319 Matching Annotations
  1. Jan 2021
    1. sinister


    2. neurology-based literary studies of “cognitive literary criticism” and other evolutionary psych–based attempts to argue that humanity is hardwired to enjoy marriage plots


  2. Dec 2020
    1. The most effective governments will be able to think about the pandemic in terms of protecting the whole population. The rest will leave individuals to fend for themselves.

      Following NZ/Taiwan's examples

    2. By their very nature, they require the cascading effects of interventions reaching across an entire population. But as soon as you have a disease that's afflicting millions—or billions—of people, the stakes are too high to start experimenting. With lives on the line, who would choose an immunization plan that has never been tested outside of computer models and college campuses?

      a drawback inherent in all network-based immunisation strategies

    3. Take a random sample of a population, ask each individual to name a single acquaintance, and vaccinate the acquaintance. “In this way,” Havlin says, “you can reach the hubs, the super-spreaders, very easily.”

      network-based immunisation strategies: 'acquaintance immunisation'

    4. Let's say you've got one course of the vaccine and two people to choose between: Candidate 1 is a college student who doesn't social distance, wears his mask slung beneath his chin, and plays beer pong all weekend at underground frat parties. Candidate 2 is his 87-year-old widowed grandmother, who lives on her own and has barely been out of the house since March. If your goal is to protect the more vulnerable person, you should vaccinate grandma. If your goal is to reduce transmission, you should vaccinate the frat bro. From society's perspective, he's a jerk; from the network's, he's a hub.

      counterintuitive policy recommendations

    5. If the friend group had been vaccinated at the beginning, the campus might have been spared an outbreak entirely.

      Wait--if just that one friend group had been vaccinated? That sounds weird.

    6. on average, your friends have more friends than you do. The very act of asking someone to choose a friend, any friend, played out over hundreds or thousands of iterations, leads inevitably to the most connected people. Consider, for example, a very simple network of three people from Casablanca, Morocco: Rick, Ilsa, and Louis. Ilsa and Louis both know Rick, but they don't know each other. If you ask each of them to name a friend, two out three times you wind up with the most-connected person: Rick.

      The Friendship Paradox

    7. Havlin likens the effect to a phase transition: A solid network of ice crystals melts suddenly into water.


    8. inoculate the nodes

      ? Meaning all the nodes?

    9. They found that in most settings, from Hollywood to academia to the World Wide Web, networks tended to be “extremely heterogeneous, in the sense that their connectivity is dominated by a few very, very highly connected hubs.”

      'scale-free' (i.e., non-random) networks

    10. they thought their work might eventually have some practical application—say, in understanding the evolution of railways or the power grid

      That, ofc, is one very cool thing about network analysis: that the approach can be applied to (and elucidate similarities among) both human and non-human (and indeed, non-organic) networks: Facebook groups, railways, power grids, etc.

    11. Alessandro Vespignani

      Here's a profile of Vespignani and of the research going on at his Network Science Institute (Northeastern University): https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/13/science/coronavirus-social-networks-data.html

  3. Oct 2020
    1. A comparative sociological study of East and West Germans conducted after reunification in 1990 found that Eastern women had twice as many orgasms as Western women.

      Is this the only empirical evidence for the claim about women under Communism having better sex? That's pretty thin — esp. considering that the link to the study doesn't work.

    2. Why Women Had Better Sex Under Socialism

      'First of all, I did not come up with the headline nor did I choose the photo to accompany the piece. Both of those decisions were made by the New York Times editor' (https://scholar.harvard.edu/kristenghodsee/blog/sources-my-new-york-times-op-ed-why-women-had-better-sex-under-socialism).

    3. sometimes necessary social change — which soon comes to be seen as the natural order of things — needs an emancipation proclamation from above

      'Needs' is a bit strong — why not just say that sometimes even necessary social change can benefit from emancipation proclamations from above?

    4. Democracy

      Not: capitalism?

    5. Russia extended full suffrage to women in 1917

      Russia, not the Bolsheviks: see the editor's note at bottom!

    6. or have sex, for money.

      If the implication is that there was no prostitution behind the Iron Curtain, then I'd like to see a lot more documentation. And what about the kind of prostitution (fictionally) examined in The Lives of Others, where an ambitious actress sleeps with a high-ranking party functionary in order to bypass the obstacles posed by the state bureaucracy?

    7. including state-sponsored research on the mysteries of female sexuality

      Interesting, but this hardly demonstrates that Eastern European women had better sex.

    8. This generational divide between daughters and mothers who reached adulthood on either side of 1989 supports the idea that women had more fulfilling lives during the Communist era.

      Is that the only other bit of empirical evidence? Oy.

    1. which are largely insulated from international competition

      What about, say, the travel/tourism industry?

    2. Also, when will he release his tax returns?

      Guess it's a chronic GOP thing...

    1. The proposal is meant to provide an antidote to short-term thinking in the biggest businesses

      Cf. also the story told by Mariana Mazzucato and others about the government-sponsored innovations that led to the iPhone! https://youtu.be/8jTCBirELDU

  4. Apr 2020
    1. Perhaps a Grand Ole Opry-style performance hall for rap would serve as a major tourist attraction

      BLECHHHH!!! The perennial pinning of hopes on the tourist industry and the way in which they can pervert urban policy is as good a distillation of the way in which a capitalist economy works — calling our economic system a 'postindustrial' one is a bit misleading: we might not use big machines as much as we used to, we might not foucs on the manufacturing of physical goods, but we are very much still in the business of manufacturing on a large, standardised scale. In this case, however, it is experiences that are being manufactured on a large scale for masses of consumers. And the application of such an industrial model to tourism warps urban policy, so that city leaders end up catering to this mass market instead of focusing on the production of cities that work as cities rather than as urban theme parks. Even when they seek to foster urban culture, it's with an eye towards grabbing a share of the tourist dollar rather than something authentic. This is, at least, one kind of standard 'critical theory' take on the subject.

      Not that 'standard' suggests 'mistaken'.

    2. "The lack of affordable housing, gentrification, piss-poor public schools, those are key cogs in the wheel," he says. "That's like the secret sauce to how the culture is made."

      How so, exactly?

    3. But the well-heeled corporate community it represents maintains an arm's-length distance from many of the culture's most marketable artists.

      Evidence?Are we saying this just because Coca-Cola slept on Urrsher, even though he's not even a trap artist?

    4. ChooseATL, the branding campaign launched by the Metro Atlanta Chamber of Commerce, uses the city's hip-hop swag to market Atlanta as a premier destination for tech-savvy millennials and entrepreneurs.

      Isn't this an example of exactly the kind of local corporate investment in the trap scene that Carmichael claims is lacking?

    5. that inequity has helped to cultivate a trap-rap innovation economy from which Atlanta perpetually feeds

      Has it, though? What's the causal mechanism sup;posed to be, exactly?

    6. Hip-hop in 2017 is certainly no stranger to academia.

      Pace ('pace',pronounced 'PAH-chay', is academese for 'notwithstanding') some of the criticism cited in the midterm prompt...

    7. We have this incredible brand, so how can we capitalize on this?

      [throws up in mouth yet again]

    8. there's

      there are

    9. there's

      there are

    10. There's

      There are

    11. the promethazine-syrup laced "Dirty Sprite" that Future references in his signature codeine flows

      Somebody really needs to write a cultural history of the role of promethazine in latter-day hip-hop culture. Would've been nice if they had written it before we turn our attention to the DJ Screw-era Houston scene...

    12. The Atlanta bubblegum trap act starred alongside pop star Carly Rae Jepsen in an epic Target commercial, the longest of the night at three minutes. Atlanta superproducer Mike Will Made-It was also featured

      Woo. Hoo.

    13. The missed opportunity is even clearer in rap, where artists derive their clout from bragging about lifestyle and luxury brands in songs and videos that often double as major commercial endorsements. It's a simple equation, according to Hudson: "Rappers make things cool. What's cool becomes pop culture. What becomes pop culture sells."

      Gosh, corporate ATL is missing an opportunity to make a lot of money. Is this really the story you care most about, Rodney Carmichael?

    14. brands


    15. Black music's worldwide marketing power was being slept on by some of Atlanta's biggest global brands

      Oh, no! Not a missed MARKETING opportunity?!

    16. you have to embrace the weird; you have to embrace the different — because that's our best product. That's our best potential for future growth


    17. The decades-late push for a music tax credit is coming at the same time that MARTA, the city's rapid transit system, is on the cusp of a partial expansion denied it for more than 40 years. Atlanta's legacy of racialized transportation policies is symptomatic of a larger disease.

      Here's a very apt Op-Ed on that subject by an old friend-turned-historian: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/08/14/magazine/traffic-atlanta-segregation.html

    18. Hall believes the solution lies in fostering ties that reach beyond the typical distinctions of race and class. "There's an opportunity for a cultural connection," he says, "but right now we have some[thing] of a disconnect."

      ? Vague.

    19. forerunner

      frontrunner, surely...

    20. Like the rose that grew from concrete, it's the shameful little secret buried in Georgia's red clay.

      This sounds awkward to me: how is a 'shameful little secret buried in Georgia's red clay' like the rose that grew from concrete?**

    21. Lil Yachty added a major Target endorsement — and the longest commercial aired during the Grammy Awards' February broadcast — to his portfolio.

      Noteworthy — but is it something to celebrate?

    22. Yet the twice-as-old, homegrown music industry, on which the show's plot is centered, still runs off an ecosystem largely unsupported by state funding or investment from the city's civic and corporate communities

      Interesting. It's an industry, but untied to wider circuits of capital. How would increased investment from the city's corporate community affect the music being produced? Carmichael doesn't seem to worry about any possible downsides to such an increase.

  5. Mar 2020
    1. I wore mine whenever I stepped away from my desk, afraid people would see me without it and assume I wasn’t a lawyer.

      This is a big part of the reason that I've adopted a jacket and tie as my teaching uniform 9the other part has to do with the idea of enclothed cognition).

  6. Feb 2020
    1. The 'black music' that isn't either.

      In what sense is it not black, even by Samuels' lights? It's still produced primarily by blacks, so is he just fixating on the ways in which the white mass market dictates (or so he thinks) what ends up getting produced? And in what sense is it not music? A bizarre blurb.

    2. Rap forfeited whatever claim it may have had to particularity by acquiring a mainstream white audience whose tastes increasingly determined the nature of the form.

      Again, I'm not quite sure what the evidence is supposed to be that mainstream white tastes are increasingly determining the form. What we get here seems more of a post hoc explanation: if radical political messages or 'ghettocentric' themes are popular now, it must be because that's what white audiences wanted in the first place, since they're the most niumerous consumers. This seems to ignore, inter alia, the alternate hypothesis that this stuff got produced for reasons endogenous to the production side (say, to stand out in the competition for recognition by other producers — to be a 'producer's producer'), then acquired mass appeal because of its'radical chic' (reception/consumption side). I'm sure we could come up with a few more alternatives just playing with this basic production-distribution-consumption trichotomy. Not saying that Bourdieu has all the answers, but surely his theoretical approach would be preferable to Samuels' brand of post-hoc hackery.

    3. a dynamic in which anti-Semitic slurs and black criminality correspond to "authenticity," and "authenticity" sells records

      Short on detail here.

    4. formulaic assaults on white America


    5. BDP's roots remained firmly planted in the guns-and-posturing of the mainstream rap ghetto

      I'm not sure what the claim is here, exactly, but it certainly sounds like a mischaracterisation of what BDP were all about.

    6. After the release of "Fight the Power," Professor Griff made a series of anti-Semitic remarks in an interview with The Washington Times. Griff was subsequently asked to leave the group, for what Chuck D termed errors in judgment. Although these errors were lambasted in editorials across the country, they do not seem to have affected Public Enemy's credibility with its young white fans.

      And so...?

    7. Like disco music and jumpsuits, the social commentaries of early rappers like Grandmaster Flash and Mellie Mel were for the most part transparent attempts to sell records to whites by any means necessary.

      Really? Why think that? No attempt to make an argument here. i don't know why Samuels would think that.

    8. It was not until 1984 that rap broke through to a mass white audience.

      Well, if 'The Message' was a 'transparent [attempt] to sell records to whites', why wasn't that the first breakthrough?

    9. the Sugar Hill Gang, an ad hoc all-star team

      All-star?I thought Big Bank Hank was working at a pizza joint in Jersey when he got his big break! https://youtu.be/LhrSlOa2bsA?t=1620

    10. middle-class


    11. A lot of what you see in rap is the guilt of the black middle class about its economic success, its inability to put forth a culture of its own.

      Why claim that the black middle class has no claim to hip-hop culture, or that (if you somehow believed that the black middle class is culturally distinct) it has no culture of its own to put forth?

    12. Whatever its continuing significance in the realm of racial politics, rap's hour as innovative popular music has come and gone.

      Certainly a thesis worth reconsidering in 2020!...

    13. In part because of young whites like Shecter and van Meter, rap's influence on the street continues to decline.

      Again, what's the evidence besides the quotes below from Rubin and Stephney?

    14. With rap, however, this process took an unexpected turn: white demand indeed began to determine the direction of the genre, but what it wanted was music more defiantly black.


    15. RunDMC

      Run DMC

    16. "People hated that record," recalls Russell Simmons

      But why, exactly? Samuels implies that it's the political content, but offers no argument in support.

    17. drawing fulsome praise from white rock critics, raised on the protest ballads of Bob Dylan and Phil Ochs

      Cf. Nosnitsky (2012).

    18. "The Message"
    19. I said, hip-hop, de-hibby, de-hibby-dibby, Hip-hip-hop you don't stop. Rock it out, Baby Bubba to the boogie de-bang-bang, Boogie to the boogie to be. Now what you hear is not a test, I'm rapping to the beat… I said, "By the way, baby, what's your name?" She said, "I go by the name Lois Lane And you can be my boyfriend, you surely can Just let me quit my boyfriend, he's called Superman." I said, "he's a fairy, I do suppose Flying through the air in pantyhose … You need a man who's got finesse And his whole name across his chest" …
    20. Performers were unsophisticated about image and presentation, tending toward gold lamé jumpsuits and Jericurls, a second-rate appropriation of the stylings of funk musicians like George Clinton and Bootsy Collins
    21. It was the rapper's role to match this intensity rhythmically. No one knew what he was saying. He was just rocking the mike.

      Cf. the lines by Wonder Mike quoted below.

    22. Although much is made of rap as a kind of urban streetgeist, early rap had a more basic function: dance music.

      Pace Q-Tip...

    23. Cool DJ Herc

      Kool DJ Herc

    24. Rap's appeal to whites rested in its evocation of an age-old image of blackness: a foreign, sexually charged, and criminal underworld against which the norms of white society are defined, and, by extension, through which they may be defied.

      That's the thesis right there, no?

    25. despite an effective boycott of the music by both black and white radio that continues to this day

      Now there's something to get up in arms about...

    26. Since the early 1980s a tightly knit group of mostly young, middle-class, black New Yorkers, in close concert with white record producers, executives, and publicists, has been making rap music for an audience that industry executives concede is primarily composed of white suburban males.


    27. the more rappers were packaged as violent black criminals, the bigger their white audiences became

      Some numbers and deeper statistical analysis would be helpful here.

    28. although rap is still proportionally more popular among blacks, its primary audience is white and lives in the suburbs

      The white audience might be rap's largest, but why say it's the 'primary' audience?

    1. Bill O’Reilly consistently slammed hip-hop, even blaming it for a decline in Christianity back in 2015. “The rap industry, for example, often glorifies depraved behavior, and that sinks into the minds of some young people—the group that is most likely to reject religion,”

      This sounds silly, but we should at least note that it's a sociological claim (roughly speaking) — and also, perhaps, a falsifiable hypothesis?

    2. “This rape culture is purported by none other than the entertainment industry, none other than hip-hop music, which you can hear on local radio.”  

      Again, this is a sociological claim (however dubious on its face), and invites falsification!

    3. Public Enemy and N.W.A

      Although cf. David Samuels' nihilistic-critical take on this phenomenon.

    4. Michael Jackson was taking over the charts with music that demanded little of its white audience


    5. despotism

      Questionable choice of words, from a history-of-political-thought point of view.

    6. “Pull your pants up and the cops won’t shoot you.”


    1. Loggins delivers the lyrics in a desperate stage whisper, like someone determined to make the kind of love that doesn’t wake the baby.

      AHAHAHAHAAHAAAAAA my favourite line in the whole piece!

  7. Jan 2020
    1. o wonder everybody is always stealing it

      This is a misleading blurb, no? Because it's not clear to me that Morris is really talking about stealing here. Perhaps it was an editor, and not Morris himself, who named it?

    2. But by that point it had already captured the nation’s imagination and tapped into the confused thrill of integrated culture. A black kid hadn’t really merged white music with black, he’d just taken up the American birthright of cultural synthesis.

      So ... when a black artist does it, it's 'the American birthright of cultural synthesis'; but when it's a white artist, it's stealing? The title of this article is really confusing to me. Perhaps it was an editor, and not Morris himself, who named it?

    3. Black men in Armani.


    4. The modern conundrum of the black performer’s seeming respectable, among black people, began, in part, as a problem of white blackface minstrels’ disrespectful blackness.

      ? Confusing punctuation. Is Morris talking about how and when the 'modern conundrum of the black performer's seeming respectable' began among black people? Or is the conundrum one of seeming respectable among black people?

    5. Black music is a completely different story. It brims with call and response, layers of syncopation and this rougher element called “noise,” unique sounds that arise from the particular hue and timbre of an instrument

      'Improvisation can be presented as a crucial element in black music but anyone who has studied European concert music from roughly 1600 to 1740 has probably run into figured bass continuo scores and realized that there's a lot Heinrich Schutz expected you to come up with from the skeletal score. If you've ever tried reading medieval music scores you get to find out how very little is written down compared to 18th and 19th century repertoire ... the raising of the individual to the highest place within the aesthetic world of a song happens in "Western music" in the cult of the genius and in the singer-songwriter concept. It's not that there aren't identifiable distinctions between African and European musical idioms, there surely are--the trouble is that Morris describes a number of things as being somehow essential to black music that exist in many styles of music across the entire planet. ... call and response is a pretty normal thing in human music across the world and it happened a lot in Renaissance vocal music. What Morris seems to have done is to set up black American music as the music of freedom that, as the title indicates, is something that "everyone" steals. But does "everyone"? My concern about the NYT piece is that Morris seems so insular in defining music in American terms and in terms of an American narrative that there's not much about black music that he asserts as true that can't be found in other styles. Does call and response music-making not exist outside of black music? The entire polyphonic vocal tradition of Western Europe involves calls and responses, subjects and answers, cantus firmi and descants' (http://wenatcheethehatchet.blogspot.com/2019/09/is-everyone-always-stealing-black-music.html).

    6. We’re also talking about what the borrowers and collaborators don’t want to or can’t lift — centuries of weight, of atrocity we’ve never sufficiently worked through, the blackness you know is beyond theft because it’s too real, too rich, too heavy to steal.

      Argument? This feels like hand-waving.

    7. “blue-eyed soul,” a term I’ve never known what to do with, because its most convincing practitioners — the Bee-Gees, Michael McDonald, Hall & Oates, Simply Red, George Michael, Taylor Dayne, Lisa Stansfield, Adele — never winked at black people, so black people rarely batted an eyelash.


    8. What we’ve been dealing with ever since is more than a catchall word like “appropriation” can approximate. The truth is more bounteous and more spiritual than that, more confused. That confusion is the DNA of the American sound.

      This is a nice thesis, but parts of the essay seem to contradict it.

    9. called by blackness

      ...whatever that means.

    10. Particular to black American music is the architecture to create a means by which singers and musicians can be completely free, free in the only way that would have been possible on a plantation: through art, through music — music no one “composed” (because enslaved people were denied literacy), music born of feeling, of play, of exhaustion, of hope.

      But then here he seems to go back to essentialising black music, no?

    11. what we think of as black music

      Now Morris is back to distancing himself from this myth of racial separateness. As well he should.

    12. “White,” “Western,” “classical” music is the overarching basis for lots of American pop songs. Chromatic-chord harmony, clean timbre of voice and instrument: These are the ingredients for some of the hugely singable harmonies of the Beatles, the Eagles, Simon and Fleetwood Mac, something choral, “pure,” largely ungrained. Black music is a completely different story. It brims with call and response, layers of syncopation and this rougher element called “noise,” unique sounds that arise from the particular hue and timbre of an instrument — Little Richard’s woos and knuckled keyboard zooms. The dusky heat of Miles Davis’s trumpeting. Patti LaBelle’s emotional police siren. DMX’s scorched-earth bark. The visceral stank of Etta James, Aretha Franklin, live-in-concert Whitney Houston and Prince on electric guitar.

      White music was described here as 'white' music at the top of the passage, and that's entirely in keeping with the wise remarks about the notion of racial separateness in American art forms being a myth. But then black music is described (and celebrated) in non-ironic terms, without any distancing quotation marks...

    13. Americans have made a political investment in a myth of racial separateness, the idea that art forms can be either “white” or “black” in character when aspects of many are at least both.

      But it's precisely this misbegotten idea that seems to be lurking behind the blurb at the top, or the condescending remarks about Eminem et al.!

    14. If blackness can draw all of this ornate literariness out of Steely Dan and all this psychotic origami out of Eminem; if it can make Teena Marie sing everything — “Square Biz,” “Revolution,” “Portuguese Love,” “Lovergirl” — like she knows her way around a pack of Newports; if it can turn the chorus of Carly Simon’s “You Belong to Me” into a gospel hymn; if it can animate the swagger in the sardonic vulnerabilities of Amy Winehouse; if it can surface as unexpectedly as it does in the angelic angst of a singer as seemingly green as Ben Platt; if it’s the reason Nu Shooz’s “I Can’t Wait” remains the whitest jam at the blackest parties, then it’s proof of how deeply it matters to the music of being alive in America, alive to America.

      This strikes me as a rather condescending way to talk about Eminem, Teena Marie, or Amy Winehouse. Somehow 'blackness' gets the credit for whatever they've achieved, never mind the real artistry that each of them brings to the table.

  8. Nov 2019
    1. By birth, then, a baby has five layers of sex.

      I. Chromosomal Sex (determined at fertilisation) II. Fetal Gonadal Sex (8-12 weeks) III. Fetal Hormonal Sex IV. Internal Reproductive Sex V. External Genital Sex (4th month)

      Then add on gender socialisation, 'brain sex', 'pubertal hormonal sex'' and 'pubertal morphological sex'!

    2. unusual combinations of sex markers (ovaries and a penis, testes and a vagina, two X chromosomes and a scrotum, and more)

      MAKE A TABLE!!! #ppt

  9. Oct 2019
    1. This was why the fastest cotton pickers were often whipped the most. It was why punishments rose and fell with global market fluctuations.

      Ha--it would appear that hard work was more likely to earn you the lash than laziness.

    2. The uncompromising pursuit of measurement and scientific accounting displayed in slave plantations predates industrialism. Northern factories would not begin adopting these techniques until decades after the Emancipation Proclamation

      Post hoc ergo propter hoc — one came before the other, but dd the former influence the latter? What’s the evidence that it did?

  10. Sep 2019
    1. Textile mills in industrial centers like Lancashire, England

      Or in Manchester, where the Engels family owned several such mills?...

    2. Consider, for example, one of the most popular mainstream financial instruments: the mortgage.

      Sounds like this is gonna be great support for the claim that the slave economy, rather than being antecedent (or especially antithetical) to modern capitalism, was very much a part of the system that was then emerging and that we're familiar with today. But what is the evidence so far that it was the originary mode of our version of capitalism, or that our version owes its brutality to this mode?

    3. This not only created a starkly uneven playing field, dividing workers from themselves; it also made “all nonslavery appear as freedom,” as the economic historian Stanley Engerman has written. Witnessing the horrors of slavery drilled into poor white workers that things could be worse. So they generally accepted their lot, and American freedom became broadly defined as the opposite of bondage. It was a freedom that understood what it was against but not what it was for; a malnourished and mean kind of freedom that kept you out of chains but did not provide bread or shelter. It was a freedom far too easily pleased.

      Cf. Orlando Patterson.

    4. The violence was neither arbitrary nor gratuitous. It was rational, capitalistic, all part of the plantation’s design.

      This is starting to sound like something you could fold into a more overarching account of, say, rationalisation, or discipliner et surveiller.

    5. The violence was neither arbitrary nor gratuitous. It was rational, capitalistic, all part of the plantation’s design. “Each individual having a stated number of pounds of cotton to pick,” a formerly enslaved worker, Henry Watson, wrote in 1848, “the deficit of which was made up by as many lashes being applied to the poor slave’s back.” Because overseers closely monitored enslaved workers’ picking abilities, they assigned each worker a unique quota. Falling short of that quota could get you beaten, but overshooting your target could bring misery the next day, because the master might respond by raising your picking rate.

      But how uniform were these management practices across all regions of the slaveowning South? Cf. David J. Watkins, 'Slavery and Freedom in Theory and Practice' (2016) on slowdowns and other 'weapons of the weak' employed by slaves.

    6. relocated to the United States and started over

      Where, exactly?

  11. Jul 2019
    1. The people who are tipped in the US comprise an ever-expanding number of employed professions. Employers recognize the tipped individual as a great boon to the business: someone who needn’t be given benefits, a living wage, or employment security. They are essentially a guest at the company who must comport themselves appropriately for monetary reward, courtesy of the customer.

      It would appear, then, that the more we tip, and the more we introduce tipping into settings where it wasn't common before, the more we do to expand the 'precariat'.

    1. As a fact-checker, your job is not to resolve debates based on new evidence, but to accurately summarize the state of research and the consensus of experts in a given area, taking into account majority and significant minority views.

      Here fact-checking is depicted as something distinct from (though importantly related to) truth-seeking/researching.

    2. one of its authors has made a career of data analysis (and actually won a Pulitzer prize as part of a team that analyzed data and discovered election fraud in a Florida mayoral race)

      How did Caulfield find this out? Is it simply noted in the article?

  12. Jun 2019
    1. According to the Pew Research Center, 94 percent of Americans ages 18 to 24 use YouTube, a higher percentage than for any other online service

      Wish they would've hyperlinked to that study. So far I've only found this.

    2. Caleb Cain reflects on the article on his YouTube channel here, indicating where he's in agreement with Roose and where he isn't.

    3. The algorithm is responsible for more than 70 percent of all time spent on the site

      That's a lot, testing, testing...

    1. For instance, there are two ways to frame the cure to an epidemic that willkill 600 people (Tversky and Kahneman1981). First, one could say that if program A isadopted 200 people will saved, and if program B is adopted there is a 1/3rd chance that600 people will be saved and 2/3rd chance that no one will be saved. Second, one couldsay that if program A is adopted 400 people will die, and if program B isadopted there is a 1/3rd chance that no one will die, and a 2/3rd chance that all600 will die. Both of these framings describe the same information, but the firstframe elicits support for program A while the second frame elicits support forprogram B. The first scenario associatesprogram A with a definite gain, whilethe second associated program A with a definite loss.

      Great example.

    2. byforgoing any caveats, McIntosh implies that Whites have it better oneverysociological dimensio

      Hmm, I'm pretty sure that she'd acknowledge the distinct possibility of situations where black males, say, would be better off than white women because of male privilege.

    3. a politicalmovement that was as deadly as Nazism.

      I take it we're somehow separating Scandinavian-style democratic socialism from other versions of socialism and communism...

    4. fascism is an ideology vigilant to disruptions ofBproper^political andeconomic hierarchy

      Not the most helpful or accurate description of fascist ideology, it seems to me.