461 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2015
    1. God Almighty in His most holy and wise providence hath so disposed of the Condition of mankind, as in all times some must be rich, some poor, some high and eminent in power and dignity; others mean and in subjection.
    2. God of Israel

      I thought that the Puritans were Christians, but reading " God of Israel " has me confused? Were the Puritans the followers of Christ or Moses?

    3. the Puritan had made a covenant with God to establish a truly Christian community,

      This explains why the Puritans had the mind set of cleansing the churches.

    4. Puritan

      The were the followers of James Calvin and their mission was to purify the church of any political corruption hence their name Puritans.

    1. Our hands, which before were tied with gentleness and fair usage, are now set at liberty by the treacherous violence of the savages.

      I feel like this phase talks about the violence that we have been through and we want a world with peace.

    2. And not being content with taking away life alone, they fell after again upon the dead, making, as well as they could, a fresh murder, defacing, dragging, and mangling the dead carcasses into many pieces, and carrying away some parts in derision

      This paragraph shows the barbarity of the savages to the extreme extent. After murdering the innocent people, the savages weren't satisfied enough so they decided to chop the dead bodies into smaller pieces. I wonder if there is any extent to being inhumane?

    3. Yea, such was the treacherous dissimulation of that people who then had contrived our destruction

      It tells us about the secret planning of the Native Americans to execute a massive massacre on the English colonies.

    4. Powhatan

      He's the famous Pocahontas's father.

    1. The New England climate and soil made large-scale plantation agriculture impractical, so the system of large landholders using masses of slaves or indentured servants to grow labor-intensive crops never took hold.

      these slaves were treated poorly

    2. He launched a surprise attack and in a single day (March 22, 1622) killed 347 colonists, or one-fourth of all the colonists in Virginia.

      He wanted to be greedy

    3. The reliance on new imports of slaves increased the likelihood of resistance, however, and escaped slaves managed to create several free settlements, called quilombos.

      I wonder f the free slaves were able to help one of their kind to get out of slavery?

    4. Spanish missionaries brought Indians into enclosed missions, whereas Jesuits more often lived with or alongside Indian groups.

      During that time, slavery still occurred.

    5. When Oñate sacked the Pueblo city of Acoma, the “sky city,” the Spaniards slaughtered nearly half of its roughly 1,500 inhabitants, including women and children. Oñate ordered one foot cut off of every surviving male over 15 and he enslaved the remaining women and children.1

      I was wondering if he wanted to become a dictator?

    6. Dutch women maintained separate legal identities from their husbands and could therefore hold property and inherit full estates

      The rights for woman is being shown here.

    7. The French preference for trade over permanent settlement fostered more cooperative and mutually beneficial relationships with Native Americans than was typical among the Spanish and English

      partnership of trade.

    8. Powhatan


    9. He navigated Indian diplomacy, claiming that he was captured and sentenced to death but Powhatan’s daughter, Pocahontas, intervened to save his life

      so pocahontas was real!

    10. The Crown granted missionaries the right to live among Timucua and Guale villagers in the late 1500s and early 1600s and encouraged settlement through the encomienda system (grants of Indian labor).

      They were granted the right to keep living where they had lived for hundreds of years.

    11. European explorers, meanwhile, had hoped to find great wealth in Florida, but reality never aligned with their imaginations.

      They were looking for gold and gems.

    1. English traders fomented Indian war in order to purchase and enslave captives, and planters justified the use of an enslaved workforce by claiming white servants were “good for nothing at all.
    2. “I can’t think there is any intrinsic value in one color more than another, nor that white is better than black, only we think it so because we are so.”

      Thomas Phillips

    1. Conquest

      1) The goals of the Spanish were to build empires both secular and religious. The religious goals were to win people for Catholic church and the secular goals were to gain more power over the southern and northern america to have access to the wealth and gold.

      2) The greatest killer was the smallpox diseases that almost erased human life which was spread through direct human contact. Other diseases that killed Native Americans were influenza, malaria, whooping cough, diphtheria, and measles. European also brought in large domestic animals such as sheep, cattle, pig, and horse and plants e.g corn, avocado, squash, pineapple, peanuts, potatoes, etc which was more nutritious than the wheat, rice, barley and oats that the Native Americans were used to consuming.

      3) The Europeans claimed their right on claiming the land in America by the authority of the pope. Europeans also claimed to have conquered the native Americans and discovered the land. They claimed possession by occupying the land.

    2. Slaves and Indians occupied the lowest rungs of the social ladder

      Native Americans were enslaved and left out on all of advantages in their own country.

    3. Much of the city was built on large artificial islands called chinampas which the Aztecs constructed by dredging mud and rich sediment from the bottom of the lake and depositing it over time to form new landscapes

      Building cities from mud and rich sediment is very awe inspiring. It presents the Aztecs as very hard working native civilization. One can only imagine how much physical effort they must have put in.

    4. . In central America the Maya built massive temples, sustained large populations, and constructed a complex and long-lasting civilization with a written language, advanced mathematics, and stunningly accurate calendars

      The Maya civilization was filled with smart and witty human population. Their architecture and sharpness in math and physics is world known.

    5. Mercenaries joined the conquest and raced to capture the human and material wealth of the New World.

      The above statement elicits that the Native Americans were thought of as mere worthless creatures who could be used as pleased by the Spaniards.

    6. three crops in particular–corn, beans, and squash, the so-called “three sisters”–provided nutritional needs necessary to sustain cities and civilizations.

      The important crops but, were there any others that they planted for?

    7. . But native populations adapted: they fished, hunted small mammals, and gathered nuts and berries. Native peoples spread across North America

      Reasons why people evolved to who they are now as people.

    8. Montezuma was killed along with a third of Cortes’s men in la noche triste, the “night of sorrows.”

      Was this the man whom some one burned his feet?

    9. Pigs ran rampant through the Americas, transforming the landscape as the spread throughout both continents.

      How did the pigs running wild through the American lands transform the landscape?

    10. After two years of conflict, a million-person strong empire was toppled by disease, dissension, and a thousand European conquerors.

      When society goes, it goes fast.

    11. But without the rich gold and silver mines of Mexico, the plantation-friendly climate of the Caribbean, or the exploitive potential of large Indian empires, North America offered little incentive for Spanish officials.
    1. As time went on, the wife became pregnant. Her and her husband were very, very happy.

      This couple sounds like Adam and Eve. How Eve had the fruit from the forbidden tree and how Eve and Adam were sent to the water world as a punishment.

      1. According to King Afonso, what have been the detrimental effects of the Portuguese presence in his kingdom?
      2. The Portuguese imports, by bringing them in and setting up shops with the goods that are prohibited it is causing the Kongolese people to not comply with the laws.
      3. What steps has he taken to deal with the problems caused by the Portuguese?
      4. They passed a law that states if a white man wishes to purchase goods they first must notify 3 noblemen as to their intentions.
      5. Why is he appealing directly to the Portuguese king for aid? *I believe that since this King has modeled himself after the Portuguese kingdom and imitating their royal court that he felt like a peer to the Portuguese king and could ask for assistance, especially since the king of Portuguese had written him previously stating that if they ever needed anything, they had only to ask.
      6. Does King Afonso see the Portuguese presence in his kingdom as a right or a privilege?
      7. I think he sees them as a privilege.
      8. How does King Afonso distinguish legitimate and illegitimate trade in slaves?
      9. King Alfonso seems to distinguish the legitimate and illegitimate by the noblemen and sons of noblemen and relatives as the illegitimate slaves.
      10. What elements of Portuguese culture does he welcome? Why?
      11. Alfonso seems to welcome the Catholic church from the culture since they believe that they are saved if the die.
    1. The milk in the breasts of the women with infants dried up and thus in a short while the infants perished.

      Wow, how sad to have to go through that.

    2. Spaniards who immediately behaved like ravening wild beasts, wolves, tigers, or lions that had been starved for many days.

      criminals, a way of jail in a sense they starved.

    3. not only stabbing them and dismembering them but cutting them to pieces as if dealing with sheep in the slaughter house.

      I really do not understand their need to dismember their victims

    4. But I should not say "than beasts" for, thanks be to God, they have treated beasts with some respect;

      They treated the animals with more respect than the did the slaves because they were harder to replace.

  2. Aug 2015
    1. Native Americans lacked the immunities that Europeans and Africans had developed over centuries of deadly epidemic

      How many decades had to go by before Latin America's immunological system could fight against those diseases?

    2. Men typically hunted and women typically gathered and prepared wild foods. Rich and diverse diets fueled massive population growth across the continent.

      Which is already known thats how things go with a man and a woman. The growth has been massive and things have became bigger through out the world is with the foods. Foods is what fuel us, and adapt us to this world.


    3. When crop yields began to decline, farmers would simply move to another field and allow the land to recover and the forest to regrow before they would again cut the forest, burn the undergrowth, and restart the cycle

      By moving to field to field when you are done with one to let the the one you just used to re grow is how the crop would stay and be able to have it and be able to be smart about the crop grow.


    4. Portuguese established forts along the Atlantic coast of Africa during the fifteenth century, inaugurating centuries of European colonization there

      The Portuguese empire made a very important role in colonization.

    5. Native Americans lacked the immunities that Europeans and Africans had developed over centuries of deadly epidemics and so when Europeans arrived, carrying smallpox, typhus, influenza, diphtheria, measles, and hepatitis, plagues decimated native communities. Death rates tended to be highest near European communities who traveled with children, as children tended to carry the deadliest diseases.9 Many died in war and slavery, but millions died in epidemics. All told, in fact, some scholars estimate that as much as 90 percent of the population of the Americas perished within the first century and a half of European contact

      Disease is destroying millions, but how long did it take for less and less to die from these diseases?

    6. By presuming the natives had no humanity, the Spaniards utterly abandoned theirs.

      Why was it always presumed that slaves, Indians and Black people alike, had no humanity?

    7. Native cultures understood ancestry as matrilineal: family and clan identity proceeded along the female line, through mothers and daughters, rather than fathers and sons.

      This is a wonderful example of how some cultures can be so different and still thrive.

    8. One single building, Pueblo Bonito, stretched over two acres and rose five stories.

      Is this building still standing today? Can you go and see it?

    9. Cahokia experienced what one archeologist has called a “big bang” around the year 1050 that included “a virtually instantaneous and pervasive shift in all things political, social, and ideological.”4

      What was the catalyst of this "big bang?"

    10. “They are very gentle and without knowledge of what is evil; nor the sins of murder or theft,

      This shows proof that native american's do not want any conflict with anyone who enters their land from the statment that Columbus said.

    1. Obatala, another god, reflected upon this situation, then went to Olorun for permission to create dry land for all kinds of living creatures to inhabit.

      This verse states that the God of Earth is Obatala.

    2. When Obatala returned to his home in the sky for a visit, Olokun summoned the great waves of her vast oceans and sent them surging across the land.

      Why did she wait for the return of Obatala to unleash her fury? Obatala was a God, right?

    3. He was given permission, so he sought advice from Orunmila, oldest son of Olorun and the god of prophecy.

      This shows intelligence, looking for wisdom in others before performing a task.

    4. The new people built huts as Obatala had done, and soon Ife prospered and became a city

      The beginning.

    5. This story talks about how Chief god Olorun ruled everything that was above the sky and beyond. Olokun was in charge of everything that was below it. Olorun asked for permission from Obatala for some changes to be made. This story has to do with creating the world like The first book of Moses " Gensis 1".

    1. Everyday she had something new that she had to have. These were the results of being pregnant and carrying her child.

      When I was pregnant I had odd cravings too, but come on, you don't get everything you want. Humanity is shown as quite greedy here.

    2. So pretty soon, the otter decided he said, “ I think there is some dirt or mud way, way down at the bottom of the ocean. IF we brought up some of that mud, perhaps we could put it on turtle’s back and perhaps this creature from the sky world could live and sustain herself on the back of turtle.”

      Help thy neighbor.

    3. In the sky world, there were beautiful, beautiful trees and wonderful plants with bright colors and delicious fruits to be eaten.

      Sounds as if they are describing Heaven

    4. they flew underneath her and sure enough they caught her

      Shows you are never alone in any situation, nature is something important to us too.

    1. And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.

      God separated the Earth from Heaven into 2 kingdoms

    2. And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

      Circle of life was forming for the best that God could make it

    3. And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

      God felt like after he created one species of animals he was determined to make bigger and better ones for the circle of life.