112 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2020
    1. What is the process for registering a new test network? Is there any existing registry of testnets, and how to access them? How can this be official and community-managed?

      Kind of becomes a Schelling point based on accepted network upgrades IIRC

    2. Inclusive. It will allow every account on Tezos, whether it has an on-chain transaction history or not, to use DIDs such as in the issuance, storage, and presentation of Verifiable Credentials or use of DIDComm for secure and private DID-to-DID communications.

      Aren't there fees associated with revealing an account on the network in order to prevent spam issues? Does that affect this spec in any way for the generation of new DIDs?

    3. The cost of a 51 percent attack on Tezos mainnet to disrupt these properties was approximately (USD) $1,000,000,000 at the time of writing (October 2020)

      Where is this figure from - i.e. - what % of validation percentage against holdings was this derived from. Additionally, important to note selfish-mining (validation) attacks referenced here: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.02954.pdf

    4. and this has been completed successfully eight times since its launch.

      Important to note that there were in-fact failures to this process that were immediately patched due to bugs in previous updates such as a first iteration of Babylon.

    5. Censorship resistant: The protocol uses cryptography to maintain integrity across all transactions, and the transaction history may be fully replicated from any single node out of thousands, using commodity hardware. The cost to attack the network is suitably expensive for many use cases, as described in the following section.

      Does it make sense to additionally note the somewhat nakamoto-consensus along with endorsements with each block baked? Just to reinforce this point.

    6. for others

      on behalf of

    7. thousands of independently controlled active nodes

      Might be useful to mention the hundreds of validators as well actively running the network.

    8. hyphen

    9. self-amending

      has a formalized process for upgrades

      instead of "self-amending" because it's very Tezos-centric language.

    10. Tezos

      https://gitlab.com/tezos/tezos - ensure direct link to software

  2. May 2016
    1. As with more traditional methodologies, these readings are enacted in the context of the technologies of access, self-reflection, and collaboration that make it a situated act.

      So digital methodologies become another method in the system of analysis that we're used to rather than exist as an entity separate from original decryption methods.

    2. For such insight we must turn to the texts, where we can see that Joyce includes words that are “word-sounds” such as “tauftauf thuartpeatrick” and “bababadalgh­araghtakamminarronn­konnbronn­tonnerronntuonnthunn­trovarrhounawn­skawntoohoohoor­denenthurnuk!,” linked words such as “upturnpikepointandplace” and “devlinsfirst,” and many other experimental words that are only used once.

      Taken all from the good ol' first page of Finnegans Wake.

      For those who are interested, I made a very informal guide on tackling the first page of the work:


    3. these words reflect the extent to which the character Gerty MacDowell does not understand her social world or have any power in it.

      For those who don't know, Gerty MacDowell is a handicapped (21?) year old girl.

    4. From no other evidence than statistical analysis of the relative frequencies of the very common words, it is possible to differentiate sharply and appropriately among the idiolects of Jane Austen’s characters and even to trace the ways in which an idiolect can develop in the course of a novel”

      Concordances have become an awesome thing for situations like this.

      http://www.writewords.org.uk/word_count.asp is a good resource for that if you're ever curious to try it on a text.

    5. Yet electronic archives—the source materials of so much text analysis, data mining, and visualization methodologies—are always assembled behind very real stone walls, by very real people.

      Therefore giving them a human element. We aren't in an age of autonomous indexing: everything still has to be programmed by human hand.

    6. Alan Liu asserts that text analysis, visualization, and data mining represent paradigmatic shifts in the work of the humanities that force scholars to reflect on the relation between information and new media and technology and that require them “to investigate underlying database, data-flow, cross-platform data architecture”

      What's more human than utilizing the tools we've created to learn?

  3. Apr 2016
    1. If you are showing change over time or any other variable, then a continuous graph is the right choice.

      Nowadays there are options to have interactive graphs which can display data over time. I highly recommend that people play with http://www.gapminder.org/world/ and see how they can represent data to fit a certain lens through style changes.

    1. In response to the same trend toward augmented reality, Bruce Sterling projects a coming “Internet of things,” based on RFID (radio-frequency identification) tags and metadata attached to physical objects, connected by WiFi in networks. This new kind of network will rely on conceiving of objects as existing in relation to their users over time

      This was highlighted completely at CES 2016. One example of integration was a washing machine with unique users which gave wash statistics and usage time through a user's home network. The person was able to then see efficiency and who wasn't using it effectively in his household. The scary part is, nobody is talking about data security.

    2. Sometimes you experience server lag, and your avatar hesitates to respond to key-board commands.

      Because networks might never be perfect, would this render the reach towards this singularity asymptotic?

    3. It was built through remediation of earlier technology platforms for interactive virtual spaces, from the text-based mazes of Adventure to the so-cial spaces of MUDs (multiuser dungeons) and MOOs (MUDs object-oriented).

      I wonder if it took any inspiration from DeviousMUD (Runescape).

    4. Intellec-tual, cultural, and financial capital is flowing into and out of Linden Lab’s “metaverse,” often because of an assumption that Second Liferepresents the “future of the Internet.”

      I would definitely have to credit second life with the initialization of the web currency model that affects real life. It has grown to be quite immense.

    1. New Word Order takes an interaction structure invented for competitive play with quantifi able outcomes—for gameplay—and repurposes it as play that re-contextualizes and explores the potential of poetic language.

      Through reinventing, does the original game lose itself? Should we keep the ideas associated with half-life within the game or should they be removed. Are we just using the engine?

    2. The assertion that interactive dramas are not games is relatively well accepted among game scholars.

      Interesting - but isn't it still an experience outside of your experience that you control? That you direct?

    3. The focus on quantifi able outcomes (which The Sims may not suffi ciently possess

      This isn't true. Infrastructure growth, growth of your population and progress in the game are all quantifiable outcomes.

    1. An opening Narrator · March 28, 2016 It was a dark and stormy night… Just kidding. Of the Bellipotent and its human cargo remains much to be told–all, in fact–but digressions will predominate here and throughout, to the detriment, I’m afraid, of ingress. As a prolegomena, then, a bit about the figure of the “Handsome Sailor” that roamed the pages of books … View More

      Definitely wish there was a conversation view rather than the posts appearing in a chronological order. The posts show what they're a response to but the visual is definitely lacking to keep some kind of order.

    1. It connects gamification to other, better known practices of software fraud. These include malware, spyware, and adware. While some uses of -ware still have positive or neutral associations (shareware, freeware), people are more familiar with the more nefarious variants, thanks to negative press coverage of software exploits.

      To call malware, spyware, and adware "software fraud" is a bit light, isn't it? Doesn't that make this point... fraudulent?

    2. Organizations ask for loyalty, but they reciprocate that loyalty with shams, counterfeit incentives that neither provide value nor require investment.

      Another emotional point. Your argument crumbles with your flawed logic. You're forgetting intrinsic subjective value - who are you to dictate subjective experience?

    3. Gamification offers this exactly. No thinking is required, just simple, absentminded iteration and the promise of empty metrics to prove its value. Like having a website or a social media strategy, "gamification" allows organizations to tick the games box without fuss. Just add badges! Just add leaderboards!

      But it also introduces a wider audience to games who wouldn't normally be present.

    4. Margaret Robertson has critiqued gamification on the basis that it takes the least essential aspects of games and presents them as the most essential. Robertson coins the derogatory term pointsification as a more accurate description of this process.

      By maliciously targeting the idea of pointsification so much, are you then dismissing the community of competitive gamers?

    5. Note how deftly Zichermann makes his readers believe that points, badges, levels, leader boards, and rewards are "key game mechanics."

      Relax yourself - they also can participate in creating a new form of storytelling if everything is viewed objectively.

    6. power to get us to spend money on things that seem not to exist, and so forth.

      Let's not forget the social aspect of the game which does in fact translate into real life interaction. If a game has a P2W model, you're able to then use that as a form of achievement. Your feelings outside of the game do exist in relation to that non existent entity.

    7. And "climate change" suggests that global warming is a phenomenon of adjustment rather than disaster. After all, change can be good!

      Let's not get ahead of ourselves, little lefty - remember, there's cooling happening as well.

      ~ a just as concerned moderate studying environmental science

  4. Mar 2016
    1. Playful pedagogy aims to put learners in a flow state—that utterly absorbing state where, as Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi puts it, “nothing else seems to matter” (6).

      I see it more as a dramatic turn from traditional pedagogy. It's so removed from its original form that it almost seems playful.

    2. play is voluntary, separate from other aspects of life, uncertain, unproductive, governed by rules, and simultaneously more or less dependent upon make-believe (9-10).

      I can see this almost being synonymous with reading.

    1. This view of textuality implies that any textual object—what in IVANHOE we call "the source text"—has to be encountered within a dynamical "discourse field" (i.e., the extended network of documents, materials, discussions, and evidence within which the work is continually being constituted).

      Using networks for the sake of using them.

    2. as that all interpretation pursues transformations of meaning within a dynamic space of inherited and ongoing acts of interpretation.

      So essentially misinterpretation. Interpretation should exist within the scope of the text - by altering the text, you then create a new text open to a new form of interpretation. However, you're now a level removed. It's still a misinterpretation of the original text because it's something that didn't happen.

    3. In our own day readers often react to other unresolved tensions in the book

      This coincides with the idea of fan-fiction. If there's a loose thread in a book where other things are possible, fans will immediately write it out and share it online.

    1. He said that he is twenty-nine years of age, and broken in body and mind; that when finally dismissed by the court, he shall not return home to Chili, but betake himself to the monastery on Mount Agonia without; and signed with his honor, and crossed himself, and, for the time, departed as he came, in his litter, with the monk Infelez, to the Hospital de Sacerdotes.

      It is no coincidence that Benito is 29 years old. This could easily be a reference to the 29 hanged mutineer leaders during the Nore mutiny, which is explained in detail in History of the Mutiny at Spithead and the Nore by Neale Johnson which was a part of Melville's annotated collection (and most likely a large part of the writing process). The 29 years could be representative of the blood that's technically on Benito's hands for revealing the true nature of the farce so the slave's couldn't escape in the end. Unfortunately, Melville's notes were erased by himself and he made quite a bit of them.

      The page I've included was one which Melville included a small note. It's in regards to the fact that Richard Parker, leader of the Nore mutiny, most likely didn't receive a fair trail and that the people were excited for his hanging.

    2. he fugitives had now almost gained an offing. It was nearly night; but the moon was rising. After hard, prolonged pulling, the boats came up on the ship’s quarters, at a suitable distance laying upon their oars to discharge their muskets. Having no bullets to return, the negroes sent their yells

      "Captain Amasa Delano of the ship Perseverance of Boston, has received from the King of Spain a Gold Medal, with his Majesty's likeness, as an acknowledgement to Capt. D. for the humane and spirited exertions of himself and his brave crew..."

      From: Salem Gazette 08-21-1807

      I think that this is definitely an instance in which Melville pokes fun at the "bravery" of the crew. In this scene, the sailors aboard Delano's ship are seen to shoot at the ship harboring the slaves but in return, the slaves are unable to do anything due to their ineffective weaponry. They are only able to return their yells while they are slaughtered from a distance.


    3. because the negro Babo, performing the office of an officious servant with all the appearance of submission of the humble slave, did not leave the deponent one moment; that this was in order to observe the deponent’s actions and words, for the negro Babo understands well the Spanish; and besides, there were thereabout some others who were constantly on the watch, and likewise understood the Spanish;

      "The man of true humility, on the contrary, will not spare the vices and errors of his fellow-creatures, any more than he would his own; he will exercise manfully, and without fear or favor, those judicial functions which God has committed, in some greater or less degree, to every member of the human community" (Taylor, 37) From Sir. Henry Taylor's Notes From Life

      We shouldn't see the actions of Babo as anything but humility as defined by Taylor. Taylor believes that Babo won't spare the actions of Benito Cereno, the slaver but instead show him the same humility that he is deserving of. The same for Delano: any kind of courtesy he paid Delano was to advance the farce enough to deliver justice, not sparing their actions.

    4. Some months after, dragged to the gibbet at the tail of a mule, the black met his voiceless end. The body was burned to ashes; but for many days, the head, that hive of subtlety, fixed on a pole in the Plaza, met, unabashed, the gaze of the whites;

      "For in death there is no remembrance of thee: in the grave who shall give thee thanks?" (Psalms 6:5)

      Melville took away one of the Psalms in constructing the aftermath of Babo. Babo was not buried, but his head was placed upon a pole, seeing everyone and still extracting power even in death. People will remember Babo but in a twisted way: people give thanks that he's dead, but at the same time, he still exerts a form of power.

    5. “You generalize, Don Benito; and mournfully enough. But the past is passed; why moralize upon it? Forget it. See, yon bright sun has forgotten it all, and the blue sea, and the blue sky; these have turned over new leaves.”

      The world is as large as Delano believes it to be. Delano becomes Emerson's ultimate vision of the self where the subject imprints himself on anything out of his own will.

      "He cleaves to one person, and avoids another, according to their likeness or unlikeness to himself, truly seeking himself in his associates, and more over in his trade..."

      (Emerson, 133) from Ralph Waldo Emerson's essay: "Spiritual Laws"

      As seen in Melville's Marginalia.

    1. The book has pages that are wonderfully, even improbably, varied.

      Which in a way could give the book its uniqueness that is lacked within the digital space.

    1. The point about the immediacy with which a surrogate can be called (references) is definitely true when it comes to e-books. It has even developed to a point where a dictionary can be used to define words almost immediately from the text as well.

    2. "we might consider extending the ways a book works as we shift into digital instruments"

      This is excellent because it harks back to the idea of taking what you already have and expanding on it rather than reaching for the next thing which might not be as useful.

    3. I'm very interested in the Sophie project but unfortunately it's a bit tough to see any use-cases from their website. You can actually download Sophie server and host it yourself

    1. Mr. Bryant shifts the editorial emphasis away from one "definitive" version and onto "the multiplicity of versions" that come about as an author revises and as editors, printers, and other "collaborators" make their own changes to a manuscript.

      My only fear from this is that it might break the convention of singularity from certain works. Works that were studied for years might now have to have their singular interpretation shelved for a multiplicity of possible interpretations - all which didn't make it into the original version.

    2. When he died in New York City in 1891

      Fun little NYC hidden gem.

    3. These projects continue a decades-old tradition of Melville scholarship that dates back to 1919, the centennial of the writer's birth, when, after years of neglect, Melville and his literary remains began to attract the close attention of scholars. But Mr. Olsen-Smith's and Mr. Bryant's projects also mark a departure from traditional ways of handling and editing manuscript material, one that takes advantage of new technology and recent turns in scholarly editing.

      This is quite the incredible project because it can allow us to see alternative scenarios that the author's have created for their books. It's almost as if anything can have a multitude of endings exist because of the research we can potentially find.

    4. Mr. Olsen-Smith is part of a new wave of Melville scholars who are combining old-fashioned textual scholarship with new digital technology

      Along the lines of what we're doing now with Melville's Marginalia. That site is excellent for checking out his notes and everything in an easy to use format

    1. Not just the book, but the marginal recipes and spells remain his property.

      This is getting way too meta

    2. it was recognized that it could foster for the child a means of self-expression

      Foster expression by a form of implicit control?

    3. from infantile unlettered marks; to care-fully scripted signatures; to lists of things, words, dates, and times.

      Maybe an argument here that longer works, or works that take a while to go through can indicate growth in an individual outside of the work?

    4. It becomes part of the child’s body, sharing pen or pencil trials or colors that bear the pres-sure of the hand.

      The book then becomes an extension of the child. I feel as if this could also be interesting for À la recherche du temps perdu so to speak.

    5. For the historian of childhood, the margin has long stood as the place of personal imagination.

      Harks back to the argument of marginalia annotations equaling ownership. Leaving our own mark on something signifies a sort of ownership over something.

    6. The physical appearance of a volume—paper quality, ink color, layout, binding, and annotations—has come to be seen as bearing as much meaningful information as the printed text itself.

      Influence also comes from the aesthetics of the work. Are we less inclined to annotate now that we've moved beyond physical print? Or does its own aesthetic manifest where we still feel compelled to "scribble"

    1. Now, when the Coleridge of 21st-century marginalia emerges, he should be able to mark up the books of a million friends at once.

      The sharing aspect is definitely a step in the right direction. If you know your friend to be a genius on a certain topic, take his notes. If your friend is reading the story for the first time, stay away. The choice is important. Hell, if I could have a copy of Kafka's works marked by Adorno and Benjamin, I would be ecstatic.

    2. the ability to import not just your friends’ notes but notes from all of history’s most interesting book markers.

      Im wondering if this is Google Book's next venture.

    1. The problem is, we’re writing over our own potential.

      The problem is, we’re writing over our own potential.

    2. farfetched

      Cool, pokemon.

    3. http://www.columbia.edu/~fms5/ulys.htm

      Wow, this link is from another country

    4. elucidations

      Heh, that's a funny word

    5. However, what gets left out are the more important annotations projects that are

      Who are you to say what's important???

      What about MY FEELINGS?

    6. In our class, we’ve recently reached an interesting point: the true democratic pith of what technology

      I think technology is cool. Why is he using big words?

    7. Joyce

      That guy was a quack.

    8. An inexhaustible reading of the text that proposes an infinite series of interpretations has to be met with caution because some interpretations aren’t valid. Literary critic Umberto Eco once proposed that there have to be “rules of connection” to this kind of reader and reading (Eco 148). These rules foster the idea that everything has to

      I feel like this could represent a flower. I feel like a flower sometimes.

    1. This ‘split-level’ technique conveys a far stronger impression of reality than does the

      Allows the reader to see the text objectively rather than like a traditional novel, place himself or herself into the text.

    2. Often the behavior of the characters is interpreted far beyond the scope of the reactionsshown and in the light of knowledge which at best could only have been revealed by thefuture.20In this way the reader is continually placed at a distance from the characters.

      By adding a multiplicity of views in to the mix, the author then removes any kind of governance the reader thinks he or she has over the text. The reader is not only subjected to the will of the author, but is also subject to an author who is also a level removed.

    3. and then, toward the end, he announces thatthe whole story was not his own at all,15but that he overheard it in a conversation.16

      The finisher is to remove the author completely from the original experience. Interesting

    4. the man whose attitudes shape the book (implied author)

      Reminds me a bit of John Hosper's theory of music where all levels of experience were isolated and objective: the music had it's own expression, the author had his/her own expression and the listener had their own response -- much like how it is here: all three levels are separate from one another.

    5. Joyce, at the other end of the scale drops only the ironic informationthat the author has withdrawn behind his work, ‘‘paring his fingernails.’’5The reader ofmodern novels is deprived of the assistance which the eighteenth-century writer hadgiven him in a variety of devices ranging from earnest exhortation to satire and irony.

      Called it.

    6. Such interventions are meant to indicate how the author wants his textto be understood, and also to make the reader more deeply aware of those events forthe judgment of which his own imagination has to be mobilized.

      I see the death of this around Joyce's time and the rise of the modernists.

  5. www.jstor.org.proxy.wexler.hunter.cuny.edu www.jstor.org.proxy.wexler.hunter.cuny.edu
    1. with a typicallifeexpectancyof around 300 years, the notes survive only in small fragments or underspecial conditions

      Highlighting the point that physical notes will inevitably meet their doom.

    2. Note taking differs from the transmission of whole textsinthatonlypartsof a whole are selected for transmission. The note taker can process manytexts in this way and can integrate the selections from different sources intoone set of references.

      Do references then gain authenticity and then assert themselves as a new text?

    1. Robles, who knew how to swim, kept the longest above water, making acts of contrition, and, in the last words he uttered, charged this deponent to cause mass to be said for his soul to our Lady of Succor:

      This part has to be absolutely hysterical. It gives accounts of drowning sailors that couldn't be proven and gives the idea that this man is doing this holy act as he's dying. But the point is serious - it is placed to make the story even more devastating -- that the men who died and we're killed by the mutineers were devoutly religious men and it gives the story that much more credibility to it's audience.

    2. and uncomfortable to look at as inquisitors' racks, with a large, misshapen arm-chair

      The importance of the inquisitors rack here is the fact that the master's tools are being used against the master. The rack was a torture device used during the inquisition that hung people and dropped them (the Spanish Inquisition version)

    3. The old man looked like an Egyptian priest, making Gordian knots for the temple of Ammon.

      "Turn him to any cause of policy,

      The Gordian Knot of it he will unloose,

      Familiar as his garter" (Shakespeare, Henry V, Act 1 Scene 1. 45–47)

      The gordian knot is a reference to an unsolvable problem; an enigma. The fact that it's being made for the temple of Ammon leads us to believe that he is just purely there playing his role in the farce. The knots have no meaning just like the gordian knots have no meaning when brought before the temple of a god. That is his job and even though it may seem moot and meaningless, his act of doing and undoing these knots allows his part to be indefinite.

    4. So, Don Benito—padlock and key—significant symbols, truly.

      This use of metonymy is great because it properly defines Benito. In one sense, the padlock represents his repressed state: he's captive in a cage and can't speak up about it or it will cost him his life. On the other hand, he holds the key to exposing the entire farce. Power from the "powerless"

    5. Charles V., just previous to the anchoritish retirement of that monarch from the throne.

      This is referencing the fact that Charles V actually stepped down due to abdications. Comparing Benito Cereno to this further shows the confusion of Delano because of how reserved of a captain he appears to be. It's also a good example because of it being geographically relevant with Charles V being related to Spain.

    6. hypochondriac abbot

      Oxymoron - a distinguished and nervous captain, compared to an anxious monk.

    7. fitfully revealed through the open port-holes, other dark moving figures were dimly descried, as of Black Friars pacing the cloisters.

      What's interesting about the usage of "Black Friars" is not just for the literal, racial sense, but also because of the deeper meaning that "Black Friars" has. The Black Friars referred to The Order of Preachers (an order founded by Saint Dominic de Guzman) and they received that name because they wear a black cloak over their white habits. One of their mottos, was Veritas or "truth." The significance of this is the fact that the mutineers are out in the open, playing this "white" role that normally perplexes the common captain at the time, but aren't afraid to show their true colors and not afraid to be black and hold power.

    8. somnambulistic character

      Of relation to sleepwalking. Almost a foreshadowing of the action that is to come where everything isn't as it seems -- like a dream

    9. kith and kin

      Literally, "friends and family"

    1.  The  Text  can  be  approached,  experienced,  in  reaction  to  the  sign.  The  work  closes  on  a  signifie

      The text can continually be expanded while the work remains limited

    2.  genres.  What  constitutes  the  Text  is,  on  the  contrary  (or  precisely),  its  subversive  force  in  respect  of  the  old  classifications.  Ho

      Because the text is a non-object, it's undefined as compared to the "work"

    3.  The  Text  is  not  to  be  thought  of  as  an  object  that  can  be

      I would argue that it's a medium of substance rather than a fragment of substance.

    4. urity;  it  begins  effectively(as  opposed  to  the  mere  expression  of  a  pious  wish)  when  the  solidarity  of  the  old  disciplines  breaks  down  -­‐-­‐perhaps  even  violently,  via  the  jolts  of  fas

      So essentially disciplines have to collapse before they're acknowledged to potentially merge into a certain inter-discipline? The following point on scientific mutation tries to justify it - I guess what's here is the fact that it takes a question unanswerable by a discipline to be completed by another discipline.

  6. Feb 2016
    1. Jeremy Dean, Director of Education for Hypothes.is, points out the value of asking students to explore different users’ annotation streams, apart from the texts to which the annotations are attached; this approach foregrounds social connections rather than texts.

      Can definitely as a teacher give you insights on how students engage with a text because their annotations are now visible to you.

    2. She asks students to think of an unfamiliar image from Norse mythology "as a mystery in need of a solution that you will acquire the skills to solve." Solving the mystery involves recognizing some of the features that set images apart from written texts, such as the use of visual icons and the placement of figures in spacial relationships that generate meaning.

      Annotations online now just aren't a text based platform, but one that examines images and other forms of media as well. Important note. Even one other example of this could be students collectively annotating a piece of music using soundcloud's comment system. The sky is the limit.

    3. Setting out to discover how the English writer Gabriel Harvey read his copy of Livy’s Roman history, Grafton and Jardine discovered that the answer was publicly, rhetorically, even collaboratively, not so much for private meditation as for worldly action.

      Interesting - another case of social reading being the primary way to consume a text.

    4. Although Mosaic, the first graphical Web browser, was intended to permit annotation, good tools for marking up what you read – or hear, or view – online have been slow to develop.

      What's important also to note is that before these online annotations tools existed, there were small pockets of readership that hosted online annotated versions of certain works out of pure dedication. Thankfully in this day and age, the ability to annotate anything transcends these barriers.

    1. For a quite different approach to annotation it is worth paying attention to Hypothes.is, an annotation tool that is just in its alpha stages.

      For its beta stages, it definitely has to prepare for a large scale potential of annotators who might all be grappling the same text at once. It might be hard in the future to read the text and scroll through hundreds of different annotations on the same sentence because someone decided a certain idea can be interpreted in that many ways - in this case I'm referencing a very straightforward work rather than a more avant-garde case.

    2. As Fitzpatrick has pointed out, the visibility of this annotative action is both a gift and a problem. Did most people comment on paragraph 1 because it was the best? The worst? The only one they read? And what does the lack of comments mean? Does that indicate readerly assent, indifference, or worse? An assignment built on CommentPress would want to think explicitly about the distribution of comments.[17]

      But at the same time, comment press can be used when hosting public-domain works for annotations. In that case it won't necessarily denote popularity, but rather engage the entire text.

    3. Annotations in this situation need not be restricted to clarifying factual, contextual, or textual conundrums, but can indeed be as interpretative as one wishes

      This is kind of scary - not a big fan of the free-range interpretation. There has to be some kind of grounding.

    4. Students read or watch things, they think and write about them, and they come together to share how they have come to understand the text. What Bush and Engelbart dramatize is a world in which that experience is made vivid and accessible. When contemplating incorporating web writing into one’s own courses, it can be helpful to remember that annotation has a long and honorable tradition at the heart of web writing.

      The only problem is, when do texts reach their limits? Umberto Eco is an example of a writer who tackles this in his writing. Texts can only be expounded to certain points but if there's no barrier to entry, it could lead to a world of an overabundance of obsolete information.

    5. The “associative trails” blazed by the expert poring over the record of human invention and creation would, Bush foresaw, soon be themselves available for ready searching.

      The other question we could raise deals with how effective these associative trails could be indexed in the future by computers alone and artificial intelligence. One instance of thought on this is Michael Riffaterre's Intertextuality vs. Hypertextuality

    6. and the ability to share that with others—each of these three abilities are still fundamental to the way we interact online with text, images, sound, and video.

      Do you believe that they could've imagined a world where you can even annotate any work with all of these forms of mixed media?

    1. regretted that the method could not be of use to blind authors such as Homer and Milton.

      Interesting note to add, Milton and even Joyce (I believe in the case with Samuel Beckett) had dictated to write because of their blindness.

    2. The passage’s emphasis on solitary listening (“the quiet of our own apartments”) and repeated playback (“as often as we will”) suggests readers discerned in the indented slip new possibilities for close listening that would have been impossible amid the hubbub of a public recital

      Good note on the rise of the possibilities of close reading only coming through a solitary listening compared to traditional storytelling out loud.

    3. The introduction of a new technology leads to renewed awareness of established technologies at the moment when their roles have been called into question.12

      Interesting - helps us reevaluate what we already have and to see if we can apply it to our current inquiries rather than continuously reach.

    1. So I hardly read any Little Dorrit on Kindle. I will probably continue to use it at times, since its battery life is far, far better than an iPhone, and besides, I'll worry less about dropping my Kindle in the sand.
    2. I've been dreading this, but let me get my prediction out now: The iPhone is a Kindle killer. I abandoned the Kindle edition of Little Dorrit almost as soon as I read one chapter on my iPhone. Kindle, shmindle. It does almost nothing that an iPhone can't do better —and most important, the iPhone is always with me.

      Obnoxious and a clear misunderstanding of the existence e-ink displays over traditional tablets. Also I abhor the fascination with the IPhone - is this person technologically credible enough to write this?

    3. Do I love books or do I love reading?

      Good way to think about it. Are we really losing touch with literature or are we just losing the physical manifestation of it?

    1. Deathisthesanctionofeverythingthatthestorytellercantell.Hehasborrowedhisauthorityfromdeath.Inotherwords,itisnaturalhistorytowhichhisstoriesreferback

      Death becomes one of the main drivers for storytelling. It's something the novel can't mimic in reality, leaving storytelling to be a very real form. Now things are even more confusing because audiobooks become a medium that not only cover storytelling, but novels as well. Does it posses a greater authority as a keeper of both forms without either form losing its own integrity?

    2. Thismakesstrikinglyclearthatitisnolongerintelligencecomingfromafar,buttheinformationwhichsuppliesahandleforwhatisnearestthatgetsthereadiesthearing.Theintelligencethatcamefromafar—whetherthespatialkindfromforeigncountriesorthetemporalkindoftradition—possessedanauthoritywhichgaveitvalidity,evenwhenitwasnotsubjecttoverification

      Benjamin on one of his anti-capitalist rants where capitalism perpetuates the discourse of information vs. intelligence where information circulates at a greater rate due to the concentrations having more capital importance than where true intelligence comes from.

    3. Theearliestsymptomofaprocesswhoseendisthedeclineofstorytellingistheriseofthenovelatthebeginningofmoderntimes

      But today, it's a significant event because it signified the rebirth of storytelling. Obviously Benjamin couldn't have predicted the rise of the audiobook.

    4. Storyteller breaks down into two categories: the wanderer, or spreader of information, and the local in the community who not only contains the local lore, but also compounds the stories that come from other places as well.

    5. Wasitnotnoticeableattheendofthewarthatmenreturnedfromthebattlefieldgrownsilent—notricher,butpoorerincommunicableexperience?

      World War 1 became symbolic for the death of an expressive era. Communication breakdown led to the breakdown of storytelling - nothing but stories of war rather than general tales

    1. Close listening in this manner is only possiblewith recorded performances of the sort taken for granted by closereaders of the printed text. It is in this sense that literature is notjust heard but heard in new ways through the use of today’s soundreproduction technology.

      Distinction between close listening and listening in any other form. Not reproducible by any means but closed audio from a reader of a printed text.

    2. These cumbersome formats showed little improvement overEdison’s wax cylinders in terms of convenience – it may be easier tobring back the live orator in such cases than to swap discs that manytimes. The inconvenience of these productions should make it clearwhy audiobooks have remained a niche interest until the arrival ofdigital audio made it possible to download virtual recordings. The easeof doing so need not concern us here. What matters instead is therise in the number of people listening to audiobooks now that digitaltechnology has made them more readily available.

      Wouldn't the accessibility of audio recording technologies and sharing also be indicative of the augmented usage of audiobooks?

    3. The growing popularity of audiobooks over the last decade meansthat literary critics may no longer be able to turn a blind eye –or a deaf ear, in this case

      This is important to note because I believe audio criticism hasn't really moved beyond those who wish for it to take off, or those who wish it receives more recognition.

    1. Above all, the result is social computing, the hallmark of Web 2.0.3 Recall that when modern computers were invented in the World War II era, they were first thought of primarily as ballistics or scientific-calculation machines. Then, with the advent of corporate mainframes, calculation took a backseat to business functions originally peripheral to computing: storage, filing, sorting, and printing. With the personal computer and the Internet, computers next turned into universal communication devices and media players.4 Now, with Web 2.0 (abetted even more recently by ubiquitous mobile computing and communications), the computer enfolds all its previous functions in the increasingly dominant paradigm of social computing, which the interdisciplinary research group on the topic that I participated in on my campus defines most generally as “the use of technology in networked communication systems by communities of people for one or more goals,” even if that goal is as seemingly unfocused as building the community itself and one’s identity in it.5 Oft-cited examples include blogs and their derivatives (including all manner of sites powered by the WordPress blog engine and Drupal community-message-board engine that have evolved into general-purpose content management systems); microblogging platforms like Twitter and Tumblr; social-networking platforms like Facebook and LinkedIn; wikis like Wikipedia or such make-your-own wiki platforms as PBWorks (previously PBWiki); social-bookmarking or content-discovery sites like Delicious (previously del.icio.us) and StumbleUpon; shared or social news sites like Digg (in its heyday) and Reddit; and—at least in some of their shared or specialized community features—image- and video-sharing sites like Flickr or YouTube as well as collaborative-work-space sites like Google Docs. At the level of infrastructure, most such social-computing systems are based on the same back-end Web 2.0 data architecture I describe above, but with increasingly complex subarchitectures. Indeed, many are based on the identical LAMP open-source software platform (the acronym for the combination of the Linux operating system, Apache Web-server program, MySQL database program, and PHP scripting code). Just as important as the shared infrastructure are shared superstructural conventions, practices, and forms. Some of these may be likened to classical rhetorical devices—for example, common Web 2.0 topoi such as the profile page, post, comment, tag, and so on. At a higher level of convention, the various social-computing instances I have cited (blogs, wikis, social-networking sites, etc.) are akin to genres. And if we were to go platonic, the equivalent of transcendental, and not just Web, forms in the social-computing universe is the social graph. Often invoked with the definite article as if there were just the one social graph, this concept bridges the literal notion of a social-network diagram visualizing all one’s online social connections and a quasi-metaphysical theory of universal sociality.6

      Liu's fascination of Web 2.0 fails to mention the idea of data security, as well as the option to be anonymous as well. Should we be thinking about the who's-who in the comments or rather just let them fill the net and stick to the general structure of building upon buildings.