3 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2020
  2. Feb 2019
    1. In the second post in the series, Simon makes the argument that the killer feature of decentralized systems is rule-breaking: “While a decentralized architecture can be effective at routing around a variety of different failures in a network, the type of decentralization that was achieved by Bittorrent (and by Bitcoin for that matter) has enabled routing around rules.”

      <big>评:</big><br/><br/> 从学术领域的开放获取(Open Access)思潮,到政治生活的匿名化社运,再到经济体系的点对点金融——BitTorrent 就像是一颗沧海遗珠,它卷起的滔天巨浪,曾试图侵袭人类社会所有坚不可摧的巨坝高墙。 <br/><br/> 但这番焕新图景背后所昭示的事实是,这代互联网人奉行的创新精神陷入了「不破不立」的窠臼。为什么我们创造新事物的前提是打破(break)或变革(reform)现有的?“routing around” 的最高境界何尝不是「共荣共存」?

  3. Apr 2016
    1. Here we have developed a phage-assisted continuous evolution selection that rapidly evolves high-affinity protein–protein interactions, and applied this system to evolve variants of the Bt toxin Cry1Ac that bind a cadherin-like receptor from the insect pest Trichoplusia ni (TnCAD) that is not natively bound by wild-type Cry1Ac. The resulting evolved Cry1Ac variants bind TnCAD with high affinity (dissociation constant Kd = 11–41 nM), kill TnCAD-expressing insect cells that are not susceptible to wild-type Cry1Ac, and kill Cry1Ac-resistant T. ni insects up to 335-fold more potently than wild-type Cry1Ac. Our findings establish that the evolution of Bt toxins with novel insect cell receptor affinity can overcome insect Bt toxin resistance and confer lethality approaching that of the wild-type Bt toxin against non-resistant insects. At a glance