69 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2016
    1. ‘the culture of martyrdom is firmlyembedded in its collective psyche

      Many people believe that acts of terrorism to the Muslim world is just social norms there; people are grown up around it and are trained to do it

    2. God Almighty hit the United States at its mostvulnerable spot. He destroyed its greatest buildings. Praise beto God.’

      This quote is important because the Muslims believed that 9/11 was an "Act of God" and that it was what he wanted

    3. BinLaden himself referred to the towers as ‘icons’ not of theUnited States' blasphemy but of its arrogant power.

      Bin Laden thought of the twin towers as being an arrogant symbol of the United States; Bin Laden did not see the Twin Towers as something religious or sacred to the U.S. This questions if it even was an act of religion.

    4. to strike the WTC a second time

      Back in 1993, the Muslims tried to attack the Seattle Space Needle and it failed miserably. Another driving force to the attack on the World Trade Center might have been revenge from the 1993 incident that humiliated their conspirators.

    5. thatthe organizers of the 9/11 attack saw the TwinTowers as deliberately mocking Islamic minarets.

      The minaret is a place of prayer in the Muslim community and the Muslims could have thought that the World Trade Center was mocking their beliefs and making fun of God. I found these thoughts by Kobrin to be interesting. I never really knew the motive behind the 9/11 attacks-I thought that the bombers just crashed into the towers because someone told them to and they were crazy. It is interesting to look at it through this point of view

    6. According to one account, Islamic beliefs govern hisbehaviour but, according to the other and no less plausibleaccount, Islamic beliefs merely provide an acceptable pretext.So how can we decide which account is more persuasive inany particular case?

      Was 9/11 driven by acts of religious beliefs or was that used as a cover-up or was the acts driven by pure bloodlust?

    7. let the world know that they did it toexpress devotion to God or to curry favour with God.

      Here a question arises-did the suicide terrorists commit the act of terrorism due to religious beliefs or was it caused by something else?

    8. the suicide mission (SM) that shook the world

      This is the suicide mission that shook the world because it was the first time that terrorists successfully rammed a plane into a building. It also killed thousands of people at the World Trade Center and almost two hundred people at the Pentagon. This act of terrorism effected the nation not only politically but also physically as well.

    1. Where a Christian is so unfortunate as to become a Jew, we order that he shall be put to death just as if he had become a heretic; and we decree that his property shall be disposed of in the same way that we stated should be done with that of heretics.

      If a Christian is converted to a Jew, they are put to death

    2. We also forbid any Jew to dare to leave his house or his quarter on Good Friday, but they must all remain shut up until Saturday morning; and if they violate this regulation, we decree that they shall not be entitled to reparation for any injury or dishonor inflicted upon them by Christians.

      The Christians also discriminated against the Jews

    3. a Jew l should be very careful to avoid preaching to, or converting any Chris~i_an, to the end tfiat he may become a Jew, by exalting his own belief and disparaging ours. Whoever violates this law shall be put to death and lose all his property.

      A Jew trying to convert a Christian would be put to death for displaying his religion

    1. A garment belonging to a sick man, 8 a Jew, or a Christian must not be sold without indicating its origin; likewise, the garment of a debauchee.

      The Muslims obviously discriminated against the Christians and Jews

    2. muf:Jtasi

      The overhead inspector of the markets

    1. We recognise that it is destructive to existing patterns; also that it has potentiality. It symbolises both danger and power

      Order can be both a good and a bad thing

    2. No one knows how old are 4 Introduction the ideas of purity and impurity in any non-literate culture: to members they must seem timeless and unchanging.

      This is important because every culture has different viewpoints whenever it comes to purity/impurity

    3. I believe that some pollutions are used as analogies for expressing a general view of the social order.

      Used to express roles in the systems

    4. But anthropologists who have ventured further into these primitive cultures find little trace of fear.

      I find this interesting that the deeper the anthropologists went into the cultures, the less the cultures focus on creating fear

    5. One was that they were .inspired by fear, the other that they were inextricably confused with defilement and hygiene.
    1. The great achievement of the ethical religions,' he wrote, ~ 'was to shatter the fetters of the kinship group ... [by establishing] a superior community of faith and a common, ethical way of life in opposition to the community of blood, even to a large extent in opposition to the family.'19

      This is an important quote because it is describing the achievement of ethical religions-to shatter the kinship group

    2. One aspect of this transition from segmentary society to state is particularly pertinent to our concern. In the ordinary way face-to-face communities recognize and regard as criminal only specific injuries to specific individuals or groups. A wrong is identified and dealt with when and if the person who has been injured or his representative chooses to take the matter up by way of the socially approved means of redress. By contrast, as the state begins to emerge its rulers seek to assert and extend their authority by creating what are in effect victimless crimes, offences against abstractions such as 'the ruler', 'the state', 'society' or 'morality'. Familiar examples of the process can be seen in the infiltration of such categories into the Germanic law codes of the early middle ages.

      This paragraph describes the transition from a segmentary society to a state society and how a criminal is punished for his crimes and how the state extends its authority

    3. Once a pattern of persecution has been established and its victims identified that question becomes so difficult to answer as almost to lose its meaning, and loses also much of its urgency.

      When does reaffirmation of value arise? The question that should be asked but usually does not

    4. The dislocations associated with rapid economic change and particularly with the growth of cities are familiar enough in several periods of European history.

      The economic changes and the growth of the cities is what was causing a lot of conflict during this era

    5. The spiritual ideal which animated the great reforms of the eleventh century was that of paupertas -not poverty, as we con-ventionally translate it, but powerlessness.

      Paupertas was what spiritually animated the eleventh century; not poverty as many people believe

    6. Pollution fear, in other words, is the fear that the privileged feel of those at whose expense their privilege is enjoyed. Marked sensit-ivity to the possibilities of sexual pollution may therefore suggest that the boundaries which the prohibitions in question protect are threatened, or thought to be.

      Definition of pollution fear

    7. sexual power may be a means of expressing or focusing nervousness of those whose functions or value in a society give them much greater importance Purity and Danger 101 than is reflected in their status or influence.

      This is important because in the reading "The Wild Beast", sexual abuse was a prominent occurance

    8. The fear of pollution protects boundaries, and the fear of sexual pollution, social boundaries in particular.

      This is important because the previous readings have talked about pollution

  2. May 2016
    1. or non-conformity simply, but against criminal error erected into a system'• - in thinking it our business to hold up the sins of our ancestors to the reprobation of their more enlightened descendants. The objection is that the judgements rest on unexpressed and fundamental assumptions about the nature of European society which are historically unfounded, and therefore foster a mistaken understanding of the nature of persecution itself. In particular, Southem's words imply what Hamilton says explicitly, that 'the atti.tude of the clergy was shaped by the society in which they lived, which regarded the persecution of heretics as normal'.5 This is to suppose, first that holders of ecclesiastical - and presumably secular - authority merely reflected sentiment in the society around them, and did not form or direct it, and secondly, that violence and persecution - which are, in any case, by no means the same thing -were simply endemic in the medieval world, a 'norm' which historians must take for granted.


      I believe that this is Moore's thesis. He is summarizing the two judgements that the book argues and he also includes what side he is on

    2. These two judgements epitomize the view against which the argument of this book is directed. The reason for taking issue with them is not a moral or political one. We do not follow Lord Acton -the limits of whose liberalism are sharply exposed in this context by his justification of the persecution of the Cathars as 'not against error


    3. those who bore authority in the church were agents with very limited powers of initiative. They were not free agents. Doubtless they were responsible for some terrible acts of violence and cruelty, among which the Albigensian crusade holds a particu-lar horror. But on the whole the holders of ecclesiastical authority were less prone to violence, even against unbelievers, than the people whom they ruled.

      The second "They Say" moment.

      It is saying that the authorities of the church were limited in their powers-they were not free agents in their own freedoms, they were double agents to say the least

    4. Z. N. Brooke wrote of the legislation enacted by the Third Lateran Council in 1179: 'Finally, a strong decree against the Cathari, Patarines and other heretics shows how much the growth of heresy, especially in the South of France, was at last beginning to disturb the rulers of the church' (my emphasis). 1

      One "Two Say" moment:

      This says that the growth of heresy started to bother the rulers of the church after the people started opposing the church.

    5. That it was in some way natural or appropriate, or at any rate inevitable, that the medieval church should seek to suppress religious dissent by force, has come to be accepted as a matter of course.

      This was the point of his story- to prove that when the student's answers seemed humorous, their reactions were almost expected because of how history has suppressed those horrific actions

    6. ome years ago I asked in an examination paper for school-leavers,

      I think that Moore's first paragraph is an effective opener. I think that the first quote was very interesting and he caught my attention by telling an experience that he had-it let me relate to the author more

    7. because there were so many of them'

      This is funny how the student's answered Moore's question. They were not very sensitive whenever it came to the subject of ethnic cleansing at all

    1. Before starting to write, do two things. First, ensure that you have a strong thesis. There's a good way to tell if you have one, but it takes courage. Write on some notepaper, "I contend that-'' and complete the sentence. Now study what you've written. If somebody else's essay were arguing the same thesis, would you be intrigued by it? Is it complex enough, or controversial enough, to allow for lengthy exposition? Have you really stuck your neck out, or are you pussyfooting? Second, have on hand a list of concrete details and apt quotations, and be ready to use them. Re-member, if you lead off with a string of abstract generalizations, your

      Examples of how to take the front door approach

    2. back-door approach,

      The opening paragraph is a plot summary and they do not have a point of view. It is less interesting than a front-door approach

    3. front-door approach. They march into their subject with breathtaking assurance, clearly eager to share their opinions.

      Front-door approach

  3. scafe.oucreate.com scafe.oucreate.com
    1. "We have evidence that both sides shell themselves in order to create~artic~lar image,'; h~ t~id journalists a f;;-days -bef~~e /"'i met. "I got so frustrated about this a month ago that I said to both sides, 'If you'll stop shelling yourselves, maybe we'll have peace around here.' "

      They are killing themselves and other people in order to create an ideal image

    2. wanted to enlarge the borders of _ · · ude parts of Bosnia (and Croatia), thereby creating a (~Serbia.'' For Milosevic, ~3gp~raJ;cbik wi~ut a future ig~m.Q.Q cy, it was a matter of staying in power by p1;;;;g-the nationalist card.tor hard-core nationalists, it was a mat-t~r of achieving a historical drea1' And for the Bosnians, it was a mghtmare. ~

      I found this quote to be interesting because by creating a Greater Serbia, they would murder thousands of innocent Bosnian lives

    3. Was it much different from the Serbs who prudently kept quiet as their Bosnian neighbors were shot or packed off to prison camps?

      This puts into perspective on why a lot of Serbs were not rebelling against the cleansing-because they let fear overcome them

    4. I simply wasn't interested in the fate of a "filthy" Muslim. Ramiz was on his own.

      I find this interesting. A lot of us say that we would stand up for people but when it comes down to it, we really would not-fear overcomes us

    5. Journalists have the_same instincts as bloodhounds on t_he sc~RLof a fox.

      I find it amazing how far these journalists would go to get a story

    6. The Batkovic roadblock was different, manned by four guys who had hunting rifles and tempers hotter than asphalt at noon.

      I found this roadblock scenario to be interesting

    7. hat when the call of the wild comes, the bonds of civilization turn out to be surprisingly weak, professors turn into nutcases and ev-erything that a generation built up can be destroyed in a day or two, often by the generation that built it. The wild beast had not died. It proved itself a patient survivor, waiting in the long grass of history for the right moment to pounce.

      Another example of "The Wild Beast"

    8. w could they do such monstrous things? How could a man wake up one morning and shoot his neighbor in the face and perhaps rape the neighbor's wife for good measure?

      This questions is very important to think about during this story

    9. Had she been raped? Tortured? Killed? Or merely cleansed, the best ifate of all, considering the options?

      I find it interesting that the author believes that being cleansed was the best fate that the Muslims could have

    10. You know, it wasn't the people who wanted to fight. It was the politicians who prepared this stew, and now we can never go back.'

      This is an important quote because Radjen is saying that the Muslim and Serb people did not start this war-the politicians did

    11. hat wild beast, which lives in man and does not dare to show itself until the barriers of law and custom have been removed, was now set free. The signal was given, the barriers were down. As has so often happened in the history of man, permission was tacitly granted for acts of violence and plunder, even for murder, if they were carried out in the name of higher interests, according ar established rules, and against a limited number of men of a particular type and belief .... In a few minutes the business quarter, based on centuries of tradition, was wiped out.

      "The Wild Beast"

    12. His enemies spit at him, and the village dogs lick up his dripping blood.

      Another example of "The Wild Beast"

    13. We came across the body of an old man with a mutilated head. They ordered us to drag him toward the bridge. As we were dragging the old one, his skull was falling open and the brain came out. We dragged the body to the bridge and they ordered us to throw it into the Drina. There were two more bodies on the bridge. They had their throats cut. We were ordered to throw them into the river as well. On one of the bodies, four fingers on the left hand were freshly cut off."

      Very descriptive of how the Serbs were cleansing the city

    14. "The Muslims left voluntarily. Why, we even supplied the buses. We didn't force them to leave. I swear."

      This quote is humorous to me how the mayor implied that he simply gave them a bus to leave on if they wished to

    15. Mat-• tresses were knifed open like pigs for slaughter, drawers were emp-i tied onto the ground, and co.2i_e~ of the Koran-2Yere urinated on. • Dried blood might be spia~red o~--~~~ ~{ ~he walls~-oueveral. I Everything of any value, including lightbulbs, had vanished.

      Whenever Maass is talking about "The Wild Beast", I believe that he is talking about the Serbs and how they were acting very vicious and beastly.

    16. The war came and went quickly, yet it took something away from the city. The Muslims.

      Example of cleansing and the effect that the war had on the Muslims

    17. If you wanted to find the truth, to find out whether men would act like animals as well as smell like them, you had to leave the sunshine and head for the darkness. There, you would learn that the refugees you felt such pity for in Split were among the luckiest Bosnians of all, because they had escaped the darkness.

      I found this quote to be interesting because she was talking about how if you wanted to find light, you had to head for the darkness-and the lucky ones were the ones that had came out from the darkness

    18. A teenage girl explained to me how one of the Muslim men in her village had been nailed to the front door of the mosque, his arms spread out, so that he was like Christ on the cross, and he was still alive at the time.

      I find this to be an example of cleansing. This person was pretty much a scapegoat since he was nailed on the cross. Maybe the Serbs did this as a public demonstration of the cleansing that they would do to the muslims

    19. hey begged their friends to kill them so they would not be captured by the Serbs, who were sure to comb the fields once dawn broke.

      This sentence grabbed my attention. Some people were literally begging their friends to kill them so they would not be killed by the Serbs

    20. All of a sudden, seemingly without reason, they had turned into killers.

      I found this interesting how Adem explained his relationship with the Serbs and how they were very neighborly and involved with the townspeople and then one day, they turned on them

    21. o you had to learn about mass arrests, torture, rapes and expulsions, and you needed to understand that it was a system rather than a series of random incidents.

      This is what Maass is saying is the definition of "cleansed" and you don't just know what it is just from glancing at it. You have to build from the basic knowledge of the word and then you can dive in deeper

    22. How could she have been on the run with two children for forty-five days?

      This is really incredible and hard for me to fathom. Munevera was on the run from the Serb soldiers for forty-five days! I could not even imaging being on foot running for my life for that long

    23. WEN YOU GROW up in America, you don't really learn h.ciw toul humans can smell, just as you don't learn about the smell 0f death.

      I think that this is interesting how Maass opens this chapter with this disturbing quote.This is an example of pollution/cleansing

    1. Claim

      This is what the author believes

    2. Support

      This helps the reader to side with the author

    3. Claim

      This is the author's viewpoint

    4. Both

      This is both because it expresses how the author feels and also gives reasons so that the reader can be convinced to side with the author

    5. Support

      This is backing the author's viewpoint and convincing the reader why they should side with the author

    6. Both

      This both backs the author's opinion and convinces the reader why they should side with the author

    7. Neither

      This does not support what the author thinks or it does not support evidence to support the author's claim

    1. The main thing I try to do is write as clearly as I can. Because I have the greatest respect for the reader, and if he's going to the trouble of reading what I've written-I'm a slow reader myself and I guess most people are-why, the least I can do is make it as easy as possible for him to find out what I'm trying to say, trying to get at.

      Rule #5- Talk to them in a warm, open manner instead of pontificating to them like a now-it-all. I think that it is hard to consider that some of your audience might not know what you are talking about so as the writer, you have to clarify sometimes and consider your audienec

    2. A prose style may be eloquent, lyrical, witty, rhythmical, and fresh as Montana air, but if it lacks clarity, few readers will stay with it for long. Just as no one enjoys looking at a view, however spectacular, through a mud-streaked window, no one enjoys listening to a symphony of words reduced to mere noise.

      This shows #3 of the 5 ways you can serve your readers' needs. Number 4 states that you need to anticipate their reactions. Whenever he says that a prose style that lacks clarity will bore readers, he is following rule number 3

    1. tudents will be invited to develop their faculties of critical thought and clear expression by approaching this vital issue from another angle—not as a referendum on religion, but as an exploration of the relationship between symbolic acts of violence and the constitution of “the sacred” in a variety of human cultures.

      I think that this will be a very interesting class. Whenever I enrolled for the class, I thought that maybe it would be more religious opposed to how it is described in the syllabus-as an exploration of the relationship between violence in human cultures.