11 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2022
  2. sakai.washjeff.edu sakai.washjeff.edu
    1. Among the recreation treatments, fast cy-cling caused the beetles to fly off the trails 25 times,which was significantly more (p = 0.014) than slowcycling (15 times) and hiking (14 times). Effects of

      Result Statistics

    2. All recreation treatments (hiking, slow cycling, and fastcycling) caused the beetles to fly off the trail significantlymore than no recreation


    3. We surveyed recreationists on the University of Califor-nia, Santa Cruz north campus

      Survey location

    4. We observed the beetle for anadditional 2 min after the recreational activity ceased andrecorded the beetle’s behavior and distance moved. Forcontrol trials, we observed a beetle for 4 min

      observation period

    5. decline of threatened and endangered species onpublic lands (

      cause of endangered decline

    6. In line with the knowledge, attitude, behavior literature,we found a direct link between recreationists’ knowledgeand attitudes toward Ohlone tiger beetle conservationand their rating of the effect of recreation on the beetle(e.g., Kaiser & Fuhrer 2003; Frick et al. 2004;

      Discussion behaviour

    7. We used a chi-square test for independence to deter-mine whether frequency o


    8. walked into the grass-land, perpendicular to the trail and 3—5 m away fromthe beetle. T.C. then observed the beetle for 2 min withno recreational activit

      Beetle watch

    9. Slow cycling was 8—12 km/h and fast cycling as 30—35 km/h. We measured bicycle speed with a Schwinn20-Function Bike Computer

      Cycling speeds

    10. Santa Cruz County, California(U.S.A.), in the Ohlone tiger beetle habitat known as In-clusion Area A (

      Study site

    11. Fast cycling caused thebeetles to fly off the trail more often and to fly farther than slow cycling or hiking. Slow cycling and hikingdid not differ in their effect on the number of times and distance the beetles flew off the trail. Recreationists’knowledge of the beetle led to increased stated compliance with regulations, and this stated compliance islikely to have tangible conservation outcomes for the beetle.

      Summary of results