575 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2015
    1. Over the course of the 1830s, 40s, and 50s, slavery became so endemic to the “Cotton Belt” that travelers, writers, and statisticians began referring to the area as the “Black Belt,”

      slavery and cotton came hand in hand

    2. But then cotton came, and grew, and changed everything

      cotton played a big part

    3. III. Cotton and Slavery
    4. In 1793, just a few years after the first, albeit unintentional, shipment of American cotton to Europe, the South produced around five million pounds of cotton, again almost exclusively the product of South Carolina’s Sea Islands.

      five million pounds of cotton is A LOT. Imagine all the labor that took.

    5. The astronomical rise of American cotton production came at the cost of the South’s first staple crop—tobacco

      Tobacco is a very difficult crop to grow because it kills the land.

    6. Some even sent their own agents to purchase cheap land at auction for the express purpose of selling it, sometimes the very next day, at double and triple the original value—a process known as “speculation.”

      This still happens today, with sporting tickets, the iwatch, shoes...

    7. Throughout the 1820s and 1830s, the federal government implemented several forced migrations of Native Americans, establishing a system of reservations west of the Mississippi River upon which all eastern peoples were required to relocate and settle.

      How can you just tell someone to leave their home?

    8. Perhaps most importantly, though, it came up at a time when land in the Southwest—southern Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and northern Louisiana—became readily available for anyone with a few dollars and big dreams.

      Similar to the tech industry today

    9. Thousands of people, each one with his or her own dream of massive and immediate success, rushed to the area quickly becoming known as the “Cotton Belt.
    10. Tobacco, then, was expensive to produce

      tobacco isn't just addictive it's also expensive to grow

    11. By 1835, the five main cotton-growing states—South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana—produced more than 500 million pounds of “Petit Gulf”

      the cotton was good business for those states

    12. the Indian Removal Act of 1830, allowed the federal government to survey, divide, and auction off millions of acres of land for however much bidders were willing to pay

      This helped farmers alot

    1. On their own time, enslaved people used available materials to construct musical instruments, such as drums, rattles, bells, banjars (an ancestor to the banjo), fiddles, and other instruments.

      Even though they were away from their home, they took whatever they had to make their traditional instruments.

    2. In the Americas, new languages emerged and evolved. They were, again, pidgin or creole languages which emerged from the blending of African, European, and Americanized-European languages.

      They mixed different languages to make a new language

    3. For the enslaved, understanding the language of European and American slave traders and plantation owners was necessary

      How did plantation owners communicate with the slaves?

    4. stories in their homes and neighborhoods in the New World,

      stories like the one in the movie Roots

    5. Africans brought to the Americas the greatly varied cultures of their homelands, including folklore, language, music, and foodways

      They were taken away from their home but they brought their culture with them

    6. folklore of Africans and their descendants in the Americas was crucially fashioned not simply by an African past, but by the complex ways African cultures interacted with European and American peoples and cultures in the New World.
    7. For the enslaved, understanding the language of European and American slave traders and plantation owners was necessary

      now that i think about it, when the European and other nations captured and enslaved the African people how did they communicate? Africans people have their own languages right and its different from the European or others so how could they communicate at first encounter?

    1. So, whether he has two little or too much, his approach to the gin- house is always with fear and trembling.

      They feared returning with cotton because if they didn't have the right amount they would get punished.

    2. This done, the labor of the day is not yet ended, by any means. Each one must then attend to his respective chores. One feeds the mules, another the swine- - another cuts the wood, and so forth;

      even after working in the fields picking cotton all day they still had come home to do more work

    3. The hands are required to be in the cotton field as soon as it is light in the morning,

      they had to start working as soon as the sun was up

    4. An hour before day light the horn is blown. Then the slaves arouse, prepare their breakfast, fill a gourd with water, in another deposit their dinner of cold bacon and corn cake, and hurry to the field again.
    5. Solomon Northrup was a free black who was kidnapped in New York and sold into slavery for twelve years

      the free black slave man was kidnapped just so he could be sold and worked as a slave again because of the new crop,he and along with other slaves worked hard with little rest

    1. They attempted to maintain control by using blancs.

    2. They found it cost effective to work slaves to death and replace them with new imported slaves.

    3. How can one group of humans think it was ok to take out another group of humans from the place that they lived for a long time and then have other humans as slaves.

    1. But the reason of my return was, that the Spirit appeared to me and said I had my wishes directed to the things of this world

      what "spirit" is he talking about? he makes me think that he is a little delusional or something or who knows many people claimed to see spirits too so maybe he did see spirits

    1. The consequences of a speedy removal

      what are the consequences?

    2. removal of the Indians beyond the white settlements is approaching to a happy consummation

      It made them happy to remove people from the place that they lived in years before they came and took over.

    3. now occupied by a few savage hunters.

      they called them savages but what about what they were doing by taking what once belonged to them

    4. How many thousands of our own people would gladly embrace the opportunity of removing to the West on such conditions!

      They do not have the same values or lifestyle as the whites. Jackson referred to them as savages so he should not compare them to whites.

    5. now occupied by a few savage hunters.

      Savage hunters is how Indians are described.

    6. It puts an end to all possible danger of collision between the authorities of the General and State Governments on account of the Indians.

      Yes, there will be no war if the Indians give up their land peacefully.

    7. Two important tribes have accepted the provision made for their removal at the last session of Congress,

      What would have happened if they had not accepted the provision? They may have been forcefully removed.

    1. the slaves had been evangelized and educated by Jesuit missionaries in the early days of the colony
    2. Other independence movements in the Americas at the time, like the American Revolution (1775–1783) or the independence struggles in Spanish America,
  2. Oct 2015
    1. The pro-ratification “Federalists,” on the other hand, argued that including a bill of rights was not only redundant but dangerous; it could limit future citizens from adding new rights.

      I don't really see the reason that the Federalists point out here

    2. The Constitution itself had been a controversial document adopted to strengthen the government so that it could withstand internal conflicts.

      Yet they seemed to celebrate it.

    3. the “Great Compromise”: each state would have two senators, who could vote independently

      This was how the states settle the dispute about representation.

    4. After nearly a month of debate, Virginia voted 89 to 79 in favor of ratification.

      wow that how they settled things back then just formed two groups and debate over it then vote what if the vote was even then they have to start the process all over again?

    5. The Virginia Plan

      oh so this is how the three branches(legislative, executive, and judicial) came from

    6. the Constitutional Convention

      what is it? how does this works?

    7. thousands of farmers in western Massachusetts were struggling under a heavy burden of debt

      what could possibly cause them to have that debt?

    8. the United States had faced the threat of collapse.

      internal conflicts and uncertainty caused that to happen

    9. That was part of why Massachusetts had chosen to side with its wealthy bondholders over poor western farmers.

      They would think that the rich ones would help them out.

    10. The delegates arrived at the convention with instructions to revise the Articles of Confederation.
    11. That weakness meant that the burden of paying back debt from the Revolutionary War fell on the states.

      Its the same thing that happened with the seven Year War

    12. only Rhode Island declined to send a representative

      Why didn't Rhode Island send a representative

    13. Thomas Jefferson, thought “a little rebellion now and then” helped keep the country free, others feared the nation was sliding toward anarchy and complained that the states could not maintain control.

      Jefferson thought a little bit of rebellion was ok but others feared it.

    14. resorted to tactics like the patriots had used before the Revolution, forming blockades around courthouses to keep judges from issuing foreclosure orders.

      they were doing the same thing people did to the British when they raised taxes.

    15. s than two years before the national celebrations of 1788 and 1789, the United States had faced the threat of collapse.

      thing weren't as perfect as they hoped.

    16. political leaders saw both the debt and the struggling economy as a consequence of the Articles of Confederation
    17. I. Introduction

      Week 11 Vidoe Lecture

      Study Questions:

      What do Daniel Shays and his followers want? How do they see their efforts as an extension of the Revolution?

      Describe the split in the Constitutional Convention over representation. How was it resolved?

      What were some of the disagreements between by the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists in the debates over ratification of the Constitution?

    1. First, it was simply impossible to secure unanimous endorsement by all thirteen states of even the most modest amendment -- and the proposed Constitution was far more than a modest amendment to the Articles. Second, the framers of the Constitution realized that the state legislatures woud not accept a system that diminished their authority. Third, the framers noted that they were creating a new constitution for a united American people.

      These were the three reasons why the amendments would fail under Article 13's procedure.

    2. national political community; it helped to focus the American people's attention on the political component of their national identity.

      it helped them keep their attention on their goal

    3. all except Rhode Island, which of course had refused to send any delegates to the Federal Convention at all.

      By not going they didn't get to give their opinion and still and to got through what was voted

    4. all except Rhode Island,

      i wonder what made them soo determine not to let the constitution pass??

    5. The major intellectual problem in understanding ratification is sorting out the relationships between the Federalists' -- and the Anti-Federalists' -- understandings of politics and society and their positions on the Constitution.
    1. places would cost thousands of dollars sold in the 1830s for several hundred, at prices as low as 40¢ per acre.

      wow that really is something, and its all because of cotton but nowadays cotton is not big of a deal that can make such impact as in the past

    2. Few knew that the seven bales sitting in Liverpool that winter of 1785 would change the world.

      well i guess it is true because we are using cotton for clothes and stuffs

    3. II. The Importance of Cotton

      Study Questions:

      What impact does the discovery of "petit Gulf" cotton and the invention of the cotton gin have on western expansion?

      How do advancements in transportation effect the production of cotton and its expansion?

    1. popular protest by common colonists

      Does this include the poor? What would be considered "common colonists"?

    2. With no one to distribute the stamps, the Act became unenforceable.

      protesting and showing how you feel towards something does work.

    3. The moderates worried that supporting the Massachusetts militia would be akin to declaring war.

      Not wanting war.

    4. ollowing the Association, a number of these colonists began to worry that the resistance was too radical and aimed at independence.

      fearful of creating an enemy in Britain possibly.

    5. Women on both sides of the conflict were frequently left alone to care for their households. In addition to their existing duties, women took on roles usually assigned to men on farms and in shops and taverns.

      Women might not have been fighting in the war but they still played a part

    6. Washington needed something to lift morale and encourage reenlistment. Therefore, he launched a successful surprise attack on the Hessian camp

      so just because he wanted encourage reenlistment to attacked a camp, what would have happened if wasn't successful.

    7. Slaves could now choose to run and risk their lives for possible freedom with the British army, or hope that the United States would live up to its ideals of liberty.

      what happened to these slaves when Britain lost

    8. Women, too, became involved to an unprecedented degree in resistance to the Townshend Acts.

      Women played a part in the protests

    9. some colonists began to fear a pattern of increased taxation and restricted liberties.

      They feared more taxes and Britain controlling their liberty.

    10. In both Britain and the colonies, land was the key to political participation,

      Land and money gave you power

    11. Britain had largely failed to define the colonies’ relationship to the empire and institute a coherent program of imperial reform.

      In a way they left the colonies out of the empire

    12. At the same time, British goods and luxuries previously desired now became symbols of tyranny.
    13. Hence, many authors asked: once the colonists assented to a tax in any form, what would stop the British from imposing ever more and greater taxes on the colonists?

      Only resistance or if necessary, a revolution could stop it.

    14. These acts increased the presence of the British government in the colonies and circumscribed the authority of the colonial assemblies, since paying the governor’s salary had long given the assemblies significant power over them.
    15. But to save face and to try to avoid this kind of problem in the future, Parliament also passed the Declaratory Act, asserting that Parliament had the “full power and authority to make laws . . . to bind the colonies and people of America . . . in all cases whatsoever.”

      Learned from their mistake and decide to make a law giving them power to make laws however they want. Very oppressive.

    16. With no one to distribute the stamps, the Act became unenforceable.

      Successful and smart protest.

    17. some colonists began to fear a pattern of increased taxation and restricted liberties.

      beginning to see Great Britain take more control.

    18. These factors led Britain in the 1760s to attempt to consolidate control over its North American colonies, which, in turn, led to resistance.

      An attempt to oppress the colonies and take money from them.

    19. These political, intellectual, cultural, and economic developments built tensions that rose to the surface when, after the Seven Years’ War, Britain finally began to implement a program of imperial reform that conflicted with colonists’ understanding of the empire and their place in it.

      Not on the same page

    20. Only a small fringe in Britain held these ideas, but in the colonies, they were widely accepted.

      Probably why the eventually wanted independence

    21. n both Britain and the colonies, land was the key to political participation

      You had to be wealthy in order to be involved in politics.

    22. They sought to eliminate Britain’s growing national debt by raising taxes and cutting spending on the colonies.

      This doesn't seem very fair.

    23. The revolution created politicians eager to foster republican selflessness and protect the public good but also encouraged individual self-interest and personal gain.

      This must be what was paradoxical about it.

    24. So Britain’s next attempt to draw revenues from the colonies, the Townshend Acts, were passed in June 1767, creating new customs duties on common items, like lead, glass, paint, and tea, instead of direct taxes.
    25. 5. The American Revolution

      Week 10 Video Lecture

      Study Questions:

      What political ideas develop in the colonies as a result of Great Britain’s failure to fully define the colonies' relationship to the empire?

      What are the Sugar, Currency and Stamp Acts? How do colonists respond to these new laws?

      How do protests begin to broaden to include members of colonial societies new to public political participation?

      How do slaves and slavery point out the contradictions within the American Revolution?

    26. The American Revolution

      what did the american revolution accomplished or tried to?

    27. Consequences of the American Revolution

      what are the consequences? who or what grp does it affect the most?

    28. The War for Independence

      who involved in the war?

    29. “tea parties”

      what are the tea parties?

    30. The Causes of the American Revolution

      what are the causes then?

    31. The aristocracy then were wealthy or successful because they had greater access to wealth, education, and patronage and not because they were innately superior.

      wow true but some even successful without those nowadays

    32. British subjects enjoyed a degree of liberty unknown in the unlimited monarchies of France and Spain

      i wonder what kind of liberty that is?

    33. Britain had largely failed to define the colonies’ relationship to the empire and institute a coherent program of imperial reform.
    34. The colonies had resisted the implementation of direct taxes, but the Declaratory Act reserved Parliament’s right to impose them.
    35. colonists began to fear a pattern of increased taxation and restricted liberties.
    1. we know better than to repeal our masculine systems.

      men do not want to give up full control.

    2. Men of sense in all ages abhor those customs which treat us only as the (servants)

      She felt that women were treated like slaves by the men

    3. I desire you would remember the ladies and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors.

      She wanted him to remember that women deserve a voice.

    4. we are determined to foment a rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any laws in which we have no voice or representation.

      women are standing up for themselves and their rights

    5. Men of sense in all ages abhor those customs which treat us only as the (servants) of your sex
    1. herever the English went they caused disturbances for they lived under no Government and paid no respect either to Wisdom or Station. I hoped for better things, that those Old Talks had no truth in them.

      He had hoped that the rumors about the English behavior wasn't true

    2. where he reported that those Medal Chiefs who did not behave well Should be broke & their Medals given to others.

      If they didn't listen they lost their awards

    3. it is true the Land belonged chiefly to those who have given it away

      Is he talking about how the french lost the land to the British

    4. I expect they will be equally Bountyfull which must be done if they wish equally to gain the affection of my people.

      They expected the same treatment from the British as they had from the French

    5. it is true the Land belonged chiefly to those who have given it away


    6. I expect they will be equally Bountyfull which must be done if they wish equally to gain the affection of my people.
    7. Another Race of White Men Come Amongst Us

      so the natives think that the british was better then the french

    1. "The delays we meet with in carrying on the Service, from every parts of this country, are immense.

      He believed they had a big problem on hand

    2. provincial soldiers under his command were challenging his authority.

      They didn't want to follow him

    3. British Acts of Parliament

      what is it?

    4. The delays we meet with in carrying on the Service, from every parts of this country, are immense. They have assumed to themselves, what they call Rights and Priviledges, totaly unknown in...[England]....
    1. Parliament started legislating over all the colonies in a way rarely done before. As a result, the colonies began seeing themselves as a collective group, rather than just distinct entities.

      The beginning of a nation

    2. During the war, the British Crown issued the Royal Proclamation Line of 1763, which marked the Appalachian Mountains as the boundary between Indian country and the British colonies.

      The British colonists provoked the Natives when they crossed this line.

    3. However, the British General Jeffrey Amherst discouraged this practice and regulated the trade or sale of firearms and ammunition to Indians.

      This shows that they do not want any kind of association and at this time it means preparation for war

    4. This gave the British a larger empire than they could control, which contributed to tensions leading to revolution.

      The French realized they could not control so much land.

    5. These victories were often the result of alliances with Native Americans.

      So the Natives were not neutral?

    6. In 1754 a force of British colonists and Native American allies, led by young George Washington, attacked and killed a French diplomat. This incident led to a war

      Why was this done, was it a mistake of not knowing what it would lead to?

    7. Seven Years’ War or the French and Indian War.
    8. Whereas the French had maintained a peaceful and relatively equal relationship with their Indian allies through trade, the British hoped to profit from and impose “order.”

      The Indians had a good relationship with France, their relationship with the British was the opposite of that.

    9. “This land where ye dwell I have made for you and not for others. Whence comes it that ye permit the Whites upon your lands…Drive them out, make war upon them.

      He was told to go into war with the Europeans, in a dream.

    10. The British received much of Canada and North America from the French, while the Prussians retained the important province of Silesia. This gave the British a larger empire than they could control, which contributed to tensions leading to revolution.

      They got more land to control, but will effect them down the road.

    11. Catholicism threatened to literally capture Protestant lands and souls.

      Again the church gets involved

    12. the French had maintained a peaceful and relatively equal relationship with their Indian allies through trade

      they are using their relationship with the Indian to gain profit

    13. Seven Years’ War

      also known as the french and indian war from 1754 to 1763, fought between the french and english to gain control over the land in North America ironically they both used native americans to help fight the war.

    14. wives asserted more control over their own bodies.

      well i guess before they couldnt do anything much, but what does this mean exactly, were they not able to do whatever they wanted with their bodies or something like that?

    15. V. Seven Years’ War

      Week 9 Video Lecture

      Study Questions for this week's reading in American Yawp:

      What tensions between France and England and the colonies did the Seven Years’s War reveal?

      What impact did England’s victory in the Seven Years'

      War have upon Native Americans? How was their relationship different with the French than it was with the English?

      How does England attempt to increasingly regulate and tax the colonies after the war?

    16. For white women, the legal practice of coverture meant that women lost all of their political and economic rights to their husband.

      I believe this says the same for women outside of the white race as well.

    17. An elected assembly was an offshoot of the idea of civic duty, the notion that men had a responsibility to support and uphold the government through voting, paying taxes, and service in the militia

      This is basically how the United States is now. Except, now it's not only men, but women and men.

    18. Leaders like Edwards and Whitefield encouraged individuals to question the world around them.

      Something we haven't seen encourgaed yet

    19. The spasms first appeared amongst known sinners in the community

      Seems strange that it was just the sinners

    20. for learning has brought disobedience, and heresy

      Oppression. Just wants people to obey and not be a threat

    21. However, all the colonies dealt with threats of censorship and control from imperial supervision

      Very similar to today

    22. While in practice elites controlled colonial politics, in theory many colonists believed in the notion of equality before the law and opposed special treatment for any members of colonial society.

      Does this mean colonists as the common person? Or does it mean elites opposed special treatment?

    23. The assembly was composed of elected, property-owning men whose official goal was to ensure that colonial law conformed to English law.

      They wanted to keep things under control bu electing property-owning men.

    24. Political structures in the colonies fell under one of three main categories: provincial, proprietary, and charter.

      How did the king decide which colony would be in what category?

    1. Elect

      how do they know who the so called "elect" is? is there a mark on the body or someting like that?

    2. Calvinists (and Puritans) believed that mankind was redeemed by God’s Grace alone, and that the fate of an individual’s immortal soul was predestined.

      so does it mean that everyone fate was already decided even before we were born?

    3. They dug up graves to eat the corpses of their former neighbors

      well i guess desperate time call for desperate measure but really eating people corpses oh i cant imagine how hungry they must had been to eat corpses.

    4. Powhatan, or Wahunsenacawh

      so he was a leader of his people, a king or something like that i guess everywhere people still need someone to lead them

    5. English colonization would look very different from Spanish or French colonization,

      how are they different?

    6. the powerful Spanish Armada would be destroyed, and the English would begin to rule the waves.

      how did they get destroyed?

    7. French colonization developed through investment from private trading companies.

      so trading is their main profit i guess

    8. Catholicism had always justified Spanish conquest, and colonization always carried religious imperatives.

      how could they justified something like killing and brutality slaughtered women and children

    9. New diseases wiped out entire civilizations in the Americas

      what new diseases?

    1. Native Americans lived free from the terrible diseases that ravaged populations in Asia, Europe and Africa. But their blessing now became a curse.

      the lack of technology advancement cost them alot but in return they had freedom before the Europeans invdaded

    2. Like the French later in North America, the Spanish tolerated and sometimes even supported interracial marriage.

      i guess people are more understanding and more open about the racial issue

    3. Indians acquired horses

      i wonder what they gonna use the horses for? maybe farming

  3. classicliberal.tripod.com classicliberal.tripod.com
    1. were it not for the corruption and viciousness of degenerate men, there would be no need of any other, no necessity that men should separate from this great and natural community

      greed, cruelty and corruption causes separation.

    2. make them take sanctuary under the established laws of government, and therein seek the preservation of their property.

      They want to protect their property for fear of someone trying to take it from them.

    3. Such resistance many times makes the punishment dangerous, and frequently destructive to those who attempt it.

      Those who pose a threat to the powerful will face consequences.

    4. The great and chief end, therefore, of men uniting into commonwealths, and putting themselves under government, is the preservation of their property

      They do this to protect what they have.

    5. Thirdly, in the state of Nature there often wants power to back and support the sentence when right, and to give it due execution

      its in nature to want power and to have support

    6. men when they enter into society give up the equality, liberty, and executive power they had in the state of Nature into the hands of the society,

      men have to give up nature born laws when they enter society

    1. Now this distress lasted Almost two years: - Poor – Me – Miserable me. – It pleased God to bring on my Convictions more and more, and I was loaded with guilt of Sin, I saw I was undone for ever; I carried Such a weight of Sin in my breast or mind, that it seemed to me as I should sink into the ground every step; and I kept all to my self as much as I could; I went month after month mourning and begging for mercy,

      This was a test in my eyes. God tests us in this world to see if no matter what the situation is, we will still have faith in Him.

    2. all the while fearing we should be too late to hear the Sermon

      he really wanted to get there in time

    3. I saw how stubborn and willful man was

      humans can be stubborn

  4. Sep 2015
  5. classicliberal.tripod.com classicliberal.tripod.com
    1. equal to the greatest and subject to nobody,

      a person is equal and nobody is on a higher level

    2. supreme power cannot take from any man any part of his property without his own consent

      Unless a warrant is presented

    3. legislative or supreme authority cannot assume to itself a power to rule by extemporary arbitrary decrees, but is bound to dispense justice and decide the rights of the subject by promulgated standing laws

      These laws are made for justice and to make sure everyone is treated equally.

    4. fears and continual dangers

      just like the wealthy and nobility willing to pay to be safe because they know they are in danger due to their status. To be wealthy and have power mean they have to live in fear of other being jealous of them or hate them and try to harm them in someway.

    5. men when they enter into society give up the equality, liberty, and executive power they had in the state of Nature into the hands of the society,
    6. there wants an established, settled, known law, received and allowed by common consent to be the standard of right and wrong, and the common measure to decide all controversies between them.
    1. thought that would be a happy change for they had no Souls a

      he rather be animals because he though they don't have souls

    2. I was possesst with a notion that if I had it I would die and goe right to hell,

      he thought that just because he had a disease he was gonna die and go to hell

    3. by an Eye of faith

      so does it mean you just have to believe then you will see the road to heaven reveal to you somehow?

    1. Catholicism threatened to literally capture Protestant lands and souls.

      well now i know religious groups not only practice religious but involve in warfare too. My view of religious groups is soo not good right now and im a catholic too but its better now though right? they do not evolve in any wars happening now right?

    2. Defiant slaves could legally be beaten, branded, mutilated, even castrated

      well legally? so what happened if they kill the slaves then would that be legal too?

    3. more people to marry earlier in life

      kind of different from now, people are marrying later in life

    4. Whether or not African Americans, Native Americans, and women would also be included in this notion of equality

      women and other race are always in doubt

    5. only a tiny portion of males could vote

      Were the rich the only ones that could vote?

    6. The Master of Life told Neolin that the only way to enter Heaven would be to cast off the corrupting influence of Europeans, by expelling the British from Indian country:

      wow im surprised they listened to this guy and started another war

    7. only a tiny portion of males could vote

      so in those countries who can vote then? the noble and wealthy?

    8. Relationships between colonists and Native Americans were complex and often violent. In 1761, Neolin, a prophet, received a vision from his religion’s main deity, known as the Master of Life
    9. These victories brought about the fall of French Canada, and for all intents and purposes, the war in North America ended in 1760 with the British capture of Montreal. The British continued to fight against the Spanish, who entered the war in 1762. In this war, the Spanish successfully defended Nicaragua against British attacks but were unable to prevent the conquest of Cuba and the Philippines.
    10. working from dawn to dusk in groups with close supervision by a white overseer or enslaved “driver” who could use physical force to compel labor.

      Ultimate suffering. I could understand a slave not wanting to go on in life anymore with these circumstances, with the only hope of being free one day.

    11. Virginians used the law to protect the interests of slaveholders.

      Creating laws to protect the wealth of the wealthy.

    12. By 1750 there were approximately 100,000 African slaves in Virginia, at least 40% of the colony’s total population

      Nearly one slave per European.

    13. Slave owners could not be convicted of murder for killing a slave;

      so they got away with killing another human

    14. New ideas governing romantic love helped to change the nature of husband-wife relationships. Deriving from the sentimental literary movement, many Americans began to view marriage as an emotionally fulfilling relationship rather than a strictly economic partnership.
    1. African women faced other hardships, especially sexual abuse and rape

      Women not only had to endure being a slave but they were also used for their captors' pleasures without their consents.

    2. brutal cruelty


    3. lmost suffocated us.

      Limited space.

    4. pieces of cloth

      They least that they could have done was let them have a piece of what belongs to them.

    5. guilty

      Europeans and Spaniards should be qgilty for what they have done.

    6. brutal excesses as disgrace human nature

      The humiliation and all the suffering that they went through.

    7. two of the White men offered me eatables; and on my refusing to eat, one of them held me fast by the hands, and laid me across I think the windlass, and tied my feet, while the other flogged me severely.

      just because he didn't want to eat

    8. also reports that African women faced other hardships, especially sexual abuse and rape:

      women had it worse

    9. and cut one of his legs so round the bone, that he could not move, the nerves being cut through; others cut our cooks throat to the pipe, and others wounded three of the sailors, and threw one of them overboard in that condition, from the forecastle into the sea.

      They did the samething to the crew what was being done to them.

    10. During many voyages, however, the enslaved rebelled and attacked their captors.

      Were they chained while they attacked their captors?

    1. “six or seven hundred” dead

      death always equal to war this is unavoidable but its still make people sad to hear of someone else's death and at a great number too

    2. rapes, whippings, and diseases like smallpox and conjunctivitis aboard slave ships

      i watched a movie once that showed what happened to slaves on the slave ships similar things happen here.

    3. Dysentery, known as “the bloody flux,” left captives lying in pools of excrement

      You have to have some evil in you to look at this and not become sick.

    4. Some were not wars at all, but merely illegal raids performed by slave traders.

      Did they raid in order to find slaves?

    5. Seventeenth-century European legal thought held that enslaving prisoners of war was not only legal, but more merciful than killing the captives outright.

      It was also more profitable

    6. For Phillips, the profitability of slavery was the only justification he needed

      Phillips was honest with why there was separation between whites and blacks but still contributed to African enslavement.

    7. “I can’t think there is any intrinsic value in one color more than another, nor that white is better than black, only we think it so because we are so.”

      You never heard Africans say that they are better than whites they just want their own freedom.