32 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2016
  2. atlspaceplacerhetf16.robinwharton.net atlspaceplacerhetf16.robinwharton.net
    1. The narrow streets surrounding the Opera and the hazards to which pedestrians were exposed on emerging from this theater, which is always besieged by carriages, gave a group of speculators in 1821 the idea of using some of the structures sepa­rating the new theater from the boulevard. / This enterprise, a source of riches for its originators, was at the same time of great benefit to the public.

      The streets of Paris in the 1870s are a bit reminiscent of Atlanta, though not for exactly the same reasons. Parts of Atlanta, like Paris at this time, are not very accommodating to pedestrians because of the introduction of vehicles. The arcades introduced a safer and easier way for pedestrians to reach the opera while also benefiting businesses, and I can't help but think that this could be a possible solution for Atlanta's lack of pedestrian access/desirability.

    2. “The arcades are sad, gloomy, and always intersecting in a manner disagreeable to the eye. . . . They seem . . . destined to house lithographers’ stu­dios and binders’ shops, as the adjoining street is destined for the manufacture of straw hats; pedestrians generally avoid them.”

      This description of the arcades is drastically different from those we came across before. Throughout the article, the arcades have been described as teeming with business, commerce, life, and diversity, with a multitude of shops, consumers, and flaneurs. In stark contrast, this description characterizes the closed-in alleyways as "sad" and "gloomy." I can only assume that lithographers' studios and binders' shops are equally as gloomy and dull, since, according to the author of this particular quote, are doomed to populate the arcades. What, I wonder, happened to the useful, lively arcades Benjamin described in the beginning of the excerpt?

    3. Trade and traffic are the two components of the street. Now, in the arcades thesecond of these has effectively died out: the traffic there is rudimentary. Thearcade is a street of lascivious commerce only; it is wholly adapted to arousingdesires. Because in this street the juices slow to a standstill, the commodityproliferates along the margins and enters into fantastic combinations, like thetissue in tumors.—The flaneur sabotages the traffic. Moreover, he is no buyer. Heis merchandise.

      According to Benjamin, there are two components of the streets, but the arcades are notably lacking in one, which differentiates them. While there is abundant trade, the flaneurs managed to "sabatoge traffic" by their nature. Their purpose is not to simply get from place to place--they have purpose. They simply observe, and that's what make them merchandise--they add character to the arcades and are, as the Citylab article describes, amazed with their findings.

      Bliss, Laura. "Pokémon Go Has Created a New Kind of Flâneur." CityLab. The Atlantic Magazine, 12 July 2016. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.

    4. Passage Vero-Dodat.

      This map shows the location of a number of the remaining arcades in relation to each other.


      Arcades Map. Digital image. The Telltale Blog, n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2016. http://telltaleblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/secret-passages-of-paris-map.jpg.

    5. A

      The Passages of Paris and Benjamin's Mind by Herbert Muschamp details the rich history surrounding Benjamin's "Arcades Project" and the influence it had on the city of Paris. Though left incomplete on Benjamin's death in 1940, "The Arcades Project" nevertheless remains one of the most important urban analyses of the time. Benjamin was born to a Jewish art dealer in Berlin. He was educated there, but the Paris Arcade Project began in 1927 as a newspaper article. The manuscript was recovered by essayist George Batailles and was later taken to the Bibliotheque National in Paris. In the many sections of his analysis, Benjamin included both his own reflections and a vast amount of research material, which includes passages from other historical and architectural sources. Benjamin considered this type of building the most important during his time period because they signaled the end of an age production and the beginning of an era of consumption.

      The article describes the arcade as a building type that predated Haussmann's grand boulevards. Essentially, the arcades were pedestrian passages between buildings--alleyways with iron and glass roofs over top of them. They were typically lined with shops and small restaurants, or tea rooms. The other even goes so far to describe the arcades as "the embryo of the suburban mall." Surprisingly, the arcades had been left behind, for the most part, when Benjamin was in Paris, Haussmann Boulevards having ripped through Paris to make room for new urban fantasies. Benjamin, however, was still a bit stuck on the old ones. He remains fixed on the "phantasmagoria" that exists in the arcades, and his criticism aims to bring awareness to his readers and "release them from the hold of manufactured states of mind," which are oftne proliferated by the architects of this age.

      Muschamp, Herbert. "The Passages of Paris And of Benjamin's Mind." The New York Times. The New York Times, 16 Jan. 2000. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.

    6. Passage du Caire. Erected after Napoleon’s return from Egypt. Contains some evocations of Egypt in the reliefs—sphinx-like heads over the entrance, among other things.
    7. During sudden rainshowers, the arcades are a place of refuge for theunprepared, to whom they offer a secure, if restricted, promenade—one fromwhich the merchants also benefit.”

      Throughout our texts and even my own research and observations, two of most common influences on the built environment I've noticed are necessity and commerce. Like it says later on in the article, the arcades were constructed in order to prevent opera-goers from getting wet in the rain.Then, rather organically, shops began to populate the areas. According to the New York Times article, "at one time, more than 300 arcades punctuated the Paris cityscape." It's fairly clear that the success of the arcades meant that more and more appeared throughout the city of Paris.

      Muschamp, Herbert. "The Passages of Paris And of Benjamin's Mind." The New York Times. The New York Times, 16 Jan. 2000. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.

    8. The physiognomy of the arcade emerges with Baudelaire in a sentence at the beginning of “Le Joueur genereux”: “It seemed to me odd that I could have passed this enchanting haunt so often without suspecting that here was the entrance.”

      The "physiognomy" or outward appearance of the arcades, as described by Beaudelaire, is unsuspecting and easily overlooked, much like the hidden places described in the NPR article about Atlas Obscura. Like the Time Square Hum, the arcades, a marvel of architecture and Parisian culture, blend in seamlessly with the environment. It serves as a reminder that, in the middle of the busy streets, "is this kind of little gem waiting for you if you're willing to sort of slow down, look around, listen and kind of start asking questions" as Thuras says in the article. This is much like the flaneurs that Beaudelaire himself described.

      Shapiro, Ari. "'Atlas Obscura' Tour Of Manhattan Finds Hidden Wonders In A Well-Trodden Place." NPR. NPR, 20 Sept. 2016. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.

    9. Shops in the Passage des Panoramas: Restaurant Veron, reading room, musie^J \) shop, Marquis, wine merchants, hosier, haberdashers, tailors, bootmakers, ho-) siers, bookshops, caricaturist, Theatre des Varietes. Compared with this, the Pas-' sage Vivienne was the “solid” arcade. There, ,one found no luxury shops


      From the image and description of the Passage de Panoramas, it is clear that these arcades were, in "the embryo of suburban shopping malls," offering a wide variety attractions, and even restaurants.

      Passage de Panorama. Digital image. Paris Tourist Office, n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2016. http://en.parisinfo.com/var/otcp/sites/images/media/1.-photos/80.-photos-sugar/lieux-de-loisirs-et-de-culture/passage-des-panoramas-%7C-630x405-%7C-%C2%A9-otcp-marc-bertrand/10653601-1-fre-FR/Passage-des-Panoramas-%7C-630x405-%7C-%C2%A9-OTCP-Marc-Bertrand.jpg.

      Muschamp, Herbert. "The Passages of Paris And of Benjamin's Mind." The New York Times. The New York Times, 16 Jan. 2000. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.

    10. nd those who cannot pay for . . . a shelter? They sleep wherever they find aplace, in passages, arcades, in corners where the police and the owners leave them undisturbed.”

      This is a good example of the use of public for the benefit of all, and it is the exact opposite of the the Yale Law Journal article we read. Instead of discriminating against a certain class of people by altering the physical environment, shop owners and even law enforcers allow their presence and gladly share the space. This exemplifies the diversity of the city and the overall accessibility of the arcades.

    11. There were two parallel lanes covered by canvas and planks, with a few glass panes to let the daylight in. Here one walked quite simply on the packed earth, which downpours sometimes transformed into mud. Yet people came from all over to crowd into this place, which was nothing short of mag­nificent, and stroll between the rows of shops that would seem like mere booths compared to those that have come after them

      In his essay on Atlas Obscura (Joshua Foer et al.), Ali Shapiro reminds us that the world is filled with 'astounding stuff' still waiting to be discovered. Atlas Obscura is a "guide tot eh worlds' hidden wonders" (Shapiro) that details those wonders of the world that people tend to overlook. One of the book's writers, Dylan Thuras, took Shapiro on a tour of Manhattan to find some of these hidden gems in his own backyard. Projects like Atlas Obscura and the Arcades Project serve a crucial purpose in a world where day to day life has become far to monotonous. Especially in the 21st century, where we live and die by our routines, we often miss the amazing environments and creations around us. It's important to go out and find these places, as they provide a much needed escape from the daily grind. These places are all around us, all we need to do is look for them.

      Shapiro, Ali. “‘Atlas Obscura’ Tour Of Manhattan Finds Hidden Wonders In A Well-Trodden Place.” NPR.org. Accessed October 2, 2016. http://www.npr.org/2016/09/20/494733654/atlas-obscura-tour-of-manhattan-finds-hidden-wonders-in-a-well-trodden-place.

    12. This passage is the locus classicus for the presentation of the arcades; for notonly do the divagations on the flaneur and the weather develop out of it, but,also, what there is to be said about the construction of the arcades, in an eco­nomic and architectural vein, would have a place
    13. Rue-galerie.—“The street-gallery . . . is the most important feature of a Phalan­stery and . . . cannot be conceived of in civilization. . . . Street-galleries . . . are heated in winter and ventilated in summer. .

      You can tell that the arcades were important to people because they put in great effort to keep them functional and comfortable year round.

    14. Rainshowers annoy me, so I gave one the slip in an arcade. There are a great many of these glass-covered walkways, which often cross through the blocks of buildings and make several branchings, thus affording welcome shortcuts. Here and there they are constructed with great elegance, and in bad weather or after dark, when they are lit up bright as day, they offer promenades—and very popu­lar they are—past rows of glittering shops

      I find it interesting the different circumstances that lead people to discover new places. For Deverient, the weather led him to discover the novelty of the arcades. Whether or not we go out in search of new places, we seem to find them eventually. This discovery only happens in cities like Paris and Atlanta, where walkability allows for more flexible routes.

    15. Evidently people smoked in the arcades at a time when it was not yet customary to smoke in the street. “I must say a word here about life in the arcades, favored haunt of strollers and smokers, theater of operations for every kind of small business

      It seems like the arcades were a sort of escape from constricting societal norms. The arcades were a place where people felt leniency.

    16. “The coulisse3 guaranteed the ongoing life of the Stock Exchange. Here there was never closing time; there was almost never night.

      "The stores are felt to this animation, cafes remain open all night; everything is noise, laughter, gaiety, until the first light of dawn had replaced the expiring fires gas. "

      • Leo Lespes and Charles Bertrand, Paris-Album on the Passage de l'Opera
    17. The regime of specialties furnishes also—this said in passing—the historical-matrialist key to the flourishing (if not the inception) of genre painting in the Fortiesof the previous century

      The Arcades served as a catalyst for the spreading of art and knowledge. It could be said that the built environment was crucial for the flourishing of culture.

    18. People associated the “genius of the Jacobins with the genius of the industrials,”but they also attributed to Louis Philippe the saying: “God be praised, and myshops too.

      I think Phillipe may have been subtly adverstising his shops here. He relates his shops to God himself. Today, we see similar forms of advertising in which the product is compared to something people think they need.

    19. “The Passage du Caire is highly reminiscent, on a smaller scale, of the Passage du Saumon, which in the past existed on the Rue Montmartre, on the site of the present-day Rue Bachaumont.” Paul Leautaud, “Vieux Paris,” Mercure deFrance (October 15,1927), p.

      "Once the center of making straw hats who side with workshops printing and lithography, the passage of Cairo is now the heart of the industry and trade of tailoring. An exotic way, cluttered with various objects that also deserves to be restored ..." (Monique Joly, retired Paris teacher)

    20. “There, in the guise of a female glover, shone a beauty that was approachable but that, in the matter of youth, attached importance only to its own; she required her favorites to supply her with the finery from which she hoped to make a fortune. . . . This young and beautiful woman under glass was called ‘the Absolute’

      I'm assuming this is a response to some form of artwork found within the Passage Vero-Dodat. The emotional response to something part of a built environment is striking.

  3. Sep 2016
    1. These problems and others will be analyzed more fully in the remainder of this Article.

      The main takeaways I had from this article are (1) that Architect tend to favor the rich over the poor, as they are the ones paying for their work, (2) The rich prefer to not see the poor, and (3) Architects deliberately exclude poor people in their infrastructure,

    2. Although a residential permitting scheme like this allows neighborhoods to physically exclude, it also imposes bureaucratic requirements on residents such as purchasing parking permit stickers and remembering to give guest passes to visiting friends

      As a personal example, I lived across the street from a gated community that many of my friends lived in. You needed a card to get in through the front entrance, but there was a back entrance with a parking lot and a sidewalk into the neighborhood that wasn't gated. It may be important to note that most places have ways to work around gates, and people that are poorer and have to walk will likely find workarounds easily.

    3. Many one-way streets were created during urban renewal with the stated goals of accommodating automobile traffic and allowing people to pass quickly through cities.

      Many of the streets around the vicinity of GSU are one way. This does not necessarily hurt students, as they can walk to classes from parking decks, but it makes it more difficult for people crossing through campus to navigate to a specific location. Perhaps this was intentional as a means to limit traffic through the campus.

    4. The case settled, but it presents a stark example of the dangers inherent in exclusionary transit design.

      Transit stops are another place where homeless people spend the night, according to my supplemental reading. It is a good place to stay because if a police officer comes up to someone staying at one, they could easily use the excuse that they are waiting for the bus. I believe that as time goes on, simpler bus stops such as signs and ones that lack a shelter will become more popular so as to deter homeless people.

    5. The effect of these types of residency requirements is often to exclude people who do not live in a given neighborhood from that neighborhood.

      Couldn't one argue that perhaps if one doesn't live in a particular neighborhood, or has friends in it, then there is no reason to be in it? From my understanding, the purpose of these permits is to prevent solicitors or predators, not the poor. Most poor people don't even have cars to park.

    6. For example, one might think it a simple aesthetic design decision to create a park bench that is divided into three individual seats with armrests separating those seats. Yet the bench may have been created this way to prevent people—often homeless people—from lying down and taking naps

      This particular section was the main focus of my article. Various bench designs were shown, and many were not able to be slept upon. Some examples are below.

    7. Justice Marshall dissented, acknowledging that this inconvenience carried a “powerful symbolic message.”

      This being Justice Thurgood Marshall, who was the first African-American Supreme Court justice. His appointment helped the Supreme Court to see the various ways they were doing injustice to the colored people of America, and the addition of his perspective helped to make more fair rulings in the Supreme Court.

    8. Wealthy, mostly white residents of the northern Atlanta suburbs have vocally opposed efforts to expand MARTA into their neighborhoods for the reason that doing so would give people of color easy access to suburban communities

      The source for this particular quote was written in 2011. The Black Lives Matter movement started after this article was written. I think that if wealthy white residents were to use this reasoning today, they would likely be chastised harshly for their words. It is interesting to see how things have changed in just the past 5 years.

    9. public park at Jones Beach

      The fact that it blocks people of color as much as poorer people is an interesting thing to note. Don't poorer people tend to walk everywhere? Could the buses not find another route? Wouldn't this also pose a problem if someone who lived in the area's car broke down and the bus was necessary? It is interesting to see that the richer people would prefer to be inconvenienced rather than have their area populated by the poor.

    10. Article

      My article, "How Cities Use Design to Drive Away Homeless People", by Robert Rosenberger, begins with a very strange erection outside of a Tesco in London. In a shady area next to the door and behind a pillar, numerous metal spikes were cemented into the ground in an effort to deter homeless people from sleeping there. There was a public outcry, and protesters even covered them in cement to render them useless.

      The public outcry, however, didn't extend to other forms of deterrence. As a non-skater, many people fail to take notice to the metal studs added to infrastructure to prevent skaters from grinding on them. Similarly, as people that don't sleep in public areas, we fail to see things that prevent people from sleeping there. Some examples given are public benches shaped like cylinders, public benches with armrests, and even some interesting public seating that are simply stools. Essentially, architects design benches and infrastructure in ways that deter unwanted people, including both skaters and homeless.

      Rosenberger, Robert. “How Cities Use Design to Drive Homeless People Away.” The Atlantic 19 June 2014. The Atlantic. Web. 22 Sept. 2016.

    11. The examples of architectural exclusion identified in this Part are concerning in that they reveal a number of underlying problems.

      Even more concerning is the lack of public outcry, save for when design is very blatant, like in the picture shown. If the spikes were, say, replaced by a sculpture or another piece of art, the outcry would be far smaller.

    12. often poor people and people of color

      I realize that in modern times, the former is more likely than the latter, as the latter can be seen as racial profiling. Is there chance that perhaps stereotyping based on class will be outlawed in the near future, similar to the outlawing of racism?