42 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2023
    1. whetherthe proliferation of representations of women as desirable and sexually agen-tic represents a real and positive change in depictions of female sexuality, orby contrast, merely a repackaging of feminist ideas in a way that rendersthem depoliticized and presses them into the service of patriarchal consumercapitalism
    2. Blacks regulate how they are scripted . . . and is one strategy they use in popularmedia (i.e., music, film, magazines, television) in order to reinvent themselves”(p. 60). Such is the case with hip-hop stars Nicki Minaj and Missy Elliott, both ofwhom have charted their own course and essentially rejected that which is deemedappropriate for Black female behavior and the inscription of the Black body

      fighting against the "standards"

    1. Minaj’s brand of feminism is expressed in such a way that she is able toremain completely mainstream and highly marketable

      market approach

    2. n fact, her success is largelybuilt on our collective acceptance that she has surgically enhanced her bodyparts to create a new body for public consumption.

      how the body image creates profits for Minaj herself

    3. Because her body is her product, it must be continually updated and reinventedto maintain its allure as a commodity in a body-saturated market.

      influence of beauty standards' pressure on women artists

    4. Drawing on historicalnarratives of the black criminal, male hip-hop artists routinely perform a versionof blackness that highlights criminality, poverty, violence (especially directedtoward other African Americans), anger, and sexual domination over others,especially African American women (

      how the tough image male artists created images of all other groups as an inferior to them

    5. Since the early 1990s, representations of blackness in hip-hop have narrowedtremendously. As “gangsta rap” became more popular with larger and whiteraudiences, major recording labels signed a diminishing variety of rap artists infavor of focusing on the increasingly profitable, black gangsta rapper, imaginedand constructed by the largest media companies as violent street criminalsdisconnected from mainstream society and values

      popularization of black gangsta rap

    6. Minaj and her team of business strategists/patrons at Young Money CashMoney Records constructed her public personality and her body to appeal to theincreasingly pornographic culture of pop music, yet she had rapping skills thatgave her legitimacy in the hypermasculine world of hip-hop emcees (Emerson2002; Whitney 2012).

      how Minaj was able to get through to the top

    7. Women who dance in rap videosare cast as the object of a male gaze and usually serve as props to enhance theperformance of masculinity by the male rapper in the video

      how sexualized women image works to enhance the masculinity of male artists

    8. The pornification of female pop musicians helped push female rappers,like Missy “Misdemeanor” Elliott, out of hip-hop’s top charts.

      The newly set standards for female hip-hop artists has pushed out those who would not adapt to the changes

    9. For example, describing the branding of breasts with hersignature as “empowering” reframes the action as about personal power ratherthan branding and consumption

      Nicki's perspective on hoe "empowering" works

    10. . Minaj had a quiet entrance to the hip-hop world in 2007,but by 2012 she had two best-selling albums and seven singles simultaneouslyin the Billboard Hot 100, bringing her to the pinnacle of media exposure.

      her success

  2. Mar 2023
    1. The aim of this project is to show how rap musicin today’s era addresses issues in a way that is similar to an alternative news outlet,providing a voice for those who perhaps receive little attention from the news media(Mourão et al., 2021).

      the former aim is not altered but developed

  3. Feb 2023
    1. Fishman’s concept divides lan-guages into strong and weak.During the Soviet era, Russianwas the “strong” (dominant) lan-guage across the USSR. In Sovi-et-era Kazakhstan, the Russianlanguage practically displacedthe Kazakh language from themanagerial, industrial, and cul-tural spheres. At the time, Ka-zakhs were embarrassed to speakKazakh, and most of them did notknow the language at all. As a re-sult, the use of Kazakh was min-imized; at that time, the statusof the language of the dominantethnic group could be consideredweak.

      the effect of implementing or being forced to integrate other languages with their status being "superior"

    2. Fishman believes that in manycases, a language shift leads tomultilingualism and multicul-turalism.

      another point of view on language shift (kinda low-key positive)

    3. will allow for the co-existence of different languages

      why we care so much about it's ability to allow coexistence of several languages

    4. strong language

      what does author mean by strong language? how it can be defined?

    5. anguage shifts

      what's language shift, how it help us in understanding the trilingual education structure in Kazakhstan

    1. Zukhra Mukanova and her daughters moved from Uzbekistan to Kazakhstan in 2010. Although she has a residence permit, she has started the process of obtaining citizenship so that her daughters will automatically become Kazakhstani.

      how the experience of those who came returned after migration to other neighboring countries affect the national identity of the rest?

    2. international fame of the film Borat

      global fame through sum of stereotypes, damage for the nation, the way international audience view Kazakhstan and how all these stereotypes has so much weight that they eventually kinda influences and change the way people, particularly kazakhstani ppl, view themsekves

    3. Kazakhstan had to construct an alternative discourse of national cohesion, an attempt to define itself in the eyes of the world, but also to claim a distant glorious past, in order to remain definitively master of its destiny.

      it probably had to accept some aspects of globalization, due to it being regarded as progressive. Thus it kinda worked to not only help out with the economic state of the country but make it more "appropriate" in the eyes of the world and go toe to toe with the global standards

    4. t independence, Kazakhs were in the minority in their own homeland. In order to change the demographic balance, a repatriation programme over 25 years (from 1991 to 2015) brought the return of more than 1 million people – about 5% of a population of more than 19 million inhabitants.

      the cultural diversity within Kazakhstan is also one of the factors influencing its overall identity

    5. It reinvents itself. Connected to the world, trying to forge a modern and hi-tech identity, carrying from its Soviet past an industrial glory, and from its nomadic origins a rural nostalgia.

      the identity that Kazakhstan tries to establish after having no choice but leaving Soviet Union after its collapse

  4. Jan 2023
  5. moodle.nu.edu.kz moodle.nu.edu.kz
    1. It would, then, be difficult to embrace a lingua franca without harming speakers of otherlanguages. In addition, if we were serious about acting justly, it would not be enough merely toabstain from harming communities of minority language speakers. Given the injustices that such

      author's perspective abt what to do with minority languages

    2. Thereason why it’s better to preserve currently existing natural languages than to create new ones isbecause of the historical and personal value of the former.

      pathos. why it's imp to preserve (minor) languages

    3. It is fortunate that sentimentality can be a respectable sort of attitude.


    4. It isexaggerated because it does not reflect the value of its object.

      we feel sentimental to particular things just because we feel like it

    5. But why, exactly?

      rhetorical question

    6. some


    7. All these things — theoppression until death of a once thriving culture, loneliness, and losing loved ones — are bad,regardless of whether they involve language death.


    8. I imagine


    9. It would be cruel to destroy it deliberately, yet it wouldbe unreasonable for him to expect society to invest significant resources preserving it. The samemight be true of minority languages: their value to some just doesn’t warrant the society-wideeffort required to preserve them

      they say

    10. entimentality, we tend to think, is an exaggerated emotional attachment to something.

      Main concern of the paragraph, definition

    11. Thriving majority languages do not come with tragic stories, and so they do not arouse ouremotions in the same ways.

      We feel only connected to a language if it will involve some sad story

    12. complicated.

      why complicated?

    13. loss of the culture of which she wasonce part;

      implied pathos to deliver the true hardships connected to loosing a language that rerpesents not just alphabet but culture

    14. Mandarin

      why she chose mandarin as an example for minority language? is it because it's the biggest one within minority language community

    15. definition


    16. an event that was reportedly foreseen by tribe elders

      she wanted us to have a picture of Boa Senior as a strong person despite having to go through such disasters in her life. Thus, the author is trying to make us relate to her in some ways and maybe even aspire to some degree

    17. ‘After the death of herparents, Boa was the last Bo speaker for 30 to 40 years.

      why she wanted to include that info? perhaps, she wanted us to feel sympathy towards her as if she had a hard life and used pathos to do so

    18. The sorrow we feel about the death of a language is complicated.


    19. Aka-Bo, like many otherextinct languages, did not make a difference to the lives of the vast majority of people. Yet thesense that we lose something valuable when languages die is familiar.

      author tries to look from both sides