657 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2016
    1. Specifically, the FBI wants us to make a new version of the iPhone operating system, circumventing several important security features, and install it on an iPhone recovered during the investigation. In the wrong hands, this software — which does not exist today — would have the potential to unlock any iPhone in someone’s physical possession. The FBI may use different words to describe this tool, but make no mistake: Building a version of iOS that bypasses security in this way would undeniably create a backdoor. And while the government may argue that its use would be limited to this case, there is no way to guarantee such control.

      This is where Cook addresses the second "they": the FBI. He explains the implications of what the FBI is demanding, and how they can affect all customers, especially Americans.

    2. We were shocked and outraged by the deadly act of terrorism in San Bernardino last December. We mourn the loss of life and want justice for all those whose lives were affected. The FBI asked us for help in the days following the attack, and we have worked hard to support the government’s efforts to solve this horrible crime. We have no sympathy for terrorists.

      Here, Cook is using pathos to clarify that, despite his stance on the encryption piece, they still sympathize with the victims of the San Bernardino case, and their families. This is where Cook addresses one of the "they's," being those who were directly affected by the case, or those who believe Apple should comply in order to get justice.

    1. “Imagine working under a seven-year contract that you cannot break and more than likely will be forced to renew, for a producer who can tell you who you can marry, what you

      This scenario is probably a lot more common then people think. It matches up almost perfectly to what Kesha is going through. When someone is in a contract, it seems like not only do you lose your right of publicity, but you also lost your individuality and originality. What is going on with Kesha currently is proof that this does exist and it does happen.

    2. This note suggests a new method to analyze the right of publicity. Voluntary contracts within the entertainment industry provide an analytical tool to assess both the underlying policy justifications for the right of publicity and the doctrinal rules within i

      Here, Coyle suggests a new way to study the right of publicity. He's talking about contracts within the entertainment industry which lines up with Kesha's situation. It seems like Coyle is saying that while in a contract, one loses their right to publicity in a way.

    3. Although conceptually straightforward, it has been the subject of significant commentary and debate.2 Neither courts nor scholars have accepted a uniform theoretical foundation for the right of publicity.3

      This is the author's claim, some could argue that there is a solid foundation for the right of publicity. The definition of the right of publicity stated in the first sentence of the introduction gives a pretty concise idea what that is so there could be room for debate about whether or not it could be explained better. The author is letting the reader know that the paper will be about his view about what he thinks a better way to perceive the right of publicity is.

    4. 1133 NOTES Finding a Better Analogy for the Right of Publicity

      "Bklyn Law Review - Brooklyn Law School Law Journals: Impact Factors And Citations - Libguides At Brooklyn Law School". Guides.brooklaw.edu. N. p., 2016. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.

      “The Brooklyn Law Review is a scholarly journal of analysis and commentary covering a broad range of current legal issues. The flagship journal of Brooklyn Law School, it has 77 volumes (one a year) dating back to 1932.”

    1. The Lancet began as an independent, international weekly general medical journal founded in 1823

      Shows that the journal has some history and has had enough popularity to stay around for nearly 200 years.

    2. : medical research, clinical practice, global health, and news and comment. The journal's editors will collaborate over any contribution that advances or illuminates medical science or practice, or that educates or engages readers on important matters in the practice, policy, and politics of research, medicine, and public health.

      The journal is focused on all things science and medical. The Lancet umbrellas multiple different journals that are specific to different subjects such as pathology, neurophysiology etc.


    1. A crucial time for public health preparedness: Zika virus and the 2016 Olympics, Umrah, and Hajj

      Elachola, Habida, et al. "A Crucial Time For Public Health Preparedness: Zika Virus And The 2016 Olympics, Umrah, And Hajj." Lancet 387.10019 (2016): 630-632. Academic Search Premier. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.

    1. Jan 2011–present Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine · Vector Group United Kingdom · Liverpool

      Again gives very little information, but shows that she has background in vector work.


    1. Biology PhD

      This is all of the information I can find on this author as I do not speak Spanish and her bio is published in a Brazilian University Biology department. She has 45 publications and 1450 reads. With this extent in popularity she must be a credible author as she has been able to get 45 papers published which is not an easy task.

    1. A good example involves Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Brazil. Both species are known as good dengue vectors; however, A aegypti plays a major part in dengue transmission in the country due to its vectorial capacity, whereas A albopictus does not because its level of infestation is low and it prefers sylvatic environments.

      She backs up the Logos she made in the previous statement with the use of Ethos, explaining the difference between a carrier and a vector of the virus and giving a clear example. She presents the example in a way that the reader can understand whether or not the reader has a background in science. This source is a heavily research based article and there is not a lot of audience appeal as Constância F J Ayres is really just stating the facts and research.

    2. In this respect, the urban transmission of Zika virus could involve other mosquito species, especially considering the adaptability of this virus,12 and this issue deserves urgent attention. Vector control strategies must be directed at all potential vectors. To assume that the main vector is A aegypti in areas in which other mosquito species coexist is naive, and could be catastrophic if other species are found to have important roles in Zika virus transmission. Therefore, researchers from different institutions who are working on vector–pathogen interactions must attempt to answer this important question as soon as possible, to direct control actions towards the correct target and to help to minimise the drastic effects of Zika virus disease outbreaks.

      In this paragraph the author both ties her research back to her original claim and states what is important to consider moving forward in the fight against this virus. She makes the point that the world must not overlook other possible vectors as it could lead to the continual spread and lack of control of this very infectious virus.

    3. It is important to prove in laboratory conditions that an organism is able to acquire the pathogen and maintain and transmit it to other hosts. Additionally, even if the ability of a given species to transmit a pathogen is proven in laboratory conditions, that species is not necessarily the primary vector

      Author addresses the counter argument for her claim in this statement as it is possible that these organisms that carry the disease are not able to transmit it to another host rather they are just infected with it.

    4. Faye and colleagues 10 reported a long list of mosquito species from which Zika virus strains were isolated, including several species of Aedes and Anopheles coustani. Diallo and colleagues 11 surveyed mosquitoes from different environments from Senegal and detected by RT-PCR the presence of Zika virus in ten species from the genus Aedes, and Mansonia uniformis, Anopheles coustani, and Culex perfuscus. These mosquito species probably contribute to the zoonotic cycle of Zika virus transmission.

      The author exhibits Ethos here as she supports her claim that there are many carriers of this disease including several different types of mosquitoes. She uses other experts to appear more credible by presenting their research in a way that it applies to her claim that there are many vectors of the virus.

    1. Climate scientists, meanwhile, know that heat must still be building up somewhere in the climate system, but they have struggled to explain where it is going, if not into the atmosphere.

      This is how I would use this source in my Twine Essay. By showing that scientists are proving the reasons for the rise in intense oceanic temperatures, I can give validity to the concept of climate change, Additionally, I think that it would be interesting in looking at further research to see if we could predict future events or help stop the dramatic effects of them.

    2. And when that happens, if scientists are on the right track, the missing heat will reappear and temperatures will spike once again.

      If the scientist's claims are correct, when would they predict the next switch in climate conditions to take place? Also, can they predict the severity of the next cycle?

    3. A key breakthrough came last year from Shang-Ping Xie and Yu Kosaka at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California. The duo took a different tack, by programming a model with actual sea surface temperatures from recent decades in the eastern equatorial Pacific, and then seeing what happened to the rest of the globe8. Their model not only recreated the hiatus in global temperatures, but also reproduced some of the seasonal and regional climate trends that have marked the hiatus, including warming in many areas and cooler northern winters.

      This adds credibility. It validates the claim, while also showing how the experiment is important and how it came to its conclusions.

    4. This variation in ocean temperature, known as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), may be a crucial piece of the hiatus puzzle.

      This is a specific pieces of information that confirms the reporters claim.

    5. But even those scientists who remain confident in the underlying models acknowledge that there is increasing pressure to work out just what is happening today.

      Good point. It important to show that the counter argument is being acknowledged.

    6. The simplest explanation for both the hiatus and the discrepancy in the models is natural variability.

      This is the counter argument. As stated in the article, the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) hypothesized that from 1998-2012, the temperature should rise at a rate of 0.21 degrees Celsius per decade. Instead, the temperature only rose .04 degrees Celsius during that time period. Therefore, differing perspectives are claiming that instead of having a consistent global warming increase, the world goes through periods of climatic fluctuations. Furthermore, because of this evidence, scientists conclude that global warming effects are being overestimated and overstated.

    7. On a chart of global atmospheric temperatures, the hiatus stands in stark contrast to the rapid warming of the two decades that preceded it.

      The refutation against Tollefson's claim is stated pretty early on in the article.

    8. Now, as the global-warming hiatus enters its sixteenth year, scientists are at last making headway in the case of the missing heat. Some have pointed to the Sun, volcanoes and even pollution from China as potential culprits, but recent studies suggest that the oceans are key to explaining the anomaly.

      Here is what "they" are saying. Because evidence has shown a decline in global-warming for years, scientists are wondering if perhaps its a myth. However, others are saying that global-warming is not in decline, but is rather being stored in places such as the world's oceans. Because of this, the events like El Nino and El Nina exist and are becoming more aggressive each time they occur.

    9. Jeff Tollefson

      Jeff Tollefson has quite the impressive resume as a reporter on issues like energy, climate, and the environment. His work in this article is definitely valid and is credible. As seen on the Nature about the editor website, "Jeff has won a number of accolades, including New Mexico press awards for pieces on pollution and nuclear-weapons work at Los Alamos National Laboratory". He has many years in his field reporting on numerous environmental issues and/or concerns.


      The Nature International Weekly Journal of Science is a well know journal that focuses on innovating science and technology. Their mission statement as found on their website states their responsible "First, to serve scientists through prompt publication of significant advances in any branch of science, and to provide a forum for the reporting and discussion of news and issues concerning science. Second, to ensure that the results of science are rapidly disseminated to the public throughout the world, in a fashion that conveys their significance for knowledge, culture and daily life". The journal itself is high cited and has won awards for their scientists.


    10. Climate change: The case of the missing heat

      Tollefson, Jeff. "Climate Change: The Case Of The Missing Heat." Nature 505.7483 (2014): 276-278. Academic Search Premier. Web. 8 Mar. 2016.

      The claim in this article as stated by the reporter Jeff Tollefson, is that there has been a lack of confidence in the field of climate change over the years due to the fact that temperatures today are in conflict with previous models. Because the new temperatures are straying from the previous records, some are claiming that global warming is beginning to stop; however, others believe it still to be alive, but it is being stored in another way. Therefore, this idea of "The Missing Heat" is being hypothesized to be stored in the world's oceans.

    1. As such, they are a critical tool at adaptation planners' disposal for tackling the threats that climate change poses to peoples' lives and livelihoods.

      This is the targeted group of stakeholders. People whose lives have been or will be affected by climate change.

    2. As climate change increasingly threatens lives and livelihoods, maximizing adaptation opportunities will minimize its potentially catastrophic effects.

      This is how I see me using this reference in my Twine Essay. If I could show people potential actions they could take or that our nation could take to help climate change maybe it will cause them to try and make more of an effort.

    3. Focus now must turn to establishing funding priorities for the Green Climate Fund, which will strongly influence the lending patterns of multilateral agencies and help guide national adaptation policies and planning.

      I would be interested in looking into this and seeing how successful it is.

    4. Furthermore, hard-engineering interventions can have negative and unforeseen impacts on surrounding human and natural systems

      Again, another issue with the EbA approach. If we are trying to help the environment now, we also want to ensure that the future environment will be safe no matter what we use on it now to help fix it. We want to help fix and support the environment, not just temporarily deal with the issue at hand.

    5. Many hard adaptation approaches are essentially permanent and inflexible — a key drawback in some settings. A hard structure can be mismatched to future climatic conditions, either because it was designed based on an assumption that natural systems such as rivers fluctuate within an unchanging envelope of variability30 or because projections of future climatic conditions turn out to be inaccurate31

      This is setback against EbA. If it is not flexible enough to address future issues rather than just the ones human face now that could be a potential problem. It will cost time and money. Hopefully, research will continue to be done to help address this issue.

    6. EbA frequently provide economic, social and environmental co-benefits in the form of both marketable (for example, livestock and fish production) and non-marketable (for example, cultural preservation and biodiversity maintenance) ecosystem goods and services

      I like that the authors make the point that this EbA approach not only helps individuals with the physical effects of climate change, but it will also help will providing economic, social, and environmental effects as well. This could potentially better a nation because it doesn't just address climate change, but it fixes all of the problems associated with it.

    7. Ecosystem-based approaches to adaptation (EbA) harness the capacity of nature to buffer human communities against the adverse impacts of climate change through the sustainable delivery of ecosystem services.

      The authors bring up this idea of ecosystem-based approaches that consist of combing both soft and hard approaches. Ultimately, the result will consist of a broad scope that will use natural infrastructure to provide adaptation services. This approach is valuable because it is effective while at the same time flexible, cost-effective, and seen at a national and international levels.

    8. Adaptation to climate change can incorporate a range of potential actions. Although no single established typology of adaptation actions exists, they can be loosely categorized into 'soft' and 'hard' approaches5.

      Here is what "they" are saying. The authors are stating that there is funding that has been created to help with the effects of climate change on individuals throughout the world. This money; however, needs to be divided into groups such as soft and hard approaches. The soft approaches as stated in the journal, will focus on "information, policy, capacity building, and institutional function." The hard approaches, on the other hand, will focus on technology and actions that will be taken to physically control and/or help the effects of climate change.

    9. Holly P. Jones,1, David G. Hole2, & Erika S. Zavaleta

      Not much was available about the professional lives of each author, but I was able to determine that each author published on the Nature Climate Change website is a PhD- level scientist. Additionally, all work is reviewed by an 'External Advisory Panel in the areas of social sciences, policy and economics to provide advice on submissions in these areas in the initial few months." Therefore, I find this publication to be written by credible sources.


      Furthermore, The Website, Nature Climate Change, mission statement states they are, "dedicated to publishing the most significant and cutting-edge research on the science of climate change, its impacts and wider implications for the economy, society and policy." The journal reports on a wide range of scientific topics and only published original interdisciplinary work.


    10. Harnessing nature to help people adapt to climate change

      Jones, Holly P., David G. Hole, and Erika S. Zavaleta. "Harnessing Nature to Help People Adapt to Climate Change." Nature.com. Nature Publishing Group, 26 June 2012. Web. 09 Mar. 2016.

      The claim in this article by the authors is that people need to learn about the tools and/or steps they can take to help them tackle the threats that climate change causes to people, their lives, and livelihood.

    1. Meanwhile health authorities in at least five of the affected countries—Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, and Jamaica—are advising women to avoid pregnancy for the moment.1

      This quote can be used to showcase the exact severity of the disease as health officials are not just advising that people try and stay safe from contracting the disease, but also advising that they refrain from getting pregnant. This is due to the fact that there is an anticipated risk that the pregnant women in these areas may contract or already have contracted the disease. This also addresses what the government is saying. By issuing this statement the governments of these regions are not only indicating that there is a risk of Zika infection, but they are also indicating that the populous is not in control of whether or not they will contract the virus. If the government thought the disease were preventable by the civilians' efforts to stay safe then they would have released a statement indicating people to remain extra safe during pregnancy or if there is risk women may become pregnant. This is a showcase of how the Virus' spread is actually not able to be contolled by the people.

    2. The rapid spread of Zika virus in the Americas, where there is little population immunity, is a major concern, especially given the possible link between infection during pregnancy and the congenital abnormality microcephaly

      Ingrid Torjesen's claim is that this outbreak of Zika virus that is currently occurring in the Americas (primarily South America) is something that the world should be incredibly concerned about.

    3. Margaret Chan, WHO’s director general, said, “Although a causal link between Zika infection in pregnancy and microcephaly has not been established, the circumstantial evidence is suggestive and extremely worrisome. An increased occurrence of neurological syndromes, noted in some countries coincident with arrival of the virus, adds to the concern.”

      The Author brings the statement of the World Health Organization's director general to support her claim and justify the exact severity of this outbreak. The quoted Margaret Chan also speaks to the fact that a direct linkage of the disease during pregnancy to microcephaly has not yet been established, but it is largely observed and should also be worried about. Linkage of microcephaly would appear in the form of birth defects, neurological problems, and death of a newborn baby that has been affected by this disease. Microcephaly would also include linkage to Guillain-Barre.

    4. Zika virus outbreaks prompt warnings to pregnant women

      Torjesen, Ingrid. "Zika Virus Outbreaks Prompt Warnings To Pregnant Women." BMJ: British Medical Journal 352.8042 (2016): i500-2. Academic Search Premier. Web. 8 Mar. 2016.

  2. content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu:2048 content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu:2048
    1. The Missouri Task force onGender Bias, for example, found that enforcement of rape shield laws was unevenand that even provisions that made it onto the books were not always enforce

      This looks really bad for law enforcement in the case that they would ever try to defend themselves against these allegations. This is also just more proof of the author's claims that there is a biased against women not only in a courtroom, but also in a police station where people should feel safe.

    2. Even worse, women sometimes have to deal with police who do not even want torecognize what happened to them. The case of Susan Estrich, a rape survivor andlaw professor, is instructive. In retelling her own rape victimization, Estrich reportsthat the police ‘‘asked me if he took any money. He did; but while I remembervirtually every detail of that day and night, I can’t remember how much. But Iremember their answer. He did take money; that made it an armed robbery. Muchbetter than a rape. They got right on the radio with that’’

      In the case of Susan Estrich, it seems pretty obvious that the police didn't really focus on what actually happened when she was raped, but they focused more on the fact that it was an armed robbery which was "much better than a rape."

    3. ORIGINAL ARTICLEMisogyny: It’s Still the Law—An Empirical Assessmentof the Missouri Juvenile Court System’s Processingof Rape and Robbery Offenders

      McGuire, M., Steve Donner, and Elizabeth Callahan. "Misogyny: It's Still The Law-An Empirical Assessment Of The Missouri Juvenile Court System's Processing Of Rape And Robbery Offenders." Gender Issues 29.1-4 (2012): 1-24. Academic Search Premier. Web. 8 Mar. 2016.

      McGuire, Donner, and Callahan argue that the bias against women can be recognized in a court of law specifically in cases of rape and robbery in the first degree. They focus on and examine forcible rape and robbery cases specifically in Missouri's juvenile court system.

    4. Patriarchal societies have long used their legalsystems to subjugate and control women in a variety of ways including prohibitingthem from owning property or other economic assets, denying them access toeducation and restricting their participation in the political system

      This particular sentence can be related to the case of Kesha Sebert v. Lukasz Gottwald. Kesha was recently denied a preliminary injunction that would ultimatley free her from her contract with Gottwald. She claimed to have been physically and emotionally abused by the music producer. The highlighted sentence is basically saying that women don't have control over bad things that may happen to them, the court of law does. While Kesha is not prohibited from owning property or other economic assets, she is still being restricted by having to continue to work under her alleged assailant. That being said, an important inquiry question comes to mind. Is a piece of paper really more important than a human being's physical and emotional health?

    5. Even after rape was recognized as a crime of violence against women andwomen’s rights to their own bodily integrity were acknowledged, the legal systemremained primarily concerned with protecting men from false accusations notwomen from sexual violenc

      The problem with Kesha's situation is there is not hard, solid evidence that her allegations actually happened. Gottwald has spoken out and claimed that her accusations were false and he didn't know why she would even say that. Is it possible that the court was protecting him from these false accusations?

    6. Gend. Issues (2012) 29:1–24

      "Gender Issues." - Springer. Springer US, n.d. Web. 08 Mar. 2016.

      This article is issue 1 of volume 29 of "Gender Issues." "Gender Issues" targets four main points in the articles within. Contributors try to understand gender socialization, personality and behavior in context. They explore relationships such as friendships, romantic relationships and professional relationships. They analyze how gender identity, expression and relations are impacted by economic, legal and social changes. Lastly, authors interpret these impacts on the roles of people throughout the world.

    7. Gend. Issues (2012) 29:1–24

      "Gender Issues." - Springer. Springer US, n.d. Web. 08 Mar. 2016.

      This article is issue 1 of volume 29 of "Gender Issues." "Gender Issues" targets four main points in the articles within. Contributors try to understand gender socialization, personality and behavior in context. They explore relationships such as friendships, romantic relationships and professional relationships. They analyze how gender identity, expression and relations are impacted by economic, legal and social changes. Lastly, authors interpret these impacts on the roles of people throughout the world.

    8. Even after rape was recognized as a crime of violence against women andwomen’s rights to their own bodily integrity were acknowledged, the legal systemremained primarily concerned with protecting men from false accusations notwomen from sexual violence

      The problem with Kesha's situation is there is not hard, solid evidence that her allegations actually happened. Gottwald has spoken out and claimed that her accusations were false and he didn't know why she would even say that. Is it possible that the court was protecting him from these false accusations?

    9. Patriarchal societies have long used their legalsystems to subjugate and control women in a variety of ways including prohibitingthem from owning property or other economic assets, denying them access toeducation and restricting their participation in the political system

      This particular sentence can be related to the case of Kesha Sebert v. Lukasz Gottwald. Kesha was recently denied a preliminary injunction that would ultimatley free her from her contract with Gottwald. She claimed to have been physically and emotionally abused by the music producer. The highlighted sentence is basically saying that women don't have control over bad things that may happen to them, the court of law does. While Kesha is not prohibited from owning property or other economic assets, she is still being restricted by having to continue to work under her alleged assailant. That being said, an important inquiry question comes to mind. Is a piece of paper really more important than a human being's physical and emotional health?

    10. Misogyny: It’s Still the Law—An Empirical Assessmentof the Missouri Juvenile Court System’s Processingof Rape and Robbery Offenders

      McGuire, M., Steve Donner, and Elizabeth Callahan. "Misogyny: It's Still The Law-An Empirical Assessment Of The Missouri Juvenile Court System's Processing Of Rape And Robbery Offenders." Gender Issues 29.1-4 (2012): 1-24. Academic Search Premier. Web. 8 Mar. 2016.

      McGuire, Donner, and Callahan argue that the bias against women can be recognized in a court of law specifically in cases of rape and robbery in the first degree. They focus on and examine forcible rape and robbery cases specifically in Missouri's juvenile court system.

    1. Dylan Ruan

      Dylan Ruan is an Environmental Communication and Media Strategy major from the University of California, Santa Barbara. Most of his work focuses consists of taking notable faculty researchers and publicizing their work through written publication. https://www.linkedin.com/in/dylanruan

      "The Santa Barbara Independent is a true community newspaper with a market penetration higher than almost every other "alternative" weekly in the country" (Reliable Popular Source). http://www.independent.com/history/

      The newspaper has continually grown over the years and penetrates a wide variety of audiences. They report using a unique voice that resonates with independent and involved individuals in the community. It is an innovative newspaper, that knows how to properly report current events.

    1. Now, science is now stepping in to dispel some of the mystery and fiction surrounding the use of rhino horn.

      The author/authors represent PBS which has always been on the conservation side of things. They do have a good track record of looking at more then one angle whether they are objective or not. This line represents that clearly. Science will provide the answers. And in this case science somewhat supports both sides of the arguments.

    2. All five of the world’s diverse species of rhinoceros have been brought to the edge of extinction because of human appetite for their distinctive horns.

      It is impossible to get a credible stakeholder side of this argument from the pro Rhino horn market. I had to choose this article because it was the only one with some facts supporting Asian medicine and its use of Rhino horn.

      The Author is definitely against the use of Rhino horn, but is just objective enough or has read "I Say They Say" to incorporate a bit of scientific fact about the horns use in medicine. The claim is not well stated but when you think about the article as a whole, the claim is : Yes there is a small merit to Eastern medicine's use of the Rhino horn for certain ailments, but the dosage amount to yield actual results is not practical and not practiced.

      On a personal belief: The human brain is an amazing thing, it has power that we cannot harness as of now. What we do have is the placebo effect. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placebo. Our thoughts can be so powerful that we think we are better and sometimes that's all we need to become better. A lot of old medicine revolves around this. You take something so rare and unique and say it has these powers, you have to believe, at least a little, because you don't know. It then makes it's own belief and spreads and maybe if you can get some it will work, even if you know it doesn't, you worked so hard to get it or have given so much to get it, you can't just admit that it doesn't work so you say, "yes, it really works." and this just keeps perpetuating itself until the resource is wiped out.

    3. Overall there isn’t much evidence to support the plethora of claims about the healing properties of the horns. In 1990, researchers at Chinese University in Hong Kong found that large doses of rhino horn extract could slightly lower fever in rats (as could extracts from Saiga antelope and water buffalo horn), but the concentration of horn given by a traditional Chinese medicine specialist are many many times lower than used in those experiments. In short, says Amin, you’d do just as well chewing on your fingernails.

      This is a very good conclusion for this article. It give science backed facts that support the idea of Rhino horn use in medicine, but explains it is not relevant or practical, even if its true.

      The last sentence ends it with the perfect amount of tone and truth. Chewing on you fingernails would be the same dose and affect of being prescribed Rhino horn.

    4. Rhino Horn Use: Fact vs. Fiction

      "Rhino Horn Use: Fact vs. Fiction" PBS. August 20 2010. Web. March 5 2016. <www.pbs.org>

    1. In addition to the relationship between knowledge and opinion on climate change, we expect belief in climate change and engagement in public discourse on the issue to be related

      "What" is also being stated is the economists believing there to be a correlation between opinion and discourse on the subject to be related. There are differing conceptions of how this hypothesis should be portrayed. For example some believe that the more talked about the subject, the more the people engaged will have the same belief. However, on the other hand, there is differing belief that engaging in public discourse is separate in relationship to one's political stance/party. Therefore Shreck and Vedlitz, are hoping to determine a correlation in the relation in public discourse and personal opinion/ belief. This however, is to be looked at when controls on societal, economic, and environments roles are still in action.

    1. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs): Transgenic Crops and Recombinant DNA Technology

      Phillips, T. (2008) Genetically modified organisms (GMOs): Transgenic crops and recombinant DNA technology. Nature Education 1(1):213

    2. Theresa Phillips, Ph.D

      Doctor Philips has a wealth of knowledge in this field. Her sources for this article are also from respected publishers and authors. This all adds to her credibility for this topic and article.

    3. Faster maturation

      At this point does genetic modification become inhumane? Other documentaries point out inhumane living conditions of animals, how would this play a role in that?

    4. Unfortunately, seeds containing genes for recombinant proteins can cause unintentional spread of recombinant genes or exposure of non-target organisms to new toxic compounds in the environment.

      Philips is identifying the risks associated with GMOs, without "bashing" them, it shows that she is seeing the topic from a unbiased perspective.

    5. Then, in 1986, a publication by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), called "Recombinant DNA Safety Considerations," became the first intergovernmental document to address issues surrounding the use of GMOs. This document recommended that risk assessments be performed on a case-by-case basis. Since then, the case-by-case approach to risk assessment for genetically modified products has been widely accepted; however, the U.S. has generally taken a product-based approach to assessment, whereas the European approach is more process based (Devos et al., 2007). Although in the past, thorough regulation was lacking in many countries, governments worldwide are now meeting the demands of the public and implementing stricter testing and labeling requirements for genetically modified crops.

      This sort of address the question I had about widespread adoption of GMOs. Since there are so many different takes on the positives and negatives surrounding GMOs, we would need something to try and educate people about them.

    6. Increased Research and Improved Safety Go Hand in Hand

      Philips is saying that with proper research and diligence that the use of GMOs can be safely commercialized. This doesn't seem too bias, because she doesn't immediately say GMOs are going to be a big success or failure.

    7. History of International Regulations for GMO Research and Development

      Would the history and the perception of GMOs effect its widespread adoption in the future? Or are the use of GMOs just so necessary, the benefits outweigh the consequences?

    8. Risks and Controversies Surrounding the Use of GMOs

      This is a good way to show the downsides of the GMOs, but do the positives outweigh the negatives? The author is both showing the positives and negatives of the use of GMOs.

    9. Vitamin enrichment

      The introduction of "Golden Rice" has the advantage of having a high amount of Vitamin A in it that normal rice, why wouldn't more people want to eat it?

    10. This is a good question to pose, if people already get injected with a low dose of a disease, what is the problem with genetic modification? Also it is a good way to get the reader engaged, because of the great question it poses.

    1. Belyy, Vladislav, and Ahmet Yildiz. "Processive cytoskeletal motors studied with single-molecule fluorescence techniques." FEBS letters 588.19 (2014): 3520-3525.

    2. Crystallographic work later showed that this inhibition occurs via a tail-mediated crosslinking of the two motor domains, preventing the separation of the two heads required for neck linker undocking [12]. Similar autoinhibitory mechanisms appear to be present in kinesin-2 [13], kinesin-3 [14], and myosin V [15], [16] and [17] motors.

      Would the inhibition of the motor domains effect the organism as a hole? What would be the effects of inhibition on a consumer product? Would there be any adverse side effects?

    3. Observing the motors directly in real time allows for measurement of a number of fundamental properties.

      A detailed measurement like this will reveal information useful to learn about how kinesin, dyenin, and myosin move. All of the evidence and explanations for this is included in the article as well as citations to where the information can be found and explained in more detail.

    4. For a more detailed understanding of the motor’s mechanism, it is invaluable to know its stepping pattern – the manner in which the heads move with respect to one another as the motor walks down its track.

      The authors claim that it is extremely important to understand how cytoskeletons move along their paths. By knowing more about how they move, we can find out how speed as well as number of steps affects mechanisms. This article will explain and explore how this works to give us a better understanding of how and why it works the way it does.

    5. Vladislav Belyya, Ahmet Yildiz

      Both of the authors of this article are credible writers. They are both part of physics and biology departments at Berkeley University in California. Their degrees prove that they know what they are taking about.


      This article is posted on an online database called www.sciencedirect.com. This helps prove the credibility of the article because this website only posts scholarly articles and book chapters related to scientific topics.

    7. Processive cytoskeletal motors studied with single-molecule fluorescence techniques

      The audience for this article would be people interested in the topic with previous information about the subject. It is expected that the audience already knows the basics of the mechanisms studied. This is necessary to be able to explain a topic like this in a way detailed enough to prove and explain its points. As this is a strictly scientific article there is no bias, and the authors are just presenting and explaining the facts.

    1. As patterns of wolf density, prey density, weather, and vulnerability of prey change, in comparison with the conditions of the study period described here, we predict that there will also be significant changes in wolf predation patterns and feeding behavior.

      Possible prediction to different wolf behavior and population due to predation patterns changing.

    2. increased variety in diet compared with observed winter diets, including other ungulate species, rodents, and vegetation

      They do not only target one species of prey to feed. They have a distribution between their choice. Ethos and logos.

    3. based on their vulnerability

      Relation to the post after this one.

    4. therefore kill primarily calves, old cows, and bulls that have been weakened by winter

      Shows that wolves do not kill everything. They kill to eat and they kill the weaker for a reason. Gives hint to pathos and ethos to gain less hostility to wolves.

    5. Patterns of prey selection and kill rates in winter have varied seasonally each year from 1995 to 2004 and changed in recent years as the wolf population has become established

      This can be used with the other articles as a logos and ethos perspective and give credibility to the evidence presented by other articles.

    6. predation studies on a highly visible, reintroduced population of wolves are increasing our understanding of this aspect of wolf ecology

      Gives background and insight to what this article is about.

    7. essential component to understanding the role that top carnivores play in shaping the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems

      Further proves claim with the hint of logos.

    8. Foraging and feeding ecology of the gray wolf (Canis lupus): lessons from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA.

      Stahler, DR, DW Smith, and DS Guernsey. "Result Filters." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, July 2006. Web. 07 Mar. 2016.

    9. Foraging and feeding ecology of the gray wolf (Canis lupus): lessons from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA.

      This is the claim for this article. Showing a scientific approach to wolf behavior. This is a scholarly reliable source.

    1. His old pack, made up of his daughters and their new male partners, came roaring back to the Lamar Valley in mid-March. They swooped down on 755M’s den, attacked his consort, and chased the pair away. The two staggered into the forest, 755M’s mate leaving a trail of blood in the snow. She died that night. And what of 755M? He’s rarely seen these days. He wanders in the borderlands between other packs, hunted and haunted – a lone wolf, bereft of all.

      Gives the sad ending to gain sympathy: pathos. I even felt heartbreak.

    2. We all love happy endings and, like many others who follow the Yellowstone wolves, I rooted for 755M and his new mate. It was not to be.

      Morell gives that her joy melted into despair once finding the real outcome. Pathos and ethos to support her claim.

    3. She wanted to know what had become of him, McIntyre said, just as we would if we became separated from our family members.

      Pathos and experience to the human race

    4. For most of the 20th century, scientists were taught to regard animals as mindless beings lacking thoughts or emotions. But that attitude, too, has been swept aside as researchers with a more evolutionary perspective have revealed that species from fish and turtles to rats and lions have mental skills not so dissimilar from our own. Many animals—not just human animals-- love and laugh and grieve (link is external).

      Love this paragraph. I believe in this entirely.

    5. Cougar societies that aren’t actively hunted—and so have the oldest males and females—also cause fewer problems for people.

      Ethos; to show how human intervention cause major problems, to the animals and to our own race

    6. From Rob Wielgus’s research at the Large Carnivore Conservation Laboratory (link is external) at Washington State University in Pullman

      Reliable source

    7. We know now that animals have personalities (link is external) (some are shy, others are bold) that affect their reproductive success.

      Mentionable quote. Further proves my previous post.

    8. Animals were regarded more or less like cogs in a wheel; one dies, another one takes its place. Long-term studies of elephants, chimpanzees, dolphins, and other species tell a different story, though.

      I hate to even think about this, but it is true. It hasn't been that long where animals were seen as just that, animals. Now we know they are very similar to us humans. We both have emotions, personalities, and feelings.

    9. But the numbers overlook the social consequences of these deaths.

      Goes back to the other argument. The pathos side.

    10. And that is true. The death of one or two, or even a dozen Yellowstone park wolves (the number of park wolves believed to have been shot or trapped outside its boundaries in the 2012-2013 hunting season (link is external)) does not mean that the population is doomed. Wolf biologists emphasize how resilient the animals are. Packs may vanish, but others will take their place; there are pups this spring.

      Morell continues on (from the last post) to show a logical side and gives sources (the wolf biologists) to gain reliability.

    11. After the death of 832F, officials emphasized that the parks’ wolf population was still viable; there were plenty of wolves for people to see with more than 80 remaining.

      Harsh swiping of the fact the wolf was killed

    12. “I can’t prove it, but I think that’s why 832 led her pack back there,” Rick McIntyre, a biological technician for the Yellowstone Wolf Project, told me. McIntyre has followed the canids daily since they were reintroduced to the park in 1995, (link is external) and knows the individual wolves better than anyone.  “Even though 754 wasn’t the alpha male, he was her favorite. I think she went looking for him.”

      Is not reliable source of statement but his occupation gives him credibility. The fact that he knows these wolves since 1995 also gives him credit.

    13. But two weeks before her death, the pack’s beta male, 754M, had also been shot and killed in the same area.

      Shows that not only does a powerful Alpha female was killed but another of the pack's mates. Ethos and pathos

    14. People were drawn to 832F because she was an unusual female wolf—saucy, independent, powerful and wily enough to bring down a bull elk alone, and unwilling to be anything other than the leader of her pack. She’d scorned all her suitors until she met a pair of malleable males, the black-and-silver furred brothers, 755M and 754M. They were younger than she was, and were mediocre hunters at best, but the trio formed a pack, which the brothers wisely let her lead. By 2012, they had grown to 13 strong, and were the indisputable rulers of the Lamar River Valley with its herds of elk and buffalo. All that changed, though, in early December 2012, when 832F was killed 15 miles from the park’s eastern boundary.

      Ethos and pathos! Morell is giving a background to the female wolf whom died. She shows that wolves can be different, just like people, and that something this "minor" can be very major.

    15. enormous repercussions, which continue to this day.

      This quote is likeable to me because of how Morell is beginning to tell her audience that animal welfare is almost highly important.

    16. From a purely demographic standpoint, biologists say no. If there are sufficient numbers of wolves to breed, then the species is fine

      Gives one side of the argument, credibility increased

    17. Does the death of one wolf matter?

      Falls back on claim

    18. He is, after all, still alive, although some might say he’s but a ghost of his former self, because she is gone, felled by a Wyoming hunter’s bullet.

      Pathos! Morell is giving a background to the lone wolf and explaining that he wasn't always like this. From the death of his mate, which was the cause of a hunter, did he change drastically.

    19. Only a few weeks before

      Shows something has gone awry

    20. lay so still he looked more like a stone or downed log. Most unlike a wolf, he was alone.

      Ethos and pathos; sympathy for the wolf and evidence to support her claim.

    21. I learned this firsthand during a visit to Yellowstone National Park last winter

      Using pathos and her own experience to get empathy. Her credibility with her experience increases, showing the reader(s) that she isn't just writing about it, she sees for herself what's going on.

    22. The decision is based solely on numbers, and so it misses what is increasingly evident to wildlife biologists and conservationists: the importance of individual animals.

      This statement is biased but true. Morell is using pathos with ethos; she is trying to get sympathy and concern from her audience.

    23. according to the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service

      This shows some antagonism against FWS.

    24. When A Wolf Dies Do individual animals matter? Posted Jun 07, 2013

      This is Morell's claim. She is asking how a single wolf could affect an entire pack or other wolves. Her question gives input of thought to readers that may or may not have occurred to them about animal welfare and their mental state.

    25. Virginia Morell

      I did not realize that Virginia Morell was the author of both my third and my fourth article. On the other article, she was very unbiased and not as much of a reliable source. Here, she seems to be more reliable considering how the website gives recognition to her books and other articles. In a psychological viewpoint, Morell is a reliable source.

    26. When A Wolf Dies

      Morell, Virginia. "When A Wolf Dies." Psychology Today. Psychology Today. 7 June 2013. Web. 06 Mar. 2016.

    1. But the losses and damage extend beyond killed animals. Wolves affect ranchers’ profit even if they never kill a calf. The bigger losses of disrupted grazing, lower pregnancy rates and weight loss are harder to measure than dead calves. Wolves also destroy peace of mind.

      So the opposition (the wolf lovers) may not understand that livestock are very fickle and complicated creatures. You can't just buy some cows and start a heard, its hard work and work that needs constant re-evaluation. A cow might survive a wolf encounter but the stress associated with that could make her barren for a time. Stress also makes bovine lose weight which is bad when you get paid by the pound.

      I think people go to the store or to MacDonalds and there's your beef. They don'y think about where and how that meat gets there. I mean come on there are people that honestly believe the meat is somehow magically made at the store.

    2. When you lose an animal to causes other than wolf predation, you usually find the carcass; wolves may not leave anything at all. “It’s like the animal evaporated. We get paid for confirmed kills, but not the ones that disappear or we find too late to determine cause of death,” Whittaker explains. Bruce Mulkey of Baker, ID, says wolf proponents on a panel discussion at Idaho State University last year claimed wolves were responsible for only 1% of livestock losses, and ranchers lose more calves to disease and other problems.

      The reason the statistics are so low is explained here. But even if you take the 1% number, their are almost 5 million cattle in Idaho and Montana, that is still 50,000 head of cattle killed (http://beef2live.com/story-cattle-inventory-vs-human-population-state-0-114255). And that is just cattle, not all other livestock and pets.

      This also shows what the opposition base everything off of, just numbers and hearsay. The author is obviously from a ranch back ground with the niche words she uses but she does report both sides. That is good to get rid of the stubborn farmer stereotype.

    3. but the wolves apparently didn’t read the fine print.

      The audience is definitely not the sierra club and its members but I believe it's anyone who has grown up in the rural West where you do still have predators. People who have grown up and raised any kind of feed animal or even pets, like dogs. In the city your pet goes missing... its either adopted by someone else, at the pound or hit by a vehicle. In the country when they go missing it's either a predator or a highway. So anyone who grew up in the rural West should be interested in this. We are the ones that have to deal with this disaster while the courts and organizations in the East, so far removed, keep these oppressions on the hard working ranches and farmers that feed them. I am certainly the audience here but I have much more of an elevated tone then the article.

    4. In central/eastern Idaho, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) released Canadian gray wolves in 1995. Theoretically, the wolves were supposed to stay in the backcountry and eat elk, but the wolves apparently didn’t read the fine print.

      Claim: Human involvement placed wolves in a small area but wolves are wolves and go where the want when they want and have the know how and stamina to do so. We humans like to think we can tweek nature to our foreseen outcome, but we are idiots. Nature solves itself one way or another. This wolf debacle is a fantastic example of how human involvement just creates more chaos. First off they forgot that there are multiple species of wolves and placed the big bad Canadian version in our back yard, the ones that are built to cover hundreds of miles a day and are bigger and hungrier then the small local population (which has now been killed of driven out by these new wolves). Whoops, now they are everywhere and livestock are being killed on a scale 5% more then usual and those beloved Elk and Deer that everyone loves to watch from their cars on the side of the highway, they are disappearing too.<br> This claim of the author may come of as sarcastic but it carries meaning if you understand that people in a totally different area and culture decide what to do with the land others have pioneered and fought out a living on.

    5. Western Ranchers Fight The Curse Of Introduced Wolves

      This web source is all about farm and ranch. Everything from markets to laws to alerts. Wolves are an important thing to this website and it's users. Its easy to say they could be bias towards anything ranch and against wolves, but this article was very factual and pretty objective considering the forum.

    6. Ranchers have been told that wolves are shy and stay away from people.

      More excellent research most likely carried out from behind a desk somewhere or at least skewed to cover what wolves really are, very curious and quick learning animals. Just because you don't see that wolf anymore doesn't mean its gone.

    7. Western Ranchers Fight The Curse Of Introduced Wolves

      Heather Smith Thomas. "Western Ranchers Fight The Curse Of Introduced Wolves". September 10, 2010. Web. March 6 2016. <beefmagazine.com>

    1. “Where management has been transferred to the states, America’s wolves have fallen under an assault of legislation, bullets, and traps,” wrote the founders of Living with Wolves in a June 2013 op-ed in the New York Times. “Have we brought wolves back for the sole purpose of hunting them down?”

      Using pathos to grab sympathy and support from reader(s) that are pro-wolves.

    2. “It’s time for Wyoming to step back and develop a more science-based approach to managing wolves.” 

      Using logos and ethos to bring about a solution.

    3. “Any state that has a wolf-management plan that allows for unlimited wolf killing throughout most of the state should not be allowed to manage wolves,”

      This is a massacre, no matter how anyone puts it. Almost genocide

    4. conservation groups have criticized the delisting of wolves in the state, fearing it would leave their fate to the whims of Wyoming’s ranchers and livestock farmers.

      Appropriate concerns, especially considering Wyoming's methods for dealing with wolves.

    5. Reid Singer

      Singer is not a scholarly source but a popular reliable source. This is not a scientific article.

    6. “The court found that the agency acted arbitrarily and capriciously by relying upon improper factors,” Judge Jackson wrote in her ruling.

      Fancy way in saying Wyoming civilians and hunters were treating wolves inappropriately and inhumanely.

    7. Since the Obama administration delisted the gray wolf in 2012, the Fish and Wildlife Service treated it as a trophy/game animal in parts of Wyoming with allotted hunting seasons. Alternately, in four-fifths of the state, the wolf was treated as a predator that could be shot at any time.

      Singer is showing what side he is on. He clearly does not agree to the treatment the Gray Wolf has endured in Wyoming. He is using ethos and pathos equally to gain sympathy by the harsh level of treatment.

    8. Judge Amy Berman Jackson ruled on Tuesday that the management plan in Wyoming was inadequate and largely unenforceable.

      Introduction shows Singer's argument for how Wyoming wolf plans are not appropriate.

    9. Wyoming Wolves Back on Endangered Species List

      Singer, Reid. "Wyoming Wolves Back on Endangered Species List." Outside Online. Outside Magazine, 24 Sept. 2014. Web. 06 Mar. 2016.

    1. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) removed federal protections for the wolves (Canis lupus) in 2012. The agency concluded that the canids had fully recovered from near-extinction

      I do believe, to a certain extent, that wolves do not need as much protection as they once had. Wolf conservation programs and organizations have done so much over the past decades to ensure their survival. However, that does not mean I am trustful of states to be able to properly and legally regulate appropriate wolf hunting.

    2. FWS spokesman Gavin Shire disagreed, saying that the “science clearly shows that wolves are recovered in the Great Lakes Region, and we believe the Great Lakes states have clearly demonstrated their ability to effectively manage their wolf populations.”

      Morell gives the reader(s) many facts and quotes from reliable sources to let them think of their own opinions themselves. Without giving any bias, Morell's credibility skyrockets, in my book, because she doesn't give any "hints" or suggestions to the reader(s) to either side.

    3. Howell agreed, finding that FWS had incorrectly interpreted the ESA by not assessing the species as a whole. The agency’s delisting decision was “fatally flawed,” she wrote, because it was tied to “a scientific finding that turned out to be, at best, premature, or, at worst, erroneous.”

      A quote directly states how the removal of wolves could be detrimental to the survival of the species as a whole.

    4. At the time of the wolves’ delisting, federal wildlife biologists estimated the animals’ population in the region at 4400. That number dropped to 3748 this year as a result of hunting and trapping, and state plans called for an even greater decline. For instance, Wisconsin’s Department of Natural Resources was aiming for a statewide wolf population of just 350 animals (from a high of 800).

      Morell is giving logos and ethos. I am still not sure of her claim. Her article doesn't seem to have one. She gives no clues on whether or not she supports wolves or not. She is just stating facts.

    5. By Virginia Morell

      Morrell is very nonbiased in this article. Throughout the paper, she gives no hints on whether she is biased or not. From her previous articles however, you see a trend of all her works being about animals.

    6. Judge returns Great Lakes wolves to endangered species list

      Author gives first hint to the argument, though the claim is not too clear. Though the title is very open and non-bias.

    7. Gray wolves in the western Great Lakes region are once again protected by the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), following a federal court ruling. The decision ends wolf hunting and trapping in Minnesota and Wisconsin. In Michigan, which does not allow wolf hunting, voters recently rejected an effort to establish a wolf season.

      This shows Morell's argument of the back-and-forth war of wolf conservation.

    8. © 2016 American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights Reserved. AAAS is a partner of HINARI, AGORA, OARE, PatientInform, CHORUS, CLOCKSS, CrossRef and COUNTER.

      Recent updates and publications. The credibility and reliability of the site is a scholarly source.

    9. Judge returns Great Lakes wolves to endangered species list

      Morell, Virginia. "Judge Returns Great Lakes Wolves to Endangered Species List." Science, AAAS. American Association for the Advancement of Science, 22 Dec. 2014. Web. 06 Mar. 2016.

    1. “For more than 15 years, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, state wildlife agencies, tribes, conservation organizations, ranchers and other landowners have worked hard to recover gray wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Our collective efforts have brought this population to the point where it no longer requires Endangered Species Act protection,” stated Tom Strickland, Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife and Parks for the Department of the Interior.  “The Service’s decision to delist the wolf in Idaho and Montana reflected the strong commitments from the states of Idaho and Montana to manage gray wolves in a sustainable manner. Today’s ruling makes it clear this wolf population cannot be delisted until the State of Wyoming has instituted an adequate management program, similar to those of Idaho and Montana.”

      I also agree with this quote, which shows a possible compromise: Wyoming's plans be changed to be similar to Idaho and Montana while a regulation of wolf hunting is required.

    2. Montana and Idaho’s plans were approved in 2003, but Wyoming’s plan that would have categorized wolves as predators in much of the state allowing a “shoot on sight” policy was rejected.  Some compromises were made and, in spring 2008, the FWS announcement to delist the species was met by an immediate lawsuit by environmental organizations. 

      Wyoming's wolves are constantly in danger with the aforementioned "shoot on sight" policy, whether the animal is just wandering or actually taking livestock. With this policy, any hunter or farmer, or civilian, would all go on an endless wolf hunting spree, rapidly decreasing the wolf population and setting the wolf conservation back to its original position (endangered species to possibly extinction).

    3. Environmental groups once again filed suite but their request for injunction to halt the hunts in Montana and Idaho was denied on the grounds that the hunts would not do irreparable harm to the population as a whole.

      This is typically true. Overpopulation of wolves need to be taken care of; there will be no prey species left and environmental problems could occur. Issues such as, forest (plus other nature-based species), prey and predator species' would deteriorate.

    4. in Wyoming. That state was excluded from the delisting because its wolf management plan, that would allow unrestricted killing of wolves outside the northwest part of the state, was not approved by the FWS. 

      I agree with this decision by the FWS because Wyoming does not have a good, ethical, and (population-wise) humane way in dealing with their wolves. Unrestricted killing would place the grey wolves back on the ESL and the whole cycle would start again.

    5. In addition, Montana wolf program coordinator Carolyn Sime suggested that one option under consideration would be application for a federal permit to conduct a research hunt. 

      The author is giving another inside perspective of a state's possible solution to sate every side.

    6. States are now scrambling to come up with alternatives to manage wolf populations.

      Now the author is giving solutions to the reader(s) to show that something is being done and using pathos.

    7. Judge Molloy’s recent decision was met with frustration by the state and federal wildlife management agencies. “For more than 15 years, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, state wildlife agencies, tribes, conservation organizations, ranchers and other landowners have worked hard to recover gray wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Our collective efforts have brought this population to the point where it no longer requires Endangered Species Act protection,” stated Tom Strickland, Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife and Parks for the Department of the Interior.  “The Service’s decision to delist the wolf in Idaho and Montana reflected the strong commitments from the states of Idaho and Montana to manage gray wolves in a sustainable manner. Today’s ruling makes it clear this wolf population cannot be delisted until the State of Wyoming has instituted an adequate management program, similar to those of Idaho and Montana.”

      The author is using a quote to use ethos from an inside perspective of the FWS. The author is showing the side where grey wolves do not need to be on the ESL any longer from the FWS and communities' efforts to reestablish wolf populations in the area.

    8. Montana and Idaho’s hunts proceeded last fall with 72 killed in Montana and 188 killed in Idaho.  At the end of last year, the wolf population in the Northern Rocky Mountain Recovery Area, which comprises parts of Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming, was estimated to be at least 1,706, with 242 packs, and 115 breeding pairs.

      The author gives statistical facts so the reader can piece their own opinions.

    9. Judge Molloy foreshadowed that he felt that the FWS had broken the law by delisting wolves in Montana and Idaho but keeping them listed in Wyoming.

      Hints back to the claim

    10. Environmental groups once again filed suite but their request for injunction to halt the hunts in Montana and Idaho was denied on the grounds that the hunts would not do irreparable harm to the population as a whole.

      The author shows the other side of the argument without giving their own insight yet.

    11. The tug-of-war over wolf management in the Northern Rockies began when the FWS recovery goal for the species was reached in 2002 and proposed delisting was contingent upon acceptable state management plans.  Montana and Idaho’s plans were approved in 2003, but Wyoming’s plan that would have categorized wolves as predators in much of the state allowing a “shoot on sight” policy was rejected.  Some compromises were made and, in spring 2008, the FWS announcement to delist the species was met by an immediate lawsuit by environmental organizations.  In summer 2008, Judge Molloy granted a preliminary injunction to the organizations halting hunting seasons that were being planned by the state fish and wildlife agencies.  Then, in September of that year, the FWS placed the Northern Rockies population back on the endangered species list to re-evaluate the science and allow the states to amend their management plans. In spring 2009, the FWS—under a new Administration—officially classified the wolf population in the Northern Rocky Mountains as a distinct population segment and authorized the delisting of the animals throughout the region except for in Wyoming. That state was excluded from the delisting because its wolf management plan, that would allow unrestricted killing of wolves outside the northwest part of the state, was not approved by the FWS. 

      The author is giving background information and increases credibility with it presented. The information is given without the author being biased yet.

    12. The record in this case implies that the Service tried to find a pragmatic solution to the legal problem raised by the inadequacy of Wyoming's regulatory mechanisms, and Wyoming's choices about meaningful participation in a collective delisting agreement like that engaged in by Montana and Idaho. Even if the Service's solution is pragmatic, or even practical, it is at its heart a political solution that does not comply with the ESA.

      The author is showing one side of the argument, that FWS is not allowed to make decisions of that caliber.

    13. The judge ruled that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s (FWS) decision to turn management over to the states of Idaho and Montana but to keep Endangered Species Act (ESA) protection in Wyoming was a political rather than a biological decision.

      This is the article's argument and claim: to discuss FWS's decision on what states were allowed to have grey wolves on and off the ESL.

    14. U.S. District Judge Donald Molloy

      Important source and increases credibility and reliability because of Molloy's power as a judge for the United States.

    15. Grey Wolves Back on the Endangered Species List

      "Wildlife Management Institute." Wildlife Management Institute. Wildlife Management Institute. Web. 06 Mar. 2016. http://www.wildlifemanagementinstitute.org/index.php?option=com_content.

    16. The Outdoor News Bulletin was first issued by the Wildlife Management Institute in 1946. It was produced bi-monthly until 1991 and has been released monthly since then. Until 2006, the ONB was distributed by paid subscription and as hard copy. It now is sent out via email, RSS syndication and posted here at no cost to readers.The ONB reports on select, significant issues, circumstances and other information that bear on the professional management of wildlife and related natural resources. For most of its history, it was targeted to outdoor media — to identify and clarify key subjects for their interest and potential further scrutiny and outreach to the public. The outdoor media still represent an important audience, but the ONB also reaches administrators, educators, researchers, communicators and others within the conservation community. The coverage typically amounts to news items or encapsulated reports, but there are occasional, detailed articles. Nearly all copy is generated by WMI staff and contractors. The ONB is edited by Jodi Stemler.WMI does not require request for permission for others to reproduce or reprint ONB content.WMI welcomes new readers and values comments from all readers on its overall coverage and individual topics.

      This gives this article and website credibility for the information and articles they write to the public. It is a popular scholarly source.

    17. Grey Wolves Back on the Endangered Species List

      This author (the name nor publication date is not posted) is giving a title that is neither supporting wolves on the ESL nor are they against it. They show no bias. However, considering the website (I could not highlight the website title "Wildlife Management Institute", otherwise this part of the post would have been separate), this author must be a pro-wolf supporter.

    1. through state regulations and/or international conventions

      Then because we can't be responsible as a whole society, we think laws and regulations will help. So we take away human rights and choices from those that may be working hard to make everything work. The point is it doesn't matter it takes away all choice and therefore, responsibility. Then it creates resentment, not towards those who make these flawed laws and regulations, but towards the animal or habitat its supposed to protect. It all boils down to educating people and fixing our humanities lack or responsibility.

    2. The brochure gives examples of farmers in India poisoning elephant watering holes because they claim elephants damage their crops, and livestock owners in Russia and Africa killing tigers and lions on their land.

      This should stir something up in everyone. This is the problem... there are so many of us that we are encroaching massively on animal territory. Poisoning a water hole to keep elephants form damaging crops? There are enough humans to build a fence or chase them off if they come in, poisoning is absolutely ridiculous, lazy and unnecessary. We have enough people to have our own living and work around other animals. If a tiger is eating your sheep you can raise dogs or stay with them to protect them yourself. People just want the easy way like we used to strive for but now that we have it we can work a little harder of spend a bit more time so everything can make it together. When people are lazy and take the easy was the animals are the ones that suffer.

    3. This loss of habitat causes the extinction of species

      This is the main fact driving Anika's thought. She is not worried about the individual killings but about species wide. The problem is most species can't adapt and evolve as fast as we as humans can destroy it. Humans are destroying habitat for their own or for possessions.

    4. affect of overpopulation on animals

      The audience for this article is not one purely of human rights or animal rights but more of a hybrid of the two. It is for people that can see everything is connected and you can't just fix one thing and be fine you have to help the whole system to achieve success.

      For me the title struck me because it hit on what I was looking for. I think is is still well done though, it askes a question that ques people up to talk and is not just a yes or no answer.

    5. here is a very real and dangerous affect for animals.

      The claim of the author is that our expansion into the animal kingdom because of our needs is very dangerous for and affecting all animals adversely. I happen to believe this, we used to had plenty of space and that space was shared with animals but now there are so many of us that our sprawl is crowding animals and each other.<br> The world tends to like a balance, so when we get to overpopulated something will happen, plague, war, famine. It might already be too late for some species at that point or it may be the cause.

    6. Anika Mohammed

      Anika Mohammed is a Doctors Without Borders member and a keen supported of animal rights. She gets to see first hand a lot of the issues caused by human overpopulation, unclean water, living quality, starvation, etc. As much as she cares for humanity she knows there are other living things in this world too. Some that may need help as much or more then humans.

    7. Overpopulation of humans, what does this mean?

      This website is for the animal enthusiast to put it lightly. They veiw everyone as equals, humans and animals. So this article is going to be a bit bias by making everything equal. With the slogan "Transending Speciesism Since October 2008" you kind of get the hint, but at least they don't try and hide it.

    8. Human Overpopulation as an Animal Rights Issue

      Anika Mohammed. "Human Overpopulation as an Animal Rights Issue". November 26 2013. Web. March 5 2016. <animalblawg.wordpress.com>

    1. Most Poachers Are Starving

      This one seals the deal on extremely complicated. It also nails my question square on the head... When is an animals life more important then a humans. These aren't poachers that leave all the meat and take the tusks of a mother with child. No these are humans excercising their primal instincts to survive and provide for their families. Nature does, the Elephants and Rhinos are, the strong have survived and passed on their knowledge. Humans don't need this quality anymore, we are very safe and have an easy life. The only problem with us is us. Now these people have to poach an animal doing its job in this world because they have either been wronged by other humans or were not responsible enough to understand that you have to take care of yourself and the world before you can take care of a family. Our human traits of greed and irresponsibility have led to the near extinction of these animals. Luckly good people remain to try and help but we are being bread out and soon man will start to devolve if we haven't already.

    2. Asgar Pathan

      the author may not really know much about this topic but Asgar Pathan does, he lives it everyday. He is a subject expert. You could crunch numbers and look at political issues and black markets and everything else surrounding this topic and make it some boring article passed by by many or let someone who is so in-tune with the topic his life literally depends on it.

      This style borderlines on 100% credibility. The only option being if Ranger Pathan was a huge lier, but even though everything in his story is crazy it is told with a calm legitimacy that I personally believe.

    3. 352,042 view

      This website CRACKED is definitely a popular site resource. It is full of a lot of gossip and forums. Its geared toward people with opinions and people that like to express those opinions.

    4. we learned that even the most heavy-handed pro-wildlife documentaries barely scratch the surface of how crazy things have gotten ...

      I am sure the author had a certain view going into his interview with Ranger Pathan, you can tell by his words and his claim that everything is completely insane, more then you can imagine. That is basically all he is doing, shedding light on something that is so complicated and convoluted. Even more then the author could handle i believe. Most of the article is just quotes of Ranger Pathan. This means either the author is terrible at writing and has no thoughts or is so blown away with such a story the only thing that can do it justice is to let the story teller tell it, this is the latter.

    5. 5 Ways Saving Wildlife Has Turned Into All-Out Warfare

      Evan V. Symon & Asgar Pathan. "5 Ways Saving Wildlife Has Turned Into All-Out Warfare" June 23 2014. Web. March 5 2016 <www.cracked.com>

    1. The WWF is run at a local level by the following offices... WWF Global

      WWF or World Wildlife Fund, not to be confused with the one with oiled up wrestlers and bad acting, has been around for 20+ years. They are an international organization the fights for the protection of animal species and habitat. They are deeply invested in the rainforest but now have branches in all parts or the world.

    2. African rhinos

      "African Rhinos" WWF. web. March 5 2016. <wwf.panda.org>

    3. Wildlife Crime Initiative

      This link leads to a page with a bit stronger tone on the topic of poaching.

    4. 9,000% since 2007 - from 13 to a record 1,215 in 2014.

      I cannot verify these facts. They are listed to promote sympathy and action from the audience. I'll i know is the math is correct.

    5. Asian

      Here the other specific stake holder is addressed. The Asian culture is the main consumer of Rhino horns. The claims of the horn's powers are the main driver. Claims range from sexual prowess to curing cancer to status symbols. All in all bad if you are a Rhino.

      If a Rhino horn really did cure cancer would it be fair to harvest then? If you or someone you loved had cancer, wouldn't you try anything to fix it?

    6. Why rhinos matter

      This appeals to all, Animal activists, global activists, econimists and humanitarians. Everything has a part to play in life. If the world loses one part it affects the rest of the world, sometimes in ways we never even though possible. Its almost always negative.

    7. European

      European settlers have made a habit out of this. The author includes this not only as a historical reference but knows it should ring a bell with all Americans that have ever heard the story of the American West. We almost drove the American Bison to extinction for their hides. They numbered over 150 million in number and before regulations were put in place declined to only thousands.<br> History will repeat it's self if given the chance.

    8. Indeed, the white rhino has been brought back from the brink of extinction. However, both species are again at risk due to a huge surge in poaching to meet demand for illegal rhino horn, primarily in Asia. Countries and conservationists are stepping up their efforts but record numbers of rhinos are currently being killed.

      The claim is simple, we (the organization) are winning but the fight is not over yet and the audience's help is required. The audience appeal is to people concerned with the world's balance and animal lovers... hopefully ones with deep pockets.

    1. The finding of an association between ZIKV infection and hydrops fetalis suggests that thevirus may cause damage to tissues in addition to the fetal central nervous system.

      The authors claim that Zika virus leads to not only microcephaly, but also Hydrops fetalis which occurs when abnormal amounts of fluid build up in two or more body areas of a fetus or newborn.



    1. The final sample size included 2,364respondents, who were selected and interviewed using a multistage probabilistic survey design.

      The total population in Brazil was recorded at 204.5 million people in 2015. In my opinion, the whole number of people for the survey is too small to generalize as the most of nations’ views. The survey reflect only one out of hundred-thousandth of the entire population of Brazil.

    2. Our study of religion and abortion attitudes in Brazil utilizes data from the Brazilian SocialResearch Survey (BSRS).2The BSRS is a nationally representative survey of the Brazilian adultpopulation age 18 years and older that was administered in 2002 with the objective to explorepublic attitudes and values on a range of social issues.

      The research depends on the authority of the Brazilian Social Research Survey (BSRS) to gain credibility from the audience.

    3. Given these considerations, the purpose of our study is toexamine the association between religion and abortion issues in Brazil with regard to the practiceof abortion and abortion policy.

      The authors state why they write this scholar journal. It has a scholarly significance to perform the first research which explores the association between religion and abortion attitudes among the Brazilian population.

    4. The Catholic Church’s pro-family discourse and oppositionto abortion is well documented, yet there has not been a systematic investigation of sentimentsabout the practice and policy preferences concerning its legalization among the Catholic laity.

      Although Catholic Church’s official dictum is strongly against abortion, the authors suggest that the Catholic laity’s opinion may different from it. It can lead the further research.

    5. Research has yet to examine the role of religious factors on abortion attitudes in Brazil.

      The authors present a hypothesis that role of religious factors is related to the abortion attitude in Brazil. There are no published research that reveals the link between religion and public policy in Brazil up to now. Therefore, the authors give the United States’ research result to gain credibility from the audience. However, Brazil has different socioeconomic situation such as the per capita national income, gross domestic product (GDP), or a political posture from the U.S. In my opinion, the authors committee the logical fallacy. It is nonsense to apply the study in Brazil which has different circumstances from the U.S.

    6. The official doctrinal position that abortion is a grave sin is widely disseminated,and under the direct influence of the Vatican and guided by the belief that the “right to life beginsat conception,” the Catholic Church in Brazil has consistently demonstrated opposition to thelegalization of abortion and has propagated this view in a clear manner among its followers.

      Catholic leaders still cling to their position strictly that no abortion or contraception for Zika virus.

    7. Consequently, the push to legalizeabortion, at the same time garnering opposition from religious groups, has also become a salientissue for international women’s rights movements and health organizations (Correa 2010).

      This sentence regards Brazil as one of the country which has a great influence of religion. Every policy should consider religious groups’ opinions.

    8. A recent groundbreaking study, however, us-ing a ballot box technique to ensure complete anonymity for respondents, found that more thanone-fifth of Brazilian women living in urban areas had received at least one abortion by the endof reproductive age (Diniz and Medeiros 2010).

      These statistics is shocking that 25% of Brazilian women had received at least one abortion. The unproven process of illegal abortion can potentially make a negative effect on female health outcome. The situation will be exacerbated due to Zika virus. The Brazil government should prepare several measures before it is too late.

    9. collecting accurate estimates of its actual incidence has been a challenging exercisefor researchers

      It shows that Brazil has hostile condition to get an accurate rate about receiving illegal abortion because the women who report abortions receive the fear of social and legal sanctions.

    10. Since 1940, abortion has been illegal in Brazil, except in cases of rape or when the woman’slife is at risk. Despite legislative efforts to liberalize the law, especially from feminist organiza-tions, the current law has not changed significantly since becoming a statute (Correa 2010; Rocha2006).

      Historically, the abortion have been prohibited for 76 years in Brazil. The citizens have already recognized that abortion is illegal and they accept the reality and adapt themselves. That is why it is hard to change the abortion law although unsafe illegal abortions in Brazil are widespread and pose a significant health risk for women. However, Zika virus outbreak has prompted quite a commotion in public, so it may affect to revise the abortion law completely.

    11. During theinterim period between the first and second round of elections, the public opposition expressedby the Catholic Church and evangelical groups over Rousseff’s position on abortion promptedher to change her position and draft a letter promising not to change the abortion law if she wereelected president.

      Dilma Rousseff is the first female elected president in Brazil. Although she was heavily popular with the public, she faced tough competition due to her position on favoring the legalization of abortion. This episode illustrates that the abortion is not only women’s rights problems but also a divisive cultural issue with moral and religious dimensions.

    12. The most recent presidential election in Brazil, in November 2010, was marked by a con-tentious public debate over the practice of abortion and the future of abortion policy in thecountry (see Correa 2010).

      The audience can foresee the situation that a discussion on abortion and its policy in Brazil will be heated by a dramatic rise of Zika virus.

    13. This study examines the association between religion and attitudes toward the practice of abortion and abortionpolicy in Brazil.

      The authors formulate a hypothesis that Pentecostals and Catholics tends to the strongest opposition against the practice of abortion and its legalization.



    1. Among students, religion not being importantand having no religion were associated with beingin favour of permitting abortion in any circum-stance and being against putting a woman whohad had an abortion in jail (p<0.001).

      The medical students who do not have any religion tend to support the abortion for any occasion. The audience can recognize that the religious conviction is related to a controversial issue such as abortion.

    2. The proportion of medical students whoagreed that abortion should be allowed wasalways larger than the corresponding proportionof civil servants.

      The medical students is younger generation than the civil servants. The research reveals that the rising generation has more flexible and acceptable opinion about the abortion than middle-aged people.

    3. We carried out two cross-sectional, descriptivesurveys, one with civil servants from a São PauloState public institution and the other with medi-cal students from three medical schools, also inSão Paulo State. Two different questionnaireswere used for the civil servants and the medicalstudents (Box 1), consisting of questions with pre-coded response categories for self-completion.

      The authors amplify who the subject of the survey is and what kind of methods they used, so it can gain the credibility from the audience. However, it is difficult to generalize as all nations’ opinions because the authors choose only two groups to conduct their survey.

    4. Considering that the answersobtained in surveys depends in great part on howthe questions are formulated, the aim of thisstudy was to compare the answers to generalquestions about the circumstances under whichthe respondents thought abortion should beallowed, with the answers of the same respon-dents to the question of whether a woman whohas had an illegal abortion should be sent toprison as the law mandates.

      This is the purpose of the article. The authors maintain a neutral stance about an abortion issue in the whole article.

    5. Cur-rently, the Penal Code is under review in the Par-liament, causing a heated debate betweenrepresentatives of the Catholic and Protestantchurches and those who defend women’s sexualand reproductive rights.

      The Penal Code about abortion is still under review and it has become a hot issue while Zika virus is spreading quickly in Brazil. Although many people advocate women’s sexual and reproductive right, religion has much influence in changing the law in Brzail. Therefore, it will be difficult to amend the current abortion law.

    6. In Brazil, the Penal Code dates from 1940 andestablishes that abortion is a crime but notpunishable in three cases: if the woman’s lifeis at risk, if pregnancy results from rape, andmore recently (since a court judgement in 2012)in cases of fetal anencephaly.7All other abor-tions are punishable with 1–10 years in prisonboth for the woman and for the person whocarried out the abortion.

      In my opinion, Brazil government should provide the proper education of contraceptives to public before they strictly ban abortion in law. Effective birth control methods can reduce the illegal abortion rate from unwanted pregnancies.

    7. One belief is that if abortion is criminalized,women will have fewer abortions than in an envi-ronment of liberal laws and easy access to safeabortions.5Experience shows this is not realistic,however; in fact, in countries where abortion islegally restricted women have more abortionsthan those living under more liberal laws.

      This is interesting because it breaks a common notion that the country which restricts abortion would have fewer abortions than people who are living in liberal laws. The author claims that abortion rates is related to women’s access to and use of effective contraceptive methods. The audience realizes the importance of education which is the correct use of contraceptives.

    8. The treatment ofabortion in these Penal Codes has remained almostunchanged (with a few exceptions), mostly underthe pressure of religions that traditionally opposeabortion, particularly the Catholic Church andother Christian faiths in Latin America.

      A religious belief in one society have a significant impact on the law.

    9. Unsafe abortions will continue to be a burdenfor the health and well-being of women in coun-tries where very restrictive abortion laws make ita crime.

      Looking through the sentence shows that a country with very restrictive abortion laws considers abortion as crime. Most of those countries are strict Catholic nations. The Vatican’s teaching on abortion is clear: It is a sin.

    10. According to the most recent global estimates,while the total number of induced abortionsdeclined between 2003 and 2008, the numberof unsafe abortions increased proportionately.

      The authors raise a problem about the unsafe abortions. Although the total number of abortions declined around the globe, the unsafe abortions subsequently increased. They claims that it virtually escalates the overall abortions rates. The poor women with unwanted pregnancy go unlicensed practitioners and it causes a greater health hazards such as anemia, cervical trauma, and even death.

    11. Brazilian parliamentarians who are currently reviewinga reform in the Penal Code need to have this information urgently.

      In fact, the abortion law in Brazil has not been changed.

    12. This paper presents the findingsfrom two studies. One was carried out in February–December 2010 among 1,660 public servants and the otherin February–July 2011 with 874 medical students from three medical schools, both in São Paulo State, Brazil.Both groups of respondents were asked two sets of questions to obtain their opinion about abortion:

      This article is based on surveys and opinion polls. The majority of respondents are against the current Brazilian law that women who had had an abortion should be punished with prison. In my opinion, the present legislation about abortion in Brazil is very strict and it needs to be revised under the extreme conditions of Zika virus and microcephaly.

    13. Unsafe abortions remain a major public health problem in countries with very restrictiveabortion laws.

      Although Latin America has very restrictive abortion law, unsafe abortion was common. Now, Zika virus has emerged as a serious social problem, so the audience can anticipate the current situation of Latin America that dangerous abortions would increase more than before.



    1. What do we do if a few months from now, when mosquito season arrives, hundreds or thousands of low-income women in Texas and Florida find themselves pregnant with fetuses that show severe brain damage? What does ethical behavior look like in the here and now, in this political reality?

      At the end of the article, the author makes the audience think themselves what an ethical behavior is in the fiercely urgent situation about Zika virus.

    2. Garland-Thomson isn’t unsympathetic to this argument, but she notes that it wouldn’t hold water were we to substitute race of gender for disability. She blames the lack of public knowledge about the lives of people with disabilities for the widespread belief that ability-selective abortions are normal, desirable and ethical.

      The author concurs with Garland-Thomson’s argument that ability-selective abortion is unethical because it is a kind of set of discriminatory attitudes and practices against disabled people. Also, she claims that it should be a very deliberative process about considering their choices to terminate a pregnancy for anti-abortion movement.

    3. "It's days off work, it's out-of-pocket therapies until diagnoses kick in, it's fighting your insurance, it's becoming a full-time advocate," she continued. "A kid with disabilities born into poverty should be able to receive adequate support and care, and we just do not provide that.”

      These are a series of tweets written by Nicole Cliffe who is the editor of The Toast and the mother of a special needs child. I can read her feeling of frustration about raising a child with a complex impairment. In my opinion, the government cannot force women to bring children with disabilities without enough financial aid, education, and services.