    18. glittering eye

      I have been wondering what this "glittering" of the Mariner's eye/s might mean. From my first read-through I assumed that this is visualization of the enthusiasm he carries, some sort of wide-eyed compulsion to tell his story. However, seeing that his story was deeply personal and tragic, it made me rethink what this "glittering" actually was.

      I decided to research various medical conditions that would be associated with sailing to see if I could find something that dealt with the eyes. I found that cataracts has been a constant problem that persists into the modern age with sea-travelers. The sun constantly shoots out UV radiation down on the planet, and these rays effect our bodies over time. Sailors are exposed to the sun most of all, both from being out in the sun and because of the reflection of UV rays off the water. The usage of UV blocking eye ware is more of a recent occurrence, so sailors back then would develop cataracts at an accelerated rate.

      Here is an example: it looks like its "glittering" and I could see how the man the Mariner is enchanted by it.

      "Cataract." Cataract. American Optometric Association, 2015. Web. 08 Oct. 2015.

    1. ’I fear thee, ancient Mariner! I fear thy skinny hand! And thou art long, and lank, and brown, As is the ribb’d sea-sand.

      This story is being told by the mariner at a wedding. After hearing many of the details of the story, someone (wedding guest) speaks out saying that he fears the ancient mariner and the things that he is saying. He thinks that maybe the mariner isn't a man at all, but something to be feared, like a ghost or an apparition. The people at the wedding had surely never heard a story like this before, so this was probably a popular reaction to it amongst the guests, who are now becoming terrified of the mariner.

    2. Ah! well a-day! what evil looks Had I from old and young! Instead of the cross, the Albatross About my neck was hung.

      When I first read this, I thought that the crew was telling the mariner to wear the albatross as a sign of dominance. That he was able to kill this majestic bird for everyone on the ship. He would wear the Albatross as the symbol for what a brave and strong man he is. In reality though, it seems a bit different. The are giving him evil looks and he feels very uneasy about the bird on his neck. I think that perhaps his crew mates made him wear it as a sign of him being at fault for their misfortune. After all he shot the bird down, so it seems as though they are blaming the mariner for the whole situation by having him display what he has killed around his neck. There was really no reason to kill the albatross and the crew may have wanted the mariner to feel the shame of ending their lives by his actions.

    3.  ’The Sun now rose upon the right: Out of the sea came he, Still hid in mist, and on the left Went down into the sea.

      The mariner and his men are lost and their ship has been turned around due to his killing of the albatross. The albatross seemed to be what was providing the winds through the sails of the ship. Now that the albatross is gone, the crew are looking for the direction in which to follow. When Coleridge says that the sun now rises on the right, he is saying that the ship is turned around. This shows that they are now heading north instead of heading south like they originally were.

    4. And I had done an hellish thing, And it would work ’em woe: For all averr’d, I had kill’d the bird That made the breeze to blow. Ah wretch! said they, the bird to slay, That made the breeze to blow!

      When the mariner shot the Albatross, it floundered and dropped down into the ocean. It had been following the ship for days, flying gracefully overhead. The albatross is considered to be one of the most majestic and iconic birds before extinction. It is iconic in this story because as soon as it is killed, the ship will no longer move because the winds have stopped. The irony is that they're surrounded by water "without a drop to drink." Killing the albatross killed their journey and the men on board.

    5. he souls did from their bodies fly— They fled to bliss or woe! And every soul, it pass’d me by Like the whizz of my crossbow!

      This symbolism is to show the fault of Mariner. The men on the ship are all dying one by one due to starvation and dehydration. The men are dying and there souls are flying by him, quicker than the arrow from his crossbow. Coleridge is comparing the two things because they are directly related. If the Mariner hadn't shot the albatross, none of the bad things that happened, would have happened.

    1. The Mariner is gone now, however the question as to whether or not he is DONE arises. The Mariner is clearly seeking redemption for the voyage doomed mostly by his own hand. His penance appears to be telling the story to anyone who will listen. He has left his impression on this wedding guest in search of some sort of catharsis or redemption, but it is probably safe to say, that the guilt will soon re-emerge within him, causing this scene to play out time and time again.