252 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2017
    1. t you saw depended upon where you were when. What you saw was relative to your position in time and spac

      What might this say about the difference between painting and photography?

    2. When we "see" a landscape, we situate ourselves in it. If we "saw" the art of the past, we would situate ourselves in history. When we are prevented from seeing it, we are being deprived of the history which belongs to us

      Is this an example of Berger's claim (from the Freewrite handout) that seeing is an act of choice?

    3. Yet, although every image embodies a way of seeing, our perception or appreciation of an image depends also upon our own way of seeing

      Think about this claim in relation to the previous ones about how WE see images.

    4. Every image embodies a way of seeing

      Of a particular person? Of a particular society? Of a particular historical period? What other factors may affect the "context" of our seeing image OR our creating an image?

    1. encomium to vision

      this means "PRAISE" of vision

    2. The grip of modern ocularcentrism was perhaps nowhere as evident as in France, the culture whose recent reversal of attitudes is thus perhaps all the more worthy of study.

      This sentence offers a transition between Unit I and Unit II--in that there will be a "reversal of attitudes" about ocularcentrism

    1. We should, however, recall that our mind can be stimulated by many things other than images -by signs and words, for example, which in no way resemble the things they signify

      Does this qualification make Descartes less ocularcentric? Does this show that he still has some agreement with Aristotle in that hearing is also important for knowledge acquisition?

    2. We must take care not to assume -as our philosophers commonly do -that in order to have sensory awareness the soul must contemplate certain images4 transmitted by objects to the brain; or at any rate we must conceive the nature of these images in an entirely different manner from that of the philosophers.

      Here Descartes voices his disagreement with Aristotelian, Socratic/Platonic, and Scholastic philosophy--this is one example of how/why he is regarded as "The Father of Modern Philosophy."

    3. rays

      basically, light/light rays bend, bounce, refract, can be reflected when they encounter solid matter.

    4. Nor will you find it strange that by means of this action we can see all sorts of colours. You may perhaps even be prepared to believe that in the bodies we call 'coloured' the colours are nothing other than the various ways in which the bodies receive light and reflect it against our eyes.

      Rahmat, you were writing about color in one of your ACE paragraphs, right? You might be able to make connections to Descartes to write an ACE Synthesis Paragraph...

    5. And since the construction of the things of which I shall speak must depend on the skill of craftsmen, who usually have little formal education, I shall try to make myself intelligible to everyone; and I shall try not to omit anything, or to assume anything that requires knowledge of other sciences.

      Descartes identifies that he is writing for a more general audience that includes what he refers to as "craftsman"--for people who do not have a lot of formal education. He's not only writing for other philosophers or scientists.

    6. Carrying our vision much further than our forebears could normally extend their imagination, these telescopes seem to have opened the way for us to attain a knowledge of nature much greater and more perfect than they possessed .

      Descartes makes a connection here to visual technologies and knowledge acquisition through seeing.

  2. Jan 2017
    1. mple warrant for this generalizatio.!l in Greek religion, and philosophy.

      In this sentence he outlines several subcategories of Greek culture/society that he will then give specific examples from in this paragraph to support this viewpoint. The rest of this paragraph includes those examples as evidence (linguistic evidence, images of Greek gods---who could appear to humans, theater, their penchant for geometry in mathematics, the Greek idealization of the nude body, and the Greek citizens role as "spectator" at various events (olympics, theater, etc.)

    2. Although there have been dissenting voices-William Ivins's was the most persistent6-it is generally agreed that classi-cal Greece privileged sight over the other senses,

      Jay points out that there is a prevailing belief among critics that the Greeks regarded sight as more important than the other senses...

    1. ow that the scattered verbs employed during the Homeric period to designate aspects of visual practice coalesced into only a few during the classical era, suggesting an essentializing of vision itself.8 The Greek gods were visibly manifest to humankind, which was encouraged to depict them in plastic form, They were also conceived as avid spectators of human actions, as well as willing to provide the occasional spectacle them­selves. The perfection of idealized visible form in the Greeks' art accorded well with th-::ir love of theatrical performance. The word theater, as has often been remarked, shares the same root as the word theory, theoria, which meant to look at attentively, to behold.'> So too does theorem, which has allowed some comment�tors to emphasize the privileging of vision in Greek mathematics, with its geometric emphasis.10 The impor­tance of optics in Greek science has also been adduced to illustrate its partiality for sight. Even the Greek idealization of t

      Jay points out the evidence of Greek ocularcentrism!

    1. the visual organ proper is composed of water, yet vision appertains to it not because itis so composed, but because it is translucent- a property common alike to water and to air

      Aristotle's claim about the composition of the eye...

    2. Of the two last mentioned, seeing, regarded as a supply for the primary wants of life, and in itsdirect effects, is the superior sense; but for developing intelligence, and in its indirectconsequences, hearing takes the precedence

      What is Aristotle trying to say hear? How can both seeing and hearing be superior?

      The primacy of seeing vs. hearing depends on the CONTEXT or SITUATION. However, you might note that Aristotle does state that seeing "is the superior sense" but that "hearing takes precedence" for "developing intelligence." This is a departure from Plato, yes?

    3. he visual organ proper really were fire, which is the doctrine of Empedocles, a doctrine taughtalso in the Timaeus, and if vision were the result of light issuing from the eye as from a lantern,why should the eye not have had the power of seeing even in the dark

      Aristotle disagrees with Plato here...about the eye being composed of fire...

    4. But in animals which havealso intelligence they serve for the attainment of a higher perfection

      Aristotle claims that the senses of smell, hearing, seeing are connected to intelligence and higher orders of animals...

    1. Connection in the next sentence between Seeing and Learning/Knowing/Knowledge

    2. mirror

      Mirrors would have been an early form of visual technology

    3. longer

      So we are diurnal because we are primarily "seeing" beings?

    1. or the imperfections of

      Teresias in Sophocles

    2. one of the most extraordinary aspects of vision, most broadly conceived, is the ex­perience of being the o� Here the range of possibilities is • exceptionally wide, extending from the paranoid's fantasy of being under constant hostile surveillance to the exhibitionist's narcissistic thrill at be­ing the cynosure of all eyes

      Being the "object" of the "look"--the one looked at, appraised, viewed--whether one wants to be looked at or not. Of course, there is also the phenomenon of refusing or failing to see the "object" of the look....color blindness is one example of this. So, keep this in mind for Unit 3!

    3. Unlike the other senses of smell, touch, or taste, there seems to be a close, if complicated, relationship between �·ifili.1::i and\fanguag<;, both of which come into their own at approximately the same moment of maturation

      The relationship between sight & language--what we call reading. I wonder what these researchers might say about hearing and language for the blind, or sight and universal sign language for the deaf--i.e. the language is the same, regardless of what language one speaks.

    4. inevitable entanglement of vision and what has been called "visuality"-the distinct historical manifestations of visual experience in all its possible modes.25 Observation, to put it another way, means observ­ing the tacit cultural rules of different scopic regimes.

      What is a scope regime? A keyterm for Unit 2, but it might be interesting to note it for now.

    5. the boundary between the "natural" and the "cultural" component in what we call vision

      This is an important distinction: what is "natural" about vision vs. what is "cultural" about vision. To what degree is how we see rooted in nature or biology or chemistry, etc. vs. to what degree is how we see rooted in cultural practices or rituals or beliefs (including prejudices, social and gender norms, etc. think of something like beauty vs. ugliness--sorry Medusa).

    6. f the eye's powers are appreciated by science, so too are its limitations

      This sentence introduces a major transition in Jay's focus from benefits (i.e. the power) of seeing to the "limitations" of seeing/sight.

    7. As a diurnal animal standing on its hind legs, the early human beiag developed its sensorium in such a way as to give sight an ability to differentiate and assimilate most external stimuli in a way supe­rior to the other four senses.

      Then is this to say that humans become ocularcentric partly as a result of evolution?

    8. blind spot

      And, of course, blind spots can also be metaphorical...

    9. mage," which can sig­nify graphic, optical, perceptual, mental, or verbal phenomena.24

      This is a key point about images, I think...

    10. visually imbued 'cultm;i-and social practices, which may vary from culture to culture and ep-�h to ep:h. So�;y;es these can be construed in grandiose terms, such as a massive sh

      "visually imbued cultural and social practices"--Jay's claim here states that cultural and social practices are dependent upon vision. While that's kind of a general claim (and he does give a few examples) we could think about what social or cultural practices (historical or contemporary0 this claim holds true for....

    11. ubiquity of visual metaphors

      The "ubiquity" of "visual metaphors" in verbal/written language means that such metaphors are everywhere, perhaps so preponderant that we no longer notice that we are using them. This, in an of itself, can be an indication of the extent to which we (Western culture) are an ocularcentric society!

    12. �ular��!.�

      Jay's major keyterm in this reading!

    1. 9:30

      If no other classes plan to meet in our classroom during the 9-10:15am class period, I will hold morning office hours in our classroom.

  3. Nov 2016

      Sociologists discuss their evidence FURTHER in a discussion section of their papers. Then they draw conclusions from the evidence they have analyzed.

    2. BRIEF

      The next section presents the "WHAT" that Rap resists or raps against

    3. Ultimately, for Rose, rap is the voice of urban African American youth in an era of neglect and crisis.

      Martinez's argument is in conversation with/includes other important critics who have written on the subject of Rap's message before she has.

    4. MESSAGE

      Here is where Martinez enters the conversation about resistance and introduces her argument that Rap is another form of resistance.

    5. However,

      Martinez quotes Steinberg to offer support for her refutation of the counterargument.

    6. This stabili- zation of stratification is institutional discrimination-discrimination built into the existing structure of societal institutions such as schools, churches, banks, and hospitals. Stokely Carmichael and Charles Hamilton (1967) stress the institutional racism implied the economic, social, and political domination of African Ameri- cans in the United States

      THIS is where Martinez starts to identify why the counterargument is problematic--and the beginning of of her refutation.

    7. William Julius Wilson (1987) suggests that historic and contemporary discrimi- nation, such as racial formation and institutional discrimination, are a decisive factor in the creation of an underclass in the urban inner city.

      Introduction of a counterargument--it's not an oppositional argument or one that disagrees with Martinez's argument, but one that downplays race by making the argument about class--which distracts our attention away from race....

    8. unkyard of dreams

      As opposed to the "American Dream"

    9. his paper suggests that political and gangsta rap music artists of the late 1980s and early 1990s were utilizing a bold form of oppo- sitional culture in protest and condemnation of perceived racial formation, insti- tutional discrimination, and urban decay in the inner cities. The message of resistance and social critique within the voices of these rappers, in fact, may have been an effective herald of the Los Angeles riots of 1992. Instead of seeking the cause of the rioting among the rioters (Sears 1993), political and gangsta rappers urged that America focus on inner city poverty, institutional discrimination, and governmental neglect2 for oppositional culture does not emerge in a vacuum or without cause.

      Martinez's thesis--yes, it's long, complex, and has multiple parts making it a distributive argument (i.e. sets up a distributive argument).

  4. Oct 2016
    1. A second aspect to the sucker concept must be mentioned here. This is the notion that one is a sucker if one who is outside the dominant value system, or social strata, lives by the values of that dominant system.

      Lupsha hasn't even introduced "gangsters" yet, and has talked about organized crime as a practice that precedes our idea of the gangster...a practice that was common before "ethnic immigrant gangsters" became our "gangsters" and we came to attribute "organized crime" as something that gangsters engage in....

  5. Sep 2016
    1. Assertion: usually the first or second sentence and includes your CLAIM.

      Citation: quotations that you cite as evidence to support your claim. IF you cite more than one quotation (i.e. Pauly & TGG) you will want to EITHER write a transition between the citations to show their connection in supporting the claim OR cite & analyze the first quotation before citing and analyzing the second quotation.

      You can then end with your final Explanation of how these sources support your claim (i.e. their significance).

  6. Aug 2016
    1. American GangsterDr

      Annotations for the syllabus can be either respond to the course description or unit descriptions, or ask questions about course policies and resources.

    1. Conversation

      Your writing always participates in a dialogue or conversation with the ideas and arguments of those who wrote before you about a topic and with those who will write after you have written about that topic:

                  past others <--> you <--> future others
    1. Withobviouscontempt,hecounters:"inthemain,thereallydangerousgangster,thekiller,wasapttobesomethingofadandy."1

      Who can tell us what a "dandy" is?

    2. dandy

      Who can tell us what a "Dandy" is?

    1. olding thecream:cororeareaori:Cuiiaer::~Jiin #! ~ .. ~~~~,9ffi1~~!fefvt~~

      Fanucci catches the blood with his hat so that it doesn't soil and stain his suit (we learn later that this is his ONLY suit)