- Feb 2021
multiple learned and generalized affectional responses are formed.
Love can be instinctual but is it a learned behavior if the affectional response is towards someone that you share at least one intimate moment?
If the researches completed and proposed make a contribution, I shall be grateful; but I have also given full thought to possible practical applications. The socioeconomic demands of the present and the threatened socioeconomic demands of the future have led the American woman to displace, or threaten to displace, the American man in science and industry. If this process continues, the problem of proper child-rearing practices faces us with startling clarity. It is cheering in view of this trend to realize that the American male is physically endowed with all the really essential equipment to compete with the American female on equal terms in one essential activity: the rearing of infants. We now know that women in the working classes are not needed in the home because of their primary mammalian capabilities; and it is possible that in the foreseeable future neonatal nursing will not be regarded as a necessity, but as a luxury ---to use Veblen's term -- a form of conspicuous consumption limited perhaps to the upper classes. But whatever course history may take, it is comforting to know that we are now in contact with the nature of love.
The entire last sentence seems to be foreshadow a future where men were capable of rearing children while women in the workforce would not work as they had to nurse their children. While nursing mothers still manage to juggle work and nursing, there are some compromises that need to be made. Men are certainly more involved in child-rearing, but women can be a part of the workforce while still providing. How this is related to what love is or how loving and rearing children is not explained as the entire study was used to deal with attachment and attachment disorders. Love is not only gauged on attachment, but is does seem to be the beginning of a broader idea of what love is and how it comes to be.
In general, the surrogate mother not only gave the infants no security, but instead appeared to serve as a fear stimulus. The emotionality scores of these control subjects were slightly higher during the mother-present test sessions than during the mother-absent test sessions.
Early connection with a surrogate mother created more sense of security and emotional attachment and will rush to the surrogate when presented, even in a delayed fashion. The monkeys who were not introduced to any kind of surrogate approached the surrogate immediately while the other monkeys were more hesitant and cautious.
The home-cage behavior of these control monkeys slowly became similar to that of the animals raised with the mother surrogates from birth. Their manipulation and play on the cloth mother became progressively more vigorous to the point of actual mutilation, particularly during the morning after the cloth mother had been given her daily change of terry covering. The control subjects were now actively running to the cloth mother when frightened and had to be coaxed from her to be taken from the cage for formal testing.
While noting there is an attachment with a surrogate mother there is a poor attachment. During the experiment there was still a sense of need but not necessarily the same as those who experienced a connection shortly after birth. The connection occurred only after 12-48 hours of exposure. Once attachment was formed there were inconsistent behaviors that proved the poor attachment. "Nevertheless, the magnitude of the differences and the fact that the contact-time curves for the mothered-from-birth infants had remained constant for almost 150 days suggest that early experience with the mother is a variable of measurable importance."
Affectional retention was also tested in the open field during the first 9 days after separation and then at 30-day intervals, and each test condition was run twice at each retention interval. The infant's behavior differed from that observed during the period preceding separation. When the cloth mother was present in the post-separation period, the babies rushed to her, climbed up, clung tightly to her, and rubbed their heads and faces against her body. After this initial embrace and reunion, they played on the mother, including biting and tearing at her cloth cover; but they rarely made any attempt to leave her during the test period, nor did they manipulate or play with the objects in the room, in contrast with their behavior before maternal separation.
Some of the behavior the monkeys expressed seemed to correlate with separation anxiety, where the mother was rushed and all other distractions ignored.
the "love machine," an apparatus designed to measure love. Usually these tests are begun when the monkey is 10 days of age, but this same persistent visual exploration has been obtained in a three-day-old monkey during the first half-hour of testing.
While the apparatus was meant to see if there is an attachment to the cloth mother versus the wire mother or empty box. The monkey did not discriminate and opened the box no matter what was in it. There may be another type of connection that was needed besides just visual cues.
he behavior of these infants was quite different when the mother was absent from the room. Frequently they would freeze in a crouched position, as is illustrated in Figures 18 and 19. Emotionality indices such as vocalization, crouching, rocking, and sucking increased sharply, as shown in Figure 20. Total emotionality score was cut in half when the mother was present.
The attachment and response of these monkeys seemed to distress them emotionally. When the faux mother was removed it created a response that would happen instinctually as it would with a real mother. Linking the emotional experience with the connection felt for the mother surrogate.
The frightened or ailing child clings to its mother, not its father; and this selective responsiveness in times of distress, disturbance, or danger may be used as a measure of the strength of affectional bonds. We have tested this kind of differential responsiveness by presenting to the infants in their cages, in the presence of the two mothers, various fear-producing stimuli such as the moving toy bear illustrated in Figure 13. A typical response to a fear stimulus is shown in Figure 14, and the data on differential responsiveness are presented in Figure 15. It is apparent that the cloth mother is highly preferred over the wire one, and this differential selectivity is enhanced by age and experience. In this situation, the variable of nursing appears to be of absolutely no importance: the infant consistently seeks the soft mother surrogate regardless of nursing condition.
In this article we see that there is a reference to how the infant clings to its mother in times of need for comfort. During this era it was the mother who was seen as the nurturer and provider, which made sense. Looking at it today, where men play a bigger part in nurturing their children, this is a good example of how studies of today have been able to find the correlation between nurturing behavior and bonds developed by both parents.
We were not surprised to discover that contact comfort was an important basic affectional or love variable, but we did not expect it to overshadow so completely the variable of nursing; indeed; indeed, the disparity is so great as to suggest that the primary function of nursing as an affectional variable is that of insuring frequent and intimate body contact of the infant with the mother. Certainly, man cannot live by milk alone. Love is an emotion that does not need to be bottle- or spoon-fed, and we may be sure that there is nothing to be gained by giving lip service to love.
The admission that Love and the need for more than just nourishment is important helped to develop the need for further experimentation and study on this idea.
contact comfort is a variable of overwhelming importance in the development of affectional response, whereas lactation is a variable of negligible importance.
Again finding that contact is more important than mother's milk. Using contact along with lactation improved the monkey's development.
The result was a mother, soft, warm, and tender, a mother with infinite patience, a mother available twenty-four hours a day, a mother that never scolded her infant and never struck or bit her baby in anger. Furthermore, we designed a mother-machine with maximal maintenance efficiency since failure of any system or function could be resolved by the simple substitution of black boxes and new component parts. It is our opinion that we engineered a very superior monkey mother, although this position is not held universally by the monkey fathers.
Finding the importance the monkeys senses were to thriving the development of this surrogate mother figure was able to demonstrate that it was more than just the need for milk that the infant monkeys craved.
he infants clung to these pads and engaged in violet temper tantrums when the pads were removed and replaced for sanitary reasons.
By determining the subject's need for outside comfort can attest to the use of more that just need of basics like food and vitamins to survive. Using other senses like scent and touch as a connection to something outside of themselves is an important find.
stolen love from the child and infant and made it the exclusive property of the adolescent and adult
Love is not exclusive to adults and adolescents as there are many types of love. I do not believe it has been stolen but added to love in general.
Psychologists, at least psychologists who write textbooks, not only show no interest in the origin and development of love or affection, but they seem to be unaware of its very existence.
There is little to no information about love in our textbook, which leads me to believe that love is one emotion that was not historically explored.
- Early connection
- Latent attachment
- Artificial comfort
- Basic needs versus actual attachment
- Gender roles in child-rearing
- Sight versus touch
- Love as a science
- Separation anxiety
- Contact helps thrive
- Mothers identified as nurturing parent
- Love is not for infants
- Attachment and emotion
- Love as an instinct
- Future studies