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  1. Apr 2020
    1. Indications for operative treatment of thoracic injuries Initial tube thoracostomy drainage of >1000 mL (penetrating injury) or >1500 mL (blunt injury) Ongoing tube thoracostomy drainage of >200 mL/h for 3 consecutive hours in noncoagulopathic patients Caked hemothorax despite placement of two chest tubes Great vessel injury (endovascular techniques may be used in selected patients) Pericardial tamponade Cardiac herniation Massive air leak from the chest tube with inadequate ventilation Tracheal or main stem bronchial injury diagnosed by endoscopy or imaging Open pneumothorax Esophageal perforation Air embolism

      1000ml drainage (penetrating), >1500mlm (blunt) from tube. >200mL/h for 3h nonstop drainage in noncoagulopathic px. caked hemothorax after two chest tubes.great vessels inj. pericardial tamp. hernia of heart. inadequate ventilation with massive air leak.main stem or tracheal damage (imaginf or endoscopy). open pneumothorax. perforation of esophagus. air embolism