162 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2020
    1. The men’s medical records suggest that many who survived into the antibiotic era either found their way to curative penicillin, although very late in the disease process, because of other ills,

      They still suffered bc people with syphilis in its late stages were not given treatment.


    1. The most significant results to come out of the Stateville exper-iments were two new drugs effective in the treatment of malaria.The first was pentaquine, in 1947

      The other ws primaquine, developed in 1950 at columbia university


    1. “Flu really was an equal opportunity disease,” says Navarro

      J. Alex Navarro: historian

    2. Yet human nature being what it is, some people came out looking worse for the experience. In San Francisco, the facemask became the weapon of choice in the city’s crusade against the pandemic.

      Many helped the home front during the war, but others... "Conscience, patriotism, and self-protection" wer the selling points for wearing a mask in public.

    3. On the same day, Commissioner John Dill Robertson said that the shortage of good nursing staff had accounted for many deaths.

      January 1919, Chicago

    4. they still cannot pinpoint where the disease started (despite being called “Spanish” influenza) or why its victims were overwhelmingly young.

      1918 flu wasn't characterized until 2005; only know that was an H1N1 virus and ancestor of influenza A

    5. 675,000 people estimated to have died of flu or pneumonia in the United States in the fall of 1918 and the winter of 1919.

      less than a fifth died in WWI; germ theory was still young; treatments were plausible cures

    6. Inexplicably, the virus was more devastating to people between twenty and forty, a cohort that does not generally die of flu so readily as the very young and old

      swollen, fluid-filled, blue lungs

    7. August 1918. The city’s health commissioner, Dr. William C. Woodward, had closed the public schools, theaters, and dance halls; so many people were sick, makeshift hospitals had to be built to accommodate them. There was an acute shortage of civilian medical personnel because many doctors and nurses had been called up to serve in the war.

      Scary resemblance

    8. On September 12, 1918, Dr. Royal S. Copeland put the entire Port of New York City under quarantine.

      perfect containment was impossible; by October there were approximately 4000 cases

    1. African Americans understood the possibilities of eugenics: it went from being a strategy of racial improvement to a tool of racial violence.

      1960s-1970s: 200-700k sterilizations, disproportionately of AA

    2. Though many of us think of compulsory sterilization as cruel and inhumane, Taylor and T.E.B. understood it as part of a strategy for biologically uplifting the race. Taylor saw it as a temporary plan until African Americans could learn and embrace their eugenic possibilities.

      White people really had African Americans tricked into thinking they were biologically less human than them! holy shit

    3. Cobb actually argued that the collective stock of the race had improved as a result of racial oppression!

      "African American scholars and activists also mobilized eugenics as a strategic response to scientific racism"

    4. African American physicians, biologists, and social scientists used the language of eugenics and reproductive control to frame their scholarship on racial improvement.

      like W.E.B. DuBois; birth control for poor women; use of language and rhetoric **

    5. African Americans of different socioeconomic classes embraced the possibilities of eugenics for racial improvement.

      also that they "crafted their own theory and practice of eugenics as part of broader struggles for racial justice"

    6. Their strategies for human improvement often had negative consequences for marginalized people like African Americans, people with disabilities, and gender nonconforming folks.

      Eugenics was originally associated with possibility and progress with knowledge of heredity and genetics.

    1. The Nuremberg Code has not been officiallyadopted in its entirety as law by any nation or as eth-ics by any major medical association.

      But a profound impact on global human-rights law and medical ethics.

    2. Their Hippocratic view of medical re-search may have prevented them from adequatelyappreciating the risks to research subjects, which aremany times greater than the risks to patients who aremerely being treated.21 Hippocratic ethics, evenwhen supplemented with informed consent, tend tosubmerge the subject’s autonomy into what the phy-sician-investigator thinks is best for the subject.

      What are the physician's intentions? After the patient does give consent, then what? The Code was designed to merge Hippocratic ethics with human rights; subject has as much authority as the physician

    3. sophisticated set of 10research principles centered not on the physician buton the research subject.

      Nuremberg Code

    4. Ivy presented to the judgesthree research principles that he had formulated atthe request of the American Medical Associationand which, he said, reflected common research prac-tices.1

      Andrew Ivy; document titled "Principles of Ethics Concerning Experimentation with Human Beings" December 1946; 1) consent, absence of coercion 2) animal experimentation 3) conducted by qualified persons Before these were adopted, there were no guidelines for research in the US.

    5. Leibbrand insisted that such a view preclud-ed any human relation between physicians and theirpatients and that it represented a perversion ofHippocratic ethics and “a lack of morality and rev-erence for human life.”12

      on the basis of "biologic thinking" and treating humans like objects; led to confemnation of Nazies but problems for prosecution after they brought up unethical research done in American on prisoners; even if ordered by the state, it's up the physician to carry out only ethical practices.

    6. lexandergave Taylor a memorandum entitled “Ethical andNon-Ethical Experimentation on Human Beings,”in which he identified three ethical, legal, and scien-tific requirements for the conduct of human experi-mentation.9

      1946 : 1) consent 2) duty of physicians, attitudes 3) good research practices

      1947: 4) specific conditions for ethical and legal experiments

    7. For the United States and its chief prosecutor, Tel-ford Taylor, the trial was a murder trial (and murderhad been identified by the International MilitaryTribunal as a crime against humanity)

      But Taylor made it clear that the morality and motives extended far beyond just murder

    8. judges fromthe four allied powers (the United States, Britain,France, and the former Soviet Union) and wascharged with trying Germany’s major war criminals.

      The Doctors' Trial: December 9th, 1946 - July 19th, 1947; 16/23 guilty, 7 were acquitted - confirmed by the military governor.


      voluntary consent/experiment transparency; for throughful results; knowledge of study before experimenting; avoid any mental/physical suffering; no death or disabling injury; degree of risk should not outweigh the importance of the results; proper preparations; conducted by qualified people; the subject has the liberty to leave experiement; leader should be prepared to end at any stage

    10. It served as a blueprint for today’s principles that en-sure the rights of subjects in medical research.

      August, 1947; Nuremberg, Germany; American judges on the actions of Nazis perform torturous human experiments in concentration camps; controversial today regarding its continuous validity


    1. esson study’s enormouspotential.

      1) value of collaboration 2) improving teaching quality 3) leadership from the union and the district 5) general benefits 6) use of time 7) student discipline 8) administrative support

    2. Lesson study is used today in Ja-pan as a strategy for planned educa-tional change.11

      introducted intially by an American, M.M. Scott, in 1872; notion of "whole class instruction" Can be adapted for American schools - alters the system of teaching, builds support and committment, cooperation with administrators.

    3. The result was a pro-duction system whose power lay inthe frugal way it harmonized workand human effort.

      ideas borrowed and expanded from Ford and other American quality experts

    4. joint venturewith Toyota, it reemerged as NUMMI(New United Motor Manufacturing,Inc.), and it quickly became the mod-el for the U.S. auto industry

      Turnaround of a GM plant in CA (1984); learned from Toyota how to redesing the production system; mutual respect and collaboration among employees, expected to contribute their ideas. Workers are important assets.

    5. While most employees said theyvalued the training, it was of littleuse to them back on the job becausethe complex design and productionsystem remained unchanged. Em-ployees felt that they had little con-trol over the system, and so they tooklittle responsibility for product qual-ity.

      Douglas Aircraft reform intiatives (LA, 1989); daily routines remained untouched, so the culture persisted and was paralyzing.

    6. necessity of first changing theirwork systems before any deeper cul-tural change is possible

      top executives lead, build employee committment from the bottom up; need for active cooperation

    7. Not surpris-ingly, between 1900 and 1930 schooladministrators began to regard them-selves as managers rather than edu-cators.

      "shapted in the image of American industry" "shaped and fashioned to meet the demands in life" "these schools were organized much life factories" As a result = schools became bureaucratic, departmentalized, impersonal, and increasingly isolated from the larger environment. Top-down management

    8. Dailywork routines, prescribed by worksystems, have a powerful shaping in-fluence on an organization’s under-lying culture.

      mass production (rigid authority structure, specialized labor) = dysfunctional industrial quality. Needed flexible work systems that depended on employee knowledge to stay afloat

    9. “lesson study,” an ideathat has recently migrated to the U.S.from Japan.1Teachers work collabo-ratively as they develop lessons. Thenthey teach the lessons while observ-ing one another to see how well theirlessons work. This feedback enablesteachers to make a series of refine-ments.

      In an effort to prevent isolation, disconnectedness, and adversarial relationships between teachers and administators. " adopting such a changeis a Herculean task because it requiresreplacing an antiquatedmass-production systemthat education inheritedfrom industry a centuryago and that today paralyzes the public schools."

    10. Because they are lit-tle more than symbolic political gestures designed to win the confi-dence of voters.

      Politicians' improvements on improving school achievement. "Improving teachertraining, reducing class size, lengthening school days,testing students, and tying teachers’ salaries to test scores"


    1. Restructur ing must fundamentally alter the way schools do business

      For restructuring as reform strategy: change bureaucratic structures state policy environments nature and tone of the conversation about schooling (must have participation and support of the teacher education establishment and of the teacher unions.)

    2. here is increasing evidence that schools are products of the Dolitical cultures of states and districts.9 An atomized state policy and political culture will re produce similar conditions at the local level.

      "Today's issues of school governance are further complicated by current patterns of control." "But the specification of the political and jurisdictional lines of control is not complete, and competing centers of power have stale mated one another. For example, in urban districts neither the union nor the school board controls schools. Instead, various groups compete over issues."

    3. The conditions that favor an integrated response to restruc turing are illustrated by the experience of the schools in Dade County. There, a strong commitment to locating decision making authority at the school level existed from the start. Both the union and the district provided individual schools with political and technical support. Both the district and the union supported schools' seeking waivers from district regulations or from the union contract. Schools were given the flexibility to experiment with different organizational arrangements. The district's bureaucratic structure was changed to accommodate decentralized decision making.

      In Jefferson County and Washington, it wasn't as successful. There was no real consensus over the process or substance over reforming efforts (who would control it?) and ther it was distrubing the the existing balance of political accomodations.

    4. The most important changes made by the council involve the redefinition of roles and social arrangements in the school. For example, parents who serve on the council have a direct voice regard ing allocation of resources.

      "Moreover, all staff members have ready access to the decision-making process" Allocating resources/funds, staffing decisions

    5. e recognized the centrality of teachers in defin ing the nature of the school work place, and he realized that funda mental changes in the culture of schooling require new ways of thinking about schools, new moti vations for teachers, and new ways of learning for young peo ple.

      Jefferson County school superintendent

    6. e image of the "real school" is a powerful one. Any change per ceived as a significant departure from that image is certain to meet with resistance. T

      "Fundamental bureaucratic structures remained intact. Authroity and responsibility remained concentrated at the distrct level." Change only allowed by the limits of the district.

    7. hey saw that, as a result of restructuring, improvements had occurred in teaching, curriculum, student per formance, and morale.

      Despite a lack of support from the district, the teacher union, the community, and the state. The school remained divided, constant tension/competition; public media attention

    8. change is measured by an accretion of new activities. If re structuring is limited to the creation of new rules and pro cedures, the result is likely to be an elaboration of rituals or the replacement of one set of rituals by another. The ways in which schools approach implementation of new programs or practices, therefore, define the shape of restructuring.

      "Restructuring is defined as a set of programs to be implemented; organizational..."

    9. he hierarchical culture of schools is clearly evident in the high degree of role differentiation and specialization within them. T

      "Hierarchical cultures measure themselves by their activi ties and focus on the delivery of services. They measure suc cess quantitatively." Structured like those of a factory instead of a baseball team: "jobs are differentiated according to function and rigidly defined. Assem bly-line workers, supervisors, quality-control engineers, and the like have separate duties and responsibilities that are clearly specified. Accountability is based on the performance of the specified tasks."

    10. Advocates of restructuring argue that real change in the or ganization of schools cannot occur without fundamental chang es in the culture of schools, which defines their ideas, com mitments, and social order and which determines their rules and standard operating procedures.4

      School culture

    11. Bureaucratic decentralization (whether in the form of school site management, a choice plan, or some variation on privati zation) lies at the heart of restructuring

      Restrictions on local desicion makers: testing, curriculum standards, governing homework/class size/teacher strategies

    12. . On the national level, the Educa tion Commission of the States, the National Governors' As sociation, the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), and the National Education Association (NEA) are all promoting some form of school restructuring among their members.

      local, state, national polict makers are embracing the concept; even there is little agreeent on what restructuring even means or how it should be implemented it is used specifically when talking about "school reform"


    1. Ninety-nine per cent of business respondents said business could play "a major role in improving the quality of education"; 98 per cent of school boards responding agreed.

      Canada's The Financial Post; business-ed partnerships 96% of school boards were involved or planned to be involved in a corporate partnership, but only 16% of coporations had public ed policy.

    2. Shifting power from educators and elected decision-makers to representatives of each schools' "clients" is not only consistent with a market-place ideology, it ensures local decision-makers will be isolated and more inclined to worry about school level issues than macro-level policies.

      When teachers/unions are put to blame for ruining schools and when the complexities are taken out of public debate

    3. The "skills deficiency" argument still fuels much debate about public educa- tion, and justifies re-tooling the curriculum to give greater prominence to "skill sets" related to employment. Turning the public towards their schools - while simultaneously blaming schools for having created the nation's economic woes has its advantages, both for corporations and for politicians.

      distracts them from their promises to create jobs

    4. the real challenge is to design and maintain policies that structure and control school choice in fair and socially desirable ways. School choice is neither a panacea nor a single policy. Its effects depend crucially on the specifics of how each choice policy is designed, and on complex relationships between the policy, those affected by it, and the socio-cultural context within which these relationships take place.

      within the supply/demand market of education; results of quality of education are simply inconclusive

    5. Briefly, a charter school is "an autonomous, results-oriented, publicly funded school of choice that is designed and run by teachers or others under contract with a public sponsor" (Buechler, 1996, p. 4).

      Charter school definition; firmly rooted in market forces; exempted from many state regulations;

    6. This balance of forces has produced laws, policies, and social behavior that combine to make government and private schools equal in prestige, financing, and social support.

      needed blance of funding and regularing within a supportive socio-cultural context

    7. Under a competitive delivery system, he contends that social and educational goals can be protected and pursued through specific regulations and incentives aimed, for example, at such things as encouraging "appropriate social values" or a socially diverse student body.

      Herbert Gintis (1995)

    8. In the U.S., widespread political support for market-based educational provi- sion only came in the late 1980s, when the social climate had substantially shifted, from focusing upon educational equity and access to a concern for academic excel- lence to foster national economic competkiveness. 7

      fueled by political shift under Ronald Reagan and the publication of A Nation at Risk

    9. They believe that competition will cause schools to improve, that a wider range of schooling choices will become available, that the poor will be freed from the shackles of public bureaucracies and empowered (like the afflu- ent) to chose good schools to attend,

      But it is more complex. "But as in all market systems, the nature of change will be driven in large part by schools' attempts to satisfy customers."

    10. alter the institutional structure of schools (their incen- tives, accountability mechanisms, and ultimately, their culture), not merely their organizational arrangements.

      consequences of market-driven changes; leads to "commodification" of education.

    11. Since a problem for all organizational change is finding the incentives to overcome the status quo, the dynamics unleashed by market forces appeal to many policy makers. At the same time, choice and market forces challenge core beliefs about the non-competitive structure and democratic purposes of public schools.

      Sergiovanni: bureaucratic/market-driven devices does not lead to the funamental improvement in quality of teaching as does just changing the structure of schools

    12. no conclusive evidence that parent choice has a decisive effect, either positive or negative, on the quality of schooling. Evidence is extensive, however, that choice may have either a posi- tive or negative effect upon equity,

      Choice policies do transform the environment and goverance of schools Advocates value to the loberty and freedom that comes with 'choosing a school'


    1. Thus, schools’ enduring social responsibilities to educate youth exists in constant, though mutable tension with corporations’ economic responsibilities to maximize wealth and power. For school and business leaders to collaborate honestly and effectively, they must grapple with the realities of fundamentally different organi-zational logics.

      Schools measure success of PPPs by enrichment of resources and potential impact on youth; business executives measure success by partnerships that help elevate the firm's brand/image/opportunities. Schools and buusiness ideals are not made together

    2. These hidden markets have generated large and growing rev-enues for hyper-concentrated wealth in the United States.

      Education firms, textbook publishers, research companies...those providing instructional services, school management, test data storage/analysis, online cirriculums, etc.

    3. Corporate phi-lanthropy is seen as a commercial or public relations tool to infiltrate, and initiate market-oriented change in local com-munities while seeking direct economic or indirect social rewards (e.g., public goodwill) for a cause-related corporate agenda

      from this view, philanthropy is an "invention of capitalism" and is done to show a responsible public image.

    4. As a result of increasingly commercial-ized dominant culture, Schor (2004) asserts, “American teens and tweens have emerged as the most brand-oriented, consumer involved, and materialistic generations in history” (p. 13).

      PPPs in education are operating on "schoolhouse commercialism" destabilizes the fundamental purpose of public schooling market-based entities are involved

    5. Through funding of educational research and policy, newer and older philanthropies serve as a loose grouping of powerful players driving U.S. and global educational change.

      "a de facto advocacy" fusing principles of capitalism and strategic movement high returns on investment (not in finances but in student DATA)

    6. power dynamics between schools and corporations pose enormous challenges to achieving mutually beneficial rela-tionships (Selsky & Parker, 2005)

      business strategies to philanthropoic partnerships creates and boosts "competitive advantage"

    7. The dominant perspective in research, governance, and pub-lic opinion on PPPs suggests the judicious melding of public (educational) and private (business) interests in mutual rela-tionships that aim to “do good” and promote short- or long-term benefits to all involved parties, for instance, in the sharing of key resources across organizations and the ability to pursue objectives that could not be achieved working alone

      Immediately my mind takes me to our discussion on development programs...

    8. PPPs as “cooperative institu-tional arrangements between public and private sector actors” (Hodge, Greve, & Boardman, 2010, p. 4). More spe-cifically, PPPs promote “relational contracting between the public and the private sector for the organization and deliv-ery of services that involve[s] risk sharing and mutual learn-ing between the parties involved”

      PPP = "pubic-private partnerships" realtions can be: inter-organizational policies, managerial practices, professional networks combinations "cross-sector innocatons are well esablished in local, state, national, and international public policies"

    9. As schools have looked to corporations for support, corporations have found business motivation and felt social pressure to become involved in public governance and policy.

      corporate expectation to help serve their communities


    1. In this case, the pedagogy of business culture often bears an eerie, if not chilling, alignment with diverse modes of policing.

      surveillance of classrooms to monitor teacher performance (but also to indirectly monitor social behavior of students)

    2. long record of prioritizing the teaching of methods over theory, substituting training for critical education, advocating for charter schools, and supporting the punishing bromide of reducing teacher and student evaluations to the draconian demands of high-stakes testing and empirically based performance measures.

      Steiner's record of managing public education.

    3. In the end, Steiner’s soaring imagination and literary tastes simply become a convenient excuse for refusing to engage his politics and the obsequious role he now plays as a courier for corporate power and neoliberal ideology. The result, in part, has been a mainstream media-driven narrative that depoliticizes the most important issues at hand in the Bloomberg appointment and the role that is played at the highest levels of state power by an intellectual elite who provide support for such malfeasance.

      The NY Times did not shed light on the critical issues of public ed at stake; essentially fawned over Steiner's life and interests.

    4. The barbarians in this narrative are not the business elites but the hordes of alleged philistines who make up the teachers’ unions and confront every day the growing challenges of engaging students in the classroom.

      Business culture conflicts at multiple organizational (administrative) levels

    5. It is also part and parcel of free-market ideology that assumes that all social, economic, educational, and political problems can be solved through the template of a business culture increasingly characterized by top-down modes of governance,

      Ignorance; should be servant leadership!

    6. what constitutes educational leadership.

      Could this be the topic of my paper? What does constitute educational leadership? How does it fit into business/organizational cultures of schools?

    7. Put simply, she will eliminate tenure for teachers, disregard seniority and the job protections it offers, continue high-stakes testing modes of pedagogy, tie teacher evaluations to stripped-down empirical evaluations, close schools that are under served, and promote the opening of charter schools. This is a notion of educational reform that erases everything that matters for teachers, students, and a society dedicated to establishing education as a crucial public sphere for a democratic society.

      Sounds like the death of public education to me!

    8. How does running a successful business qualify someone to run the largest school system in America? And if she is qualified by virtue of that experience, why, as a precondition for assuming the job, is she being assigned a deputy chancellor who, as an experienced educator, is serving as her private tutor – a condition which makes it clear how unqualified she is for the position in the first place.

      Good questions lol

    9. The only person with the power to insist that Ms. Black be provided with a surrogate tutor was David Steiner, the then recently appointed state education commissioner

      Could deny her request for a school district leader certificate on the fact that she had no educational credentials; Steiner gave her a waiver to run for this position because of his "corporate driven ideology"

    10. in accepting the position, she reproduced the distorted assumption that ‘all the school system needs is a smart and talented manager’.[4]

      Bloomberg implicitly sharing the idea that "all CEOs have the skills to lead [a] large organization" because she was a CEO.

    11. imperial rule of Mayor Bloomberg who, true to his corporate values, once again exhibits his disdain for any notion of governance that solicits public dialogue, democratic values, and community involvement.

      Described as "elitist, autocratic, and largely dismissive" Appointed "unqualified" Cathleen P. Black, chairwoman of Hearst Magazines, as the chancellor of NYC's public schools (servicing 1.1 million students).

    12. Largely rationalized in economic terms, the new neoliberal educational reformers render education as a major force in creating a politically compliant and technologically savvy labor force, while disregarding any pedagogical conditions that enable students to exercise independent thought and ethical stewardship as part of a larger project designed to meet the needs of a democratic polity.

      "anti public model of education" and "Wal-Mart approach to schooling" comparing students to cheap labor.

    13. the leadership driving the new reform movement in education consists of hedge fund managers, multi-millionaires, Ivy League apparatchiks, and corporate executives.

      education is the "frontier for the investment dollar"

    14. the article attempts to make clear that the culture of business largely functions both to disempower students and teachers and to undercut the ability of schools to connect learning to social change, the power of the imagination, civic courage, and intellectual growth.

      Research goal; and that's on period

  2. Oct 2020
    1. According to the study’s findings, MAT-2, which assesses major - minor mode discrimination, feeling for tonal center, and music reading, was more strongly related to both reading achievement and math achievement than was MAT-1, which assesses pitch, interval, and meter discrimination.

      Used longer, more complex musical segments; contained the only component of the adusiovisual discrimination task (looking at notation)

    2. For this study, we employed multilevel mixed modeling to develop two models, one explaining the relationship of music achievement to reading achievement,

      1081 students from 14 participating schools; test scores from Missouri Assessment Program (MAP) and from administering Music Achievement Testing (MAT); with background variables held constant, the relationships remained strong. Variability was mostly all situated at the level of the individual student.

    3. The main research question for the study is as follows: After controlling for selected background variables situated within or across one or more hierarchical levels (indi-vidual students, classrooms, schools, and school districts), is music achievement in fourth- to eighth-grade students related to their reading and math achievement?

      Research question

    4. association between music achievement and achievement in other academic domains, usually operationalized for research purposes as course grades or scores on normed examinations.

      influences on achievement: SES, race/ethnicity, sex, judegment, urbanization, stigmatization, academic fitness

      influences might be found at the different levels of educational hierarchy

    1. The experimental studies, which are designed to test the hypothesis that music study enhances (or causes) reading improvement,

      Yielded no reliable effect; considerable variation

    2. erent pictures. The meta- analysis of the correlational studies shows that students studying music do in fact have significantly higher scores on standardized reading tests (or on the verbal portion of the Scholastic Asse

      Data from College Board; comparing reading performance by students with some music expereince with students without music experience; assumption that the music experience was voluntary

      No way to improve reading scores improved or that reading scores were already high

    3. There are several possible reasons to hypothesize that instruction in music may help children acquire read

      1) written notation read left to right, with a code that maps certain sounds 2) sensitivity to phonological/tonal distinctions 3) reading song lyrcis 4) motivation argument with groupwork incentive


    1. two somewhat opposing trends: on the one hand,an approach that favorsthe contextual use of musicas a funand motivational context to teach reading and other skills(Standley and Hughes, 1997; Standley, 2008; Darrow, 2009); andon the other hand, anauditory neuro-development framework

      In the contextual appraoch, phonolgical awareness and other literacy sklls are taught in a music context

    2. Foreign language pronunciation skills and brain responseto duration deviants (in music and speech) were better in 10-to 12-year-olds with musical training

      Music aptitude also has an effect on reading performance in develping children - not exclusive to explicit musical training

    3. This literacy acquisitionrelies heavily on the process of phonological awarenes

      Important for children in their ability to decode; auditory processing (with a strong tie to music training) is a "building block" for this


    1. understanding the effects of music training is important notonly in assessing the educational benefits of music programs, but ingaining a clearer understanding of the mechanisms that underliereading, since the relations between reading ability and relatedskills may themselves be altered by musical experience

      rhythm and pitch related skills influencing reading skills; providing meaningful communcation through sounds, complex activities and interactions of factors

    2. the development of reading skills depends heavilyon auditory perception and the ability to parse out meaningfulspeech elements from an auditory stream. Reading also relies ongeneral cognitive functions such as working memory, and upon theability to map visual symbols to sounds, which has previouslyshown improvement with computerized music-based trainingprograms [46

      "Learning to play their instrument from a written score" helps students map visual symbols to the production of sounds, hence promoting reading fluency.

    3. analyses showed that the children whoreceived music training maintained their age-normed performanceon the composite reading measure after one year

      Harmony Project; 42 Spanish-English bilingual, low-income elementary school children; longitudinal design study of 10 years "modest but significant" results that "the auditory enrichment provided by participation in music may help to keep literacy development on track, counteracting the negative impact of low socioeconomic status"

    4. Music and language skills rely upon auditory processing

      Comparing music and literacy

    5. ‘‘Matthew effect’’ [8], with the impact of socioeconomic status onliteracy development resulting in an increasing gap in achievementover time between children from low- and high-socioeconomicbackgrounds

      The Matthew Effect and gap in achievement over time

    6. Low socioeconomic status can affect the trajectory of readingdevelopment [4,5] through a combination of impoverished homelanguage environment [6] and reduced access to print materials[7].

      less reading practice - inihibits reading fluency - less vocaulary word exposure

    7. a 2011 NationalEndowment for the Arts survey states that the percentage of 18year-olds who report receiving music instruction of any kindduring childhood (either in school or privately) fell from 53% to36% between 1982 and 2008 [3]. In other words,mostchildren inthe United States receivenomusic education. This decline is partof an overall reduction in arts education, particularly in Hispanicand African-American communities

      Most children in the US don't receive music education.


  3. Apr 2020
    1. Efforts by social scientists to arrive at a more precise definition of “community” have focused on the face-to-face communicatio

      do online communities even fit the definition?

    2. participatory element.


    3. The UMC site is particularly loaded with links to church activities and to ways of tailoring the broad message to your individual opinions, activities, and needs.

      realm of preformativity; protestant sites are less strict and more interactive than catholic ones

    4. Hinduismappears to offer more such possibilities than does Catholicism or Islam

      monetary donations, blessed food offerings, face-to-face experiences

    5. but with no performative, or sacramental, value

      Online vs. offine religion; versions of rituals

    6. “religion online,” where information is conveyed, and “online religion,” where users create religious communities.

      difference between information/communcation sites & performance ones

    7. All these sites promote horizontal communication,

      Communication sites; technology development, focuses on practices and exchanges between people (chat rooms, solution to problems, etc)

    8. interaction is human–machine.

      Information sites: menus, music, videos, FAQ

    9. global, electronic spatial reach

      creole spaces: "global spaces for local concerns," audio readings/prayer options, sort of 'consumerist' feel

    10. In 2000, it allowed users to identify their religion and then answer a series of diagnostic questions about beliefs, observance, and behavior, which placed them at a specific point on the relevant doctrinal spectrum

      Interactive features, spokesman for each specific religion, variety of topics, different services with targeted audiences

  4. Mar 2020
    1. Teachers can engage students in creating and sharing original digital content without Discovery Education.

      Online platforms, programs, and collaboration exposes students to global audiences.

    2. Discovery Education committed to providing professional development relating to students as creators of digital content while also enhancing opportunities for students to post original content

      Purpose and goal: greater difital content values - - - more engagement - - - committment to deeper, more eduring learning

    1. Computational thinking requires understanding the capabilities of computers, formulating problems to be addressed by a computer, and designing algorithms that a computer can execute.

      Intertwined with computer science studies, computational thinking encompasses solutions that are understood like a series of algorithms or stelps that a computer could perform.

    1. Our collaborative inquiryrevealed that‘Property of No One’involved young people working within the constraints of the sys-tems they occupy and with the tools they have at their disposal to do socially just work.

      OCC with purpose and passion.

    2. Not only did the school provide a set of tools andresources for media production in the form of the lab space and a dedicated media teacher, butthe very structure of the school providedflexibility in how students performed their requirements.

      Opportunities and tools within the school to expand learning outcomes through a multimodal version of the assignment.

    3. Sara described its broader narrative as a‘sister story

      Sara: Black, female, muslim. Partipated in documentary creatyion, "Property of No One" where the events were based off of her story - gives viewers a new understand of her (and others' experiences). Combination of words and images that captured their reality better.

    4. how critical media literacy potentials are realized in practice, as they study how adults, youth mediaorganizations, funders, and popular culture shape the ways youth engage with media and the storiesthey tell

      The roles of adults and influencers on youth as they help shape online media presences and engagement.

    5. We theorized restorying as a way young peopleuse digital tools to write themselves into existence,first narrating and analyzing their lived experi-ences and then synthesizing and recontextualizing those stories to represent a diversity of perspec-tives and reshape dominant narratives.

      Recontextualizing stories to create new narratives that shed light on aspects of reality.

    6. how young people use new media tools in school to engagethe narrative imagination and build the worlds they want to live in,simultaneously representing the political histories and realities of theireveryday worlds

      Just from the abstract, I'm hooked. Very relevant, thought-provoking material.

    1. sustained, informed, evaluative elements embedded in construction.

      Nice descriptions of what it means to be constructive in work.

    2. Construction is the building or assembling of an infrastructure. Construction is equal parts inspiration and perspiration. Construction calls on creativity as well as persistence, flexibility, and revision.

      You don't just stop at 'creation.' When working and collaborating online, there must be space for frameworks and developments within those creations.

    3. During the ORC process students learn during an inquiry process and then send this message out to others using a text or tool of their choosing.

      Comparing ORC to OCC - virtually sharing what students 'consume' online vs. creating & building content for communication

    1. Comprehension matters, but so does pleasure.

      "Situation models" or mental representations that form while we read help guide our compresehension of and interest in the text. Novelists consider this when they write, especially online.

    2. readers perceive paper as being better suited for “effortful learning,” whereas the screen is perceived as being suited for “fast and shallow reading of short texts such as news, e-mails, and forum notes.” They tested the hypothesis that our reading habits follow from this perception, and found it to be correct: Students asked to read a text on-screen thought they could do it faster than students asked to read the same text in print, and did a worse job of pacing themselves in a timed study period. Not surprisingly, the on-screen readers then scored worse on a reading comprehension test.

      online vs. offline readers

    3. There’s no question that digital technology presents challenges to the reading brain, but, seen from a historical perspective, these look like differences of degree, rather than of kind.

      The comparispons made following this statement are really interesting. Our brains are constantly "wandering off" and have always been presented with both challenges and opportunities to adavance as it relates to online reading.

    1. Explore and engage critically, thoughtfully, and across a wide variety of inclusive texts and tools/modalities

      Texts that vary in format, genre and medium - analyzing purpose, being intentional with selection and interpretations

    1. Until and unless online research skills are more visible in both standards and assess-ments, economically challenged schools may be less likely to incorporate them into their curriculum.

      But, as explained in the next paragraph, standards and assements raise potential for an increase in the achievement gap concerning online reading.

    2. Online research and comprehension is important to learning across all disciplinary areas, in addi-tion to reading.

      Important to remember that online reading tests are not always true, accurate reflections of online reading abiility (due to achievement gap)

    3. We also wanted to evaluate whether income inequality was associated with online reading achievement. It was.

      HIgher online reading mean scores with higher achieving score school.

    4. Particularly troubling is that income inequality in the United States is also increasing (Congressional Budget Office, 2007 ), suggesting that the offline reading achievement gap may get even larger over time. R e a d i n g i s a n i m p o r t a n t g a t e w a y t o l e a r n i n g a n d success in school (Anderson, Hiebert, Scott, & Wilkinson, 1985 )

      Income inequality affects so much. This is just talking about offline achievement gaps… As educators, we need to assess our classrooms and not assume that our students are on equal levels of comprehension based off of what they may or may not have access to at home. Adequate reading comprehension is essential for future achievement milestones - not attainable for all students.

  5. Feb 2020
    1. Without educational alternatives that expand and diversify meaningful life options and pathways available to young people, we risk reinforcing an educational system that only serves the interests of elites, breeding a culture of competition for scarce opportunities.

      This is the sad realty that we're hoping to change. We need educational alternativies without isolating one group of students from the other.

    2. Today’s educational institutions are struggling to fulfill their mission of providing pathways to opportunity for all youth

      Overarching problem - dropout rates, charter/magnet school alternatives.

    3. he reality for too many youth, however, is that they see a shrinking set of options and little guidance towards new kinds of learning opportunity, community contribution, and diverse careers.

      A challenge to collaborating through onlines forms of education and translating it to reality without the proper resources

    4. What would it mean to consider an educational agenda that includes more flexible, informal, diverse, and interest-driven learning environments? Can we do this in a way that elevates all youth rather than serving the privileged minority?

      Elevating all youth, despite their socioeconomic status. Sharing parts of the world and opportunities through connected learning that may have not been accessible otherwise.

    1. technology tools allow educators to redefine a traditional task in a way that would not be possible without the tech, creating a novel experience.

      Redefintion: global connection, online working and communicating

    2. Instead of replacement or enhancement, this is an actual change to the design of the lesson and its learning outcome. The key question here—does the technology significantly alter the task?


    3. The technology is again directly substituted for a traditional one, but with significant enhancements to the student experience.

      Augmentation: augmenting a student's productivity or potential

    4. At this stage, technology is directly substituted for a more traditional one. It is a simple, bare-bones, direct replacement

      Substitution. Think online textbook

    5. The SAMR model was created to share a common language across disciplines as teachers strive to help students visualize complex concepts.

      Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefintion: created by Dr. Ruben Puentedura Framework and spectrum

    1. Understanding the impact of technology on the practices and knowledge of a given discipline is critical to developing appropriate technological tools for educational purposes.

      Technological Content Knowledge

    2. the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning. They encompass, among other things, overall educational purposes, values, and aims. This generic form of knowledge applies to understanding how students learn, general classroom management skills, lesson planning, and student assessment.

      Helps the teachers understand how students aquire knowledge and expand cognitive development. relationship with content knowledge

    3. Knowledge and the nature of inquiry differ greatly between fields, and teachers should understand the deeper knowledge fundamentals of the disciplines in which they teach.

      Essential for content knowledge; being thorough to avoid misunderstandings and to be as accurate as possible.

    4. At the heart of good teaching with technology are three core components: content, pedagogy, and technology, plus the relationships among and between them.

      TPACK framework

    5. newer digital technologies, which are protean, unstable, and opaque, present new challenges to teachers who are struggling to use more technology in their teaching.

      Each digital technology has its own affordances and contraints; social and contextual factors can prohibit successful tenchology integration in the classroom (unsupported institutional efforts); lack of training

    1. While connected learning is not new, and does not require technology, new digital and networked technologies expand opportunities to make connected learning accessible to all young people.

      Tech is not required but is an aid to the learning process and educational experience.

    1. we use media to inform ourselves, to help shape our opinions, to interact with our communities and to make our voices heard. Models for digital citizenship are generally framed around elements such as rights and responsibilities, participation or civic engagement, norms of behaviour or etiquette, and a sense of belonging and membership.

      Being a "critically engaged user and consumer of media", or a "digital citizen" is a form of active citizenship. This point really interests me, as I am known to often express my opinions online. I never thought about tech as a form of "civic engagement" until more recently with more and more social media movements.

    2. a curriculum framework

      Developed by MediaSmarts to promote speicifc concepts of digital literacy that they find are essential for students in classrooms; cover topics of ethics/empathy, pivacy/security, community engagement, digital health, consumer awareness, finding/verifying, & making/remixing.

    3. key concepts for digital literacy are essential both in providing a common language for theorists and educators and in being a guiding principle for teachers in a rapidly changing technological landscape.

      Important for students to apply their learning to different conexts. The key concepts are: Digital media are networked/persistant/searchable/shareable, have unknown or unexpected audiences, don't always feel real, and are influenced by their creators

    4. As Douglas Belshaw puts it, “Digital literacies are transient: they change over time, may involve using different tools or developing different habits of mind, and almost always depend upon the context in which an individual finds herself.”[

      The Media world is always changing, we must stay up to date. Specific skills vary from person to person, but the key concepts of using, understanding, and creating hold true for all to achieve fluency, contexualize, and communicate effectively.

    5. basic access, awareness and training to inform citizens and build consumer and user confidence to highly sophisticated and more complex creative and critical literacies and outcomes.

      Outlined by the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)

    6. As increasing numbers of businesses, services and even democratic processes migrate online, citizens who lack digital literacy skills risk being disadvantaged when it comes to accessing healthcare, government services and opportunities for employment, education and civic participation

      Technology is starting to play a pivotal role in day-to-day social life and essential tasks to live comfortably. Yes, the benefits of technology inside of a high school classroom are evident, but we can't forget about the use of tech after those students graduate and start their own lives.

    7. generation of youth who are not fully digitally literate, yet are deeply immersed in cyberspace. Therefore, “it is not… enough to assume that young people automatically have all of the skills, knowledge and understanding that they need to apply to their use of technology.

      Why digital literacy is important. Being online and using technology to our advantage is so second-nature to some that they (we) can forget about those that are not as informed. Maybe they're exposed to the technology world and understand its benefits, but it means nothing if one can't apply knowledge to actually profit from it.

    1. Backward Design Template with Descriptions (click link for template with descriptions).

      Stages of backward design: identify desired results, determine acceptable evidence, plan learning experiences and instruction. Would be a great hyperlink source.

    2. encourages intentionality during the design process.

      I really liked the term "intentionality," It stuck out to me - I want my future assignments to be intentional in a way that I know will satisy a goal of my students. Learning > teaching, but it depends on it. Transparency in the classroom & being deliberate.

    3. backward design approach has instructors consider the learning goals of the course first. These learning goals embody the knowledge and skills instructors want their students to have learned when they leave the course. Once the learning goals have been established, the second stage involves consideration of assessment.

      Answers "What is backward design?" I feel that recent research has made this approach more common as many of my teachers have been very adamant about what we're expected to learn for the day, week, semester. But how many teachers actually work backwards...?

    1. “21C Skills” refers to a broad set of knowledge, skills, work habits, and character traits that are important to succeed in today’s world, particularly for college and career readiness and in the workplace. Examples of these skills include collaboration, communication, creativity, and problem-solving.

      I've never heard of these qualities be called by this term. Very applicable and essential qualities to have, as it includes problem solving, collaboration (conflicts, cultural competency, productivity), creativity, managing communications.

    2. Knowing how to read, write, and participate in the digital world has become the 4th basic foundational skill next to the three Rs—reading, writing, and arithmetic—in a rapidly evolving, networked world.

      Essentially the outline of this source. How we read (search, navigate, synthesize, and evaluate) on the web, write (design, compose, code, revise, remix) online, and participate (share, contribute, connect, protect) with others

    1. Global economic competition within economies based increasingly on the effective use of information and communication.2. The rapid appearance of the Internet in both our professional and personal lives.3. Public policy initiatives by nations that integrate literacy and the Internet into instruction.

      Social factors that influence and are influenced by literacy changes; almost like reciprocal determinism

    2. According to one of the most systematic evaluations of worldwide Internet use, over 2.4 billion individuals now use the Internet—more than one third of the world’s population (Internet World Stats, 2011). Moreover, at the current rate of growth, Internet use will be ubiquitous in the world within the next decade.

      Is it by now?

    3. This approach suggests that the best solutions result from collaborative groups who bring diverse, multiple per-spectives to problems (Page, 2007). New Literacies theory takes an “open-source” approach, inviting everyone who studies the Internet’s impact to contribute to theory development and to benefit from others’ contributions.

      Explains why Dr. Obyrne chose to make the content of this class an open ed resouce! Increases comprehension and learning

    1. The Mozilla Foundation and community of volunteers have worked to address this paradox by creating a Web Literacy Map.

      From text: Mozilla Foundation is a global non-profit that created Firefox browser; goal: to offer descriptive guidance for educators on defining skills and competencies to participate on a large networked Web; across various theories, perspecitives, and geography; "internet as literacy"

  6. Jan 2020
    1. Students have to query a search engine using keywords and navigate those results, including assessing the reliability of particular authors and websites.

      I find that this is stressed more and more in college. Of course professors still require some print sources for research assignments, but searching for research online is increasingly accessable for students. In my college experience so far, I've only checked out three books from the library; it's imperative for me to be able to navigate online information.