29 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2018
    1. Researchers measure extreme poverty as living with less than 1.90$ per day.

      Definition of extreme poverty is <$1.90/day.

    2. People are considered to live in extreme poverty at a consumption (or income) level below 1.90 international-$ per day. International $ are adjusted for price differences between countries and for price changes over time (inflation).

      Definition of "extreme poverty."

    3. Therefore the series is poverty headcount (1.90$ per day) as far back as possible (1981) from the World Bank and all observations before 1980 are Bourguignon and Morrison (2002) 'share of the world population living in extreme poverty'.

      Describes how the definition of poverty varies on statistics prior to vs after 1980.

  2. iresearch.worldbank.org iresearch.worldbank.org
    1. in 2013, based on $1.9/Day, the World Total based on headcount (%) is 10.94.

    1. Claim1: Drugs used by millions to treat Parkinson’s, depression, and bladder problems may raise the risk of dementia
    2. dawn of the republic
    3. From the dawn of the republic, American newspapers were supported by government subsidies
    4. The advertising-supported model that has recently collapsed was a historical anomaly.

      This research suggests the advertising-dominated model has been in place for over 20 years now. Does this contradict the assertion made in the claim? Is the research credible?


    5. the dawn of the republic

      For the purposes of this, we are taking this to mean post-ratification of The Constitution, roughly 1790 forward.

    6. advertising-supported model

      The Baltimore Clipper in 1844 charged $0.01 per copy of their daily paper. The paper consisted of roughly two-thirds advertisements.

      According to https://www.davemanuel.com/inflation-calculator.php, $0.01 from 1844 is roughly equivalent to $0.32 today, but today's newspapers cost $1 or more.

      This suggests that in the mid-1800s newspapers were more heavily supported by ad revenue than they are today.

    7. government subsidies

      According to Wikipedia:

      The U.S. Postal Service Act of 1792 provided substantial subsidies: Newspapers were delivered up to 100 miles for a penny and beyond for 1.5 cents, when first class postage ranged from six cents to a quarter.

    1. Chiang C-H, Wu M-P, Ho C-H, et al. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Are Associated with Increased Risk of Dementia among the Elderly: A Nationwide Study. Biomed Res Int 2015;2015:1. doi:10.1155/2015/187819.
    2. Yoshiyama Y, Kojima A, Itoh K, et al. Does Anticholinergic Activity Affect Neuropathology? Implication of Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurodegener Dis 2015;15:140-8. doi:10.1159/000381484.

      reference doi:10.1159/000381484 https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/381484

    3. 45Ehrt U, Broich K, Larsen JP, Ballard C, Aarsland D. Use of drugs with anticholinergic effect and impact on cognition in Parkinson’s disease: a cohort study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2010;81:160-5. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2009.186239.


    4. A robust association between some classes of anticholinergic drugs and future dementia incidence was observed.
    1. Limited human data support the conclusion that anticholinergic activity enhances AD-related neuropathology and neurodegeneration. However, experimental data from a tauopathy mouse model indicated anticholinergic activity might enhance neurodegeneration with enhanced neuroinflammation including microglial activation.
    2. Clinically, anticholinergic activity causes a decline in cognitive function and increases the risk of dementia, thus possibly enhancing AD pathologies and neurodegeneration. Until now there has been insufficient human neuropathological data to support this conclusion.
    1. 5-10 percent of newspaper revenue

      Holy cow, that's a lot!

    2. As recently as the late 1960s, the government was forgiving roughly three-fourths of print publications’ periodical mailing expenses, at a cost of about $400 million annually (or, adjusted for inflation, about $2 billion today). Much of that disappeared with the Postal Reorganization Act of 1970 and in subsequent cutbacks. But the Post Office still discounts the postage cost of periodicals by about $270 million a year.

      This sounds like the postal subsidies have been scaled back, but some percentage of this decline can be explained by a decline in print circulation as well.

    3. And the amount used to be much higher.

      When? How much higher?

    1. The chart also lists 1980, which is close to 1981. 55% live in poverty and 31.5% live in extreme poverty.

    2. Original source of the 1950 75% claim was the chart on pages 6-7. Incorrect, in that 75% was an approximation of the 71.9% statistic in the second column, but this was actually poverty and not extreme poverty, which was only 54.8%.

    1. At first, the progress was steady: in 1950 75% of the world were still living in extreme poverty. But today, those living in extreme poverty are now less than 10%.

      Note that this article was published in 2017, so "today" presumably refers to 2016/2017.

    1. Though the 30% increased risk of developing dementia from long-term anticholinergic use is significant, it is still less than the risk associated with other modifiable risk factors for dementia such as smoking, social isolation and physical inactivity. These lifestyle factors are associated with a 40% to 60% increased risk of developing dementia, according to a 2017 study.
    2. "Previous studies had really only said that anticholinergics were associated with dementia incidence," said George Savva, researcher of health sciences at the University of East Anglia and a lead author on the study, in a news briefing. "But we broke it down by class, which is where our study really has its novelty and power."
    3. The new study, published Wednesday in the British Medical Journal, looked at the risk of new-onset dementia among nearly 350,000 older adults in the United Kingdom. The researchers found that people who used certain types of anticholinergics, such as those used to treat depression, Parkinson's and urinary incontinence, for a year or more had about a 30% increased risk of developing dementia down the road.
    4. Anticholinergic drugs function by blocking the effects of acetylcholine, a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other nerves and muscles. They are prescribed to 20% to 50% of older adults in the United States to treat a variety of neurological, psychiatric, gastrointestinal, respiratory and muscular conditions, according to a 2009 study. In the UK, 34% to 48% of older adults take them, another study found.
    1. The cognitive side effects of medications with anticholinergic activity have been documented among older adults in a variety of clinical settings. However, there has been no systematic confirmation that acute or chronic prescribing of such medications lead to transient or permanent adverse cognitive outcomes.
    1. “We found that people who had been diagnosed with dementia were up to 30 per cent more likely to have been prescribed specific classes of anticholinergic medications,” said Dr George Savva from UEA’s School of Health Sciences and the lead author of the study published in the BMJ today.