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- Mar 2019
A Pedagogical Framework for Technology Integration in ESL Classrooms 191is that in an online reading environment designed with embedded compre-hension strategy supports, ELLs’ comprehension gains were signiﬁcantly associated with their frequency of using coaching avatars that provided sup-port for effective use of reading comprehension strategies (Proctor et al., 2007). Ubiquitous technology environments can arouse student interest in us-ing the technologies (Huang, Huang, Huang, & Lin, 2012; Sandberg, Maris, & de Geus, 2011) and promote better learning outcomes in listening, speak-ing and vocabulary acquisition (Gromik, 2012; Liu & Chu, 2010; Sandberg et al., 2011). Sandberg et al. (2011) observed that when students took home a smartphone to learn English about zoo animals, they were motivated to use it in their spare time, which enabled them to outperform those who did not take the mobile applications home. Technologies designed to adapt to individual learners’ needs have also demonstrated positive effects in promoting learning (Lo, Wang, & Yeh, 2004; Chen & Chung, 2008; Hsu, Hwang, & Chang, 2010; Jia, Chen, Ding, & Ruan, 2012; Wible, Kuo, Chien, Liu, & Tsao, 2001). Lo et al. (2004) used a hypermedia-based English prepositions learning system2 to diagnose students’ errors and provide adaptive remedial instructions, which signiﬁ-cantly improved students’ conﬁdence and learning outcomes. Challenges. The degree of freedom that teachers should give students when students use technology for language learning deserves exploration. Experiments have shown that, when students were free to choose how and when to use CALL, their choices could lead to poor learning and wasted time (Sciarone & Meijer, 1993). Another challenge is that, although learning tools provide easy access to resources, learners may feel overwhelmed by large amounts of information and become passive receivers of knowledge (Schmid, 2008). Easy access to resources can encourage laziness and pas-sivity of learners when it comes to checking materials and exploring knowl-edge themselves.
This paper exemplifies the technology integration into an ESL classroom. The author has found many great things about using technology to teach her students as well as many challenges associated with it. Some of the positive ways technology has helped her teaching is the student interest in technology, the scaffolds it can provide for these students and how it can adapt to students individual needs. On the flip side, some of the challenges technology presents for this ESL classroom are the initial engagement with technology is short lived, teachers are not trained adequately and there are few guidelines to provide a framework for ESL teachers. Rating 8/10