76 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2023

      From LAWLER 274: Wilde added chapters 15-18 here in 1891. Lippincott's chapter 13 was then divided into chapters 19 and 20 (1891).

      ZABROUSKI: In summary, chapters 15-18 describe Dorian Gray's character deterioration. - In Chapter 15, Dorian flirts with bored noblewomen at a dinner party, and ends up leaving early to abuse opium. - In Chapter 16, Dorian travels to an opium den in London and has a run-in with Sibyl Vane's brother, James Vane. James had been on the hunt for Dorian to avenge his dead sister, but once faced with the young Dorian, he assumes he was mistaken and had been following the wrong man. After the men part ways, James learns that he was fooled and resolves to hunt down Dorian again. The concept of Dorian's inability to age further plays into the fantastical nature of the novel. - In Chapter 17, Dorian entertains guests at his estate in Shelby, and they discuss the beauty of art. Dorian sees James out in the conservatory, and he faints from terror. - In Chapter 18, Dorian hides indoors for two days before gaining the courage to venture outside. Later in the day, he attends a shooting party in the park, and, attempting to shoot a hare, shoots and kills a man (it is later revealed in this chapter that the man was in fact James Vane). When Dorian claims the incident was a "bad omen," Lord Henry disagrees and tries to change the subject; he teases Dorian about his relations with a duchess. Dorian shuts down Lord Henry's teasing and says, "I wish I could love." This loaded utterance could possibly reference Dorian's poor mental state resulting in his inability to love, or his inability to love a woman. Either way, it is unclear what Dorian exactly means.


      Chapter XIV in 1891.


      Chapter XIII in 1891.

    4. have been

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "are" in 1891.

    5. "

      ZABROUSKI: This passage is connected to the previous paragraph in 1891.

    6. heliotrope

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "lilas blanc" in 1891.

    7. I

      ZABROUSKI: In 1891, this paragraph begins with "Yes: you are the same. I wonder what..."

    8. He remembered that the night before, for the first time in his life, he had forgotten to hide it, when he crept out of the room.

      ZABROUSKI: Wilde changed this to "He remembered that the night before he had forgotten, for the first time in his life, to hide the fatal canvas, and was about to rush forward, when he drew back with a shudder" in 1891.

    9. grinning

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "leering" in 1891.

    10. shameful.

      ZABROUSKI: In 1891, Wilde added another sentence here: "You were to me such an ideal as I shall never meet again."

    11. He knew it, and he felt as if his blood had changed from fire to sluggish ice in a moment.

      ZABROUSKI: Reordered to "He knew it, and he felt as if his blood had changed in a moment from fire to sluggish ice" in 1891.

    12. passed entirely away

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "completely passed away" in 1891.

    13. lips

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "mouth" in 1891.

    14. marred

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "spoiled" in 1891.

    15. leering

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "grinning" in 1891.

    16. thing

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "face" in 1891.

    17. Hallward's

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "the painter's" in 1891.


      Chapter XII in 1891.


      Chapter XI in 1891.

      From WINWAR 166: This chapter is almost a synthesis of À Rebours in its detailed themes of aestheticism.


      Chapter X in 1891.

    4. "A terrible load to carry,"

      From LAWLER 238: Wilde changed this line three times. In the typescript, there was another sort of pun in Dorian's reply: "There is a good deal of heaviness in modern art." In 1891, Wilde changed it again to the deliberately prosaic "I am afraid it is rather heavy," emphasizing a different mood entirely.

      ZABROUSKI: While the original quote portrayed a fictional character's humor, the 1891 change seems to portray Wilde's personal struggle in publishing this book. This change may be alluding to the backlash Wilde received when Dorian Gray was first published. Thus, this darker, sadder, and overall more pessimistic tone would be bringing attention to Wilde's opinion on the debate between morality vs. art.


      Chapter VII in 1891.


      Chapter IX in 1891.


      Chapter VIII in 1891.


      This chapter shows up as Chapter VI in the 1891 edition.

      ZABROUSKI: Directly preceding this chapter, Wilde had added his second chapter addition, considered to be "Chapter V". The added chapter is told from Sibyl Vane's perspective, describing her excitement about the engagement with Dorian. Also in this chapter is the first mention of Sibyl's brother, James Vane, whom Wilde created in 1891. James will eventually become Dorian's unsuccessful nemesis.

    5. delightful

      From LAWLER 209: Added in the typescript. Wilde inserted almost two additional pages at this point in 1891.


    6. I was jealous of every one to whom you spoke. I wanted to have you all to myself. I was only happy when I was with you.

      ZABROUSKI: Carson cited this line during Wilde's trial and had asked, "May I take it that you, as an artist, have never known the feeling described here?" to which Wilde had responded, "I have never allowed any personality to dominate my art." Carson then asked, "Then you have never known the feeling you described?" and Wilde responded, "No. It is a work of fiction." This separation between the art of fiction and personal experience is common among many fiction writers. One example is L.T. Meade, author of The Sorceress of the Strand (1902), who has claimed she found it "difficult to write of real experiences." This idea also encompasses the concept of aestheticism, the doctrine in which art exists for the sake of beauty alone.

    7. Rugged and straightforward as he was, there was something in his nature that was purely feminine in its tenderness

      From LAWLER 230: This was deleted in 1891.

      ZABROUSKI: Because of the typical stereotypes Victorian men and women were placed, readers would have viewed this characteristic as immoral effeminacy.

    8. herself.

      ZABROUSKI: Following this line, Wilde added another line of dialogue in 1891: The elder man buried his face in his hands. 'How fearful,' he muttered, and a shudder ran through him." Following this line of dialogue, Dorian continues as seen here.

    9. He

      ZABROUSKI: Immediately preceding this paragraph, Wilde added the following paragraph in 1891: "In the huge gilt Venetian lantern, spoil of some Doge’s barge, that hung from the ceiling of the great, oak-panelled hall of entrance, lights were still burning from three flickering jets: thin blue petals of flame they seemed, rimmed with white fire. He turned them out and, having thrown his hat and cape on the table, passed through the library towards the door of his bedroom, a large octagonal chamber on the ground floor that, in his new-born feeling for luxury, he had just had decorated for himself and hung with some curious Renaissance tapestries that had been discovered stored in a disused attic at Selby Royal. As he was turning the handle of the door, his eye fell upon the portrait Basil Hallward had painted of him. He started back as if in surprise. Then he went on into his own room, looking somewhat puzzled. After he had taken the button-hole out of his coat, he seemed to hesitate. Finally, he came back, went over to the picture, and examined it. In the dim arrested light that struggled through the cream-coloured silk blinds, the face appeared to him to be a little changed. The expression looked different. One would have said that there was a touch of cruelty in the mouth. It was certainly strange."

    10. A long line of boys carrying crates of striped tulips, and of yellow and red roses, defiled in front of him, threading their way through the huge jade-green piles of vegetables. Under the portico, with its gray sun-bleached pillars, loitered a troop of draggled bareheaded girls, waiting for the auction to be over.

      From LAWLER 216: Added in the typescript.

      ZABROUSKI: After these sentences, Wilde revised the rest of the paragraph in 1891: "Others crowded round the swinging doors of the coffee-house in the piazza. The heavy cart-horses slipped and stamped upon the rough stones, shaking their bells and trappings. Some of the drivers were lying asleep on a pile of sacks. Iris-necked and pink-footed, the pigeons ran about picking up seeds. After a little while, he hailed a hansom and drove home. For a few moments he loitered upon the doorstep, looking round at the silent square, with its blank, close-shuttered windows and its staring blinds. The sky was pure opal now, and the roofs of the houses glistened like silver against it. From some chimney opposite a thin wreath of smoke was rising. It curled, a violet riband, through the nacre-coloured air."

    11. it

      ZABROUSKI: Wilde added the following lines in 1891: "As for marriage, of course that would be silly, but there are other and more interesting bonds between men and women. I will certainly encourage them. They have the charm of being fashionable."

    12. appointment

      From LAWLER 206: Wilde added several lines here in 1891: "Are you serious?" / "Quite serious, Basil. I should be miserable if I thought I should ever be more serious than I am at the present moment."

      ZABROUSKI: This may just be a personal opinion, but I don't think adding that extra dialogue was necessary. However, I suppose the extra back and forth between Basil and Henry is meant to emphasize how beautiful Sybil is. Because there was no lead up to Basil asking Harry if he approves of the marriage, one may have argued that Basil was hinting at previous romantic relations between Harry and Dorian.


      This chapter shows up as Chapter IV in the 1891 edition.

      ZABROUSKI: Wilde added six additional chapters to the entire 1891 edition. The first 1891 chapter addition would be found here, in between this edition's Chapter II and Chapter III. The additional chapter, in summary, includes a scene between Lord Henry and his uncle, Lord George Fermor, in which Henry asks for any information regarding Dorian Gray. Uncle George tells Henry that he knew Dorian's mother, Lady Margaret Devereux, "intimately," and that she was a very beautiful woman. Lady Devereux had run off to marry some "penniless man," and, though tragic, Henry found it romantic. After learning about Dorian's wealthy parentage, Henry headed to his Aunt Agatha's house; on the way, he marveled about Dorian's backstory and beauty. Lawler mentions in his footnotes that "the scene at Aunt Agatha's house is one of the two social cameos Wilde added in the revised addition. The other comes late in the novel at Selby Royal. Each forms a background for another kind of dramatic action. In this scene, Henry's performance established his influence over Dorian's mind. The scene itself, however, foreshadows the success Wilde was soon to enjoy in the theatre" (34).

    2. When our eyes met, I felt that I was growing pale. A curious instinct of terror came over me. I knew that I had come face to face with some one whose mere personality was so fascinating that, if I allowed it to do so, it would absorb my whole nature, my whole soul, my very art itself. I did not want any external influence in my life.

      ZABROUSKI: Throughout the novel, Wilde chooses to describe Dorian as "fascinating." Etymologically, the word derives from the Latin "fascinātus," and means to enchant or bewitch. ("Fascinate") Concepts of witchcraft and enchanting nature build the foundation of Dorian's character; not only does Dorian not physically age or lose his beauty, but whenever he talks to other men, they seem to be set under a spell by his natural charms. By using witchcraft as a cover for homoerotic seduction, Wilde was able to keep sections like these in the novel.

  2. Apr 2023
    1. "You don't mean to say that Basil has got any passion or any romance in him?"

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "Oh, Basil is the best of fellows, but he seems to me just a bit of a Philistine. Since I have known you, Harry, I have discovered that" in 1891.

      A "Philistine" is a person who is indifferent to the culture or the arts (Oxford Dictionary). This alteration not only ties into Wilde's interest in aestheticism but more importantly detaches Basil from any romantic characteristics. Additionally, the following two lines of dialogue are deleted in the 1891 edition, which mutes the homoerotic undertones between Basil and Lord Henry; Lord Henry's comment that "[Basil] certainly has romance" provides insight that there was some sort of romantic relationship between the two. Furthermore, the fact that Henry asks Dorian if Basil has ever "let [him] know that" rather than "tell [him] that" also points to Basil's homosexuality. Because having any homosexual relations was illegal at the time, Henry's phrasing acts as an unspoken tip to Dorian. One could argue, then, that Basil, Lord Henry, and Dorian are homosexual. Another thing to note is that this particular deletion draws more attention to Basil's art rather than romantic relations. In this way, Wilde adds emphasis to the romance of art rather than homosexual romance.

      From LAWLER 203: Originally, Dorian had asked whether "Basil has got a passion for somebody?" Lord Henry answered, "Yes, he has. Has he never told you?" This dialogue was cancelled, and Wilde wrote the changes in the margin.

    2. "He gives you good advice, I suppose. People are very fond of giving away what they need most themselves."

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "People are very fond of giving away what they need most themselves. It is what I call the depth of generosity" in 1891.

    3. me."

      ZABROUSKI: Wilde added "He gives me good advice" in 1891.

    4. "I believe he was quite right there. But, on the other hand, most of them are not at all expensive."

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "I should not wonder if he was quite right there. But, on the other hand, judging from their appearance, most of them cannot be at all expensive" in 1891.

    5. all

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "every one of them" in 1891.

    6. "I was not surprised either.

      ZABROUSKI: This sentence was deleted in 1891.

    7. yours

      From LAWLER 200: Was originally "your mistress," but Stoddart changed it. Wilde altered Stoddart's emendation in 1891, making it "I suppose she will belong to you some day."

      ZABROUSKI: I found this specific change interesting, for it seems like such a minor alteration yet makes a big impact in the grand scheme of things. Lawler claimed that the 1891 alteration is "stronger" than what is here. Given the time this was published, that claim rings true; because Victorian women were typically viewed as property or arm candy rather than an actual partner, saying the phrase "belong to" would have been fitting for a heterosexual Victorian man.

    8. "And, after all, it is purely a question for physiology.

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "Why, even in love it is purely a question for physiology" in 1891.

    9. "Stop!" murmured Dorian Gray, "stop! you bewilder me. I don't know what to say. There is some answer to you, but I cannot find it. Don't speak. Let me think, or, rather, let me try not to think."

      From LAWLER 186: Wilde added this sentence and the following five paragraphs to the typescript of this edition in a long marginal note ending with "...of the silence."

      ZABROUSKI: This addition plays into Wilde's interest in aestheticism, especially in regards to music, art, and linguistics.

    10. terribly.

      From LAWLER 188: Wilde cancelled the following line from his original manuscript: "If you set yourself to know life, you will look evil; if you are afraid of life, you will look common."

      ZABROUSKI: The homoerotic undertone of this sentence wouldn't have gone unnoticed if it was included in this edition. Though Lord Henry seems to be talking about the changes in appearance through aging, if those lines were included in this edition, Lord Henry could've been implicitly addressing society's view on homosexual relations rather than society's view on physical appearance. The phrase "afraid of life" may suggest being afraid of acting on one's true desires, and the phrase looking "common" may suggest an unwanted submission to a heterosexual relationship.

    11. Basil

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "Hallward" in 1891.

    12. about the housing of the poor, and the necessity for model lodging-houses.

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "the feeding of the poor and the necessity for model lodging-houses. Each class would have preached the importance of those virtues, for whose exercise there was no necessity in their own lives. The rich would have spoken on the value of thrift, and the idle grown eloquent over the dignity of labour" in 1891.

    13. He thought with pleasure of

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "He pictured to himself with silent amusement" in 1891.

    14. in the ivy,

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "in the green lacquer leaves of the ivy" in 1891.

    15. Those who are faithful know only the pleasures of love:

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "Those who are faithful know only the trivial side of love:" in 1891.

    16. "Oh, she murmured, 'Charming boy—poor dear mother and I quite inseparable—engaged to be married to the same man—I mean married on the same day—how very silly of me! Quite forget what he does—afraid he—doesn't do anything—oh, yes, plays the piano—or is it the violin, dear Mr. Gray?' We could neither of us help laughing, and we became friends at once."

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "Oh, something like, 'Charming boy--poor dear mother and I absolutely inseparable. Quite forget what he does--afraid he--doesn't do anything--oh, yes, plays the piano--or is it the violin, dear Mr. Gray?' Neither of us could help laughing, and we became friends at once" in 1891.

      The phrase "engaged to be married to the same man--I mean married on the same day" suggests that Dorian was engaged to a man, and in accidentally sharing that piece of information, Lady Brandon attempts to correct herself. The 1891 text omits that phrase completely, for readers may have pointed out the homosexual undertone in the 1890 edition.

    17. "Because I have put into it all the extraordinary romance of which, of course, I have never dared to speak to him. He knows nothing about it. He will never know anything about it. But the world might guess it; and I will not bare my soul to their shallow, prying eyes. My heart shall never be put under their microscope. There is too much of myself in the thing, Harry,—too much of myself!"

      From LAWLER 181: Wilde altered this paragraph in every revision.

      ZABROUSKI: In the 1891 version, Wilde wrote, “Because, without intending it, I have put into it some expression of all this curious artistic idolatry, of which, of course, I have never cared to speak to him. He knows nothing about it. He shall never know anything about it. But the world might guess it, and I will not bare my soul to their shallow prying eyes. My heart shall never be put under their microscope. There is too much of myself in the thing, Harry—too much of myself!” In the original manuscript, Wilde had (after "But the world might guess it") "where there is merely love, they would see something evil. Where there is spiritual passion, they would suggest something vile." If Wilde kept those two sentences in, it could be assumed that critics would have used it as fuel for their argument on what constitutes a moral vs immoral book.

    18. me

      ZABROUSKI: Wilde added "Some subtle influence passed from him to me, and for the first time in my life I saw in the plain woodland the wonder I had always looked for and always missed" to the end of this paragraph in 1891.

      LAWLER 180: From the original manuscript, Wilde deleted "and as he leaned across to look at it, his lips touched my hand. The world becomes young to me when I hold his hand..." In 1891, Wilde added another sentence here (which I transcribed above) emphasizing Dorian's influence over Basil's art.

    19. Harry!

      ZABROUSKI: Deleted in 1891.

    20. that

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "a model or a sitter" in 1891.

    21. model from him.

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "sketch from him" in 1891.

    22. Of course sometimes it is only for a few minutes. But a few minutes with somebody one worships mean a great deal."

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "He is absolutely necessary to me" in 1891.

      From LAWLER 180: This change omits the homoerotic overtones.

    23. They

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "The masses" in 1891.

    24. classes

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "orders" in 1891.

    25. I choose my friends for their good looks, my acquaintances for their characters, and my enemies for their brains.

      From LAWLER 178: Another epigram Wilde touched up a little in 1891.

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "I choose my friends for their good looks, my acquaintances for their good characters, and my enemies for their good intellects" in 1891.

    26. She either explains them entirely away, or tells one everything about them except what one wants to know. But what did she say about Mr. Dorian Gray?"

      ZABROUSKI: Wilde changed this sentence and added more dialogue in the 1891 text.

      "She either explains them entirely away, or tells one everything about them except what one wants to know."

      "Poor Lady Brandon! You are hard on her, Harry!" said Hallward, listlessly.

      "My dear fellow, she tried to found a salon, and only succeeded in opening a restaurant. How could I admire her? But tell me, what did she say about Mr. Dorian Gray?"

    27. "Laughter is not a bad beginning for a friendship, and it is the best ending for one," said Lord Henry, plucking another daisy.

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "'Laughter is not at all a bad beginning for a friendship, and it is far the best ending for one,' said the young lad, plucking another daisy" in 1891.

    28. A grasshopper began to chirrup in the grass, and a long thin dragonfly floated by on its brown gauze wings.

      From LAWLER 176: Several stylistic changes made here in 1891.

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "A grasshopper began to chirrup by the wall, and like a blue thread a long thin dragon-fly floated past on its brown gauze wings" in 1891.

    29. and for a time they did not speak.

      ZABROUSKI: "and... speak" changed to "and ensconced themselves on a long bamboo seat that stood in the shade of a tall laurel bush" in 1891.

    30. other

      ZABROUSKI: Added in from the original manuscript.

    31. in an art that is necessarily immobile

      ZABROUSKI: Refined to "through the medium of an art that is necessarily immobile" in 1891.

    32. slanting

      ZABROUSKI: Removed "silent" before "slanting beams" from the original manuscript.

    33. Gray

      ZABROUSKI: Replaced "him" from original manuscript.

    34. he is

      ZABROUSKI: Replaced "we are" from the original manuscript.

    35. would

      ZABROUSKI: Replaced "did" from the original manuscript.

    1. round the black-crocketed spires of the early June hollyhocks,

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "round the dusty gilt horns of the straggling woodbine," in 1891.

    2. in an art that is necessarily immobile

      ZABROUSKI: Refined to "through the medium of an art that is necessarily immobile" in 1891.

    3. slanting

      ZABROUSKI: Removed "silent" before "slanting beams" from the original manuscript.

    4. Gray

      ZABROUSKI: Replaced "him" from original manuscript.

    5. would

      ZABROUSKI: Replaced "did" from the original manuscript.

    6. he is

      ZABROUSKI: Replaced "we are" from the original manuscript.