71 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2020
    1. the poorer, darker-skinned Peruvians who studied theremight have some connection to subversive groups, hence middle- andupper-class students from universities like La Católica would do best toavoid associating with them in order to avoid any problems with theauthorities


    2. As the case was being pursued incivil court, pro-regime legislators gutted the trial by passing a law relo-cating the case to military courts, a violation of judicial autonomy. Whenthe military court convicted a few Colina Group operatives for the crimes,Congress engineered an amnesty law in 1995 to free them

      Lack of consequence

    3. “neopopu-lism” has been widely used to describe the unmediated nature of therelationship Fujimori cultivated with the masses and to explain the sur-prising coupling of a populist leadership style with neoliberal econom-ics

      Peru had populist leadership with neoliberal economics.

    4. The resultwas a growing “common sense”favoring heavy-handed and extralegalsolutions to the problem of violence and economic chaos.

      Authoritarianism is seen as a common sense solution to the violence that was going on because the previous democratic system failed.

    5. Sendero Luminoso, the Maoist guerrilla movement that launched a“prolonged popular war” against the Peruvian state in 1980, becamenotorious for its attacks against the civilian population

      Sendero attacked civilians. Particularly the IU.

    6. The new alliance of left-wingparties, the Izquierda Unida (IU),


    7. Yet the ease with which the Fujimoriregime later co-opted many of these groups into its vast patronage net-works that gave (or withheld) material benefits in exchange for politicalsupport highlights such organizations’ extreme vulnerability to exter-nal forces, particularly the state

      Grassroots organizations couldn't fight the influence of the state.

    8. the rise of the informal economy also weakened the power of labor

      Informal economy decreased worker power, so things like strikes weren't prevalent.

    9. Violence and the fear it engendered reorderedpolitical and social meanings in Peru, creating a “culture of fear” in whichcitizens willingly surrendered rights in exchange for the promise of orderand stability.

      Violence pushed for submission, bc people were tired of being afraid.

    10. Clientelisticrelationships were used to build regime support and simultaneously toundercut autonomous organizations and opposition groups. And theregime’s use of fear and intimidation kept opposition groups disorga-nized and on the defensive, and hence incapable of mounting a chal-lenge to the authoritarian practices of the Fujimori regime.

      How economics worked with fear tactics in order to have control over the masses.

    11. “Anyone whospeaks out [in protest] is [considered to be] a terrorist”

      Fear of being labelled something dangerous to the country.

    12. instrumentalization of fear

      Key points: economy, patronage, instrumentalization of fear

    13. examining the ways in which the Fujimori regime exercised state powerto ensure that civil society remained disorganized and hence unable toarticulate an effective oppositional discourse and politics


    14. economic crisis of the 1980s and the government’s introduction ofneoliberal reforms in the 1990s

      economic reasons for low amounts of social protest

    15. By locating the source of weakness in factors endogenousto the opposition, it fails to grapple with the complex interactions be-tween the state, political society, and civil society that might provide amore complete understanding of the state of civil society in Peru in the1990s.

      Don't focus on the internal aspects of the opposition, look at the larger scale.

    16. In this context, social mobilization burst onto the scene to contest thelegitimacy of the electoral process and of Fujimori’s third term. Frommiddle-class feminists to working-class moms, from soup kitchen orga-nizers to university students, from urban shantytown dwellers to peas-ant federation members, thousands of people took to the streets duringthe contested first round of elections in April 2000, and again for threeconsecutive days on July 26, 27, and 28, to protest Fujimori’s inaugura-tion to a third term in office. What made this social mobilization so re-markable was that for the previous decade, social protest had been scarce.

      Waves of social protests occur because of Fujimori being elected to his third term as president. They said that this happened illegally.

  2. Sep 2020
    1. The tragedy of Indian success stemmed ultimately from the way it secured the participation of a defeated people in its own oppression.


    2. More often, lesser or aspiring elites sought to gain or extend footholds in the countryside of Huanta, Angaraes, and Vilcashuaman by marry-ing Indian women

      dowry = land

    3. all had Spanish relatives or friends

      the wealthy wanted to really assimilate with the Hispanics

    4. Their economic welfare came to depend primarily upon their capacity to privatize interests in a commer-cial setting:

      privatization was huge

    5. Artisanry exerted a special ap-peal precisely because it offered the surest path to economic improve-ment and independence. Prospective apprentices flocked to cities to find artisans willing to teach them a trade in exchange for their labors.

      artisanry was honest work

    6. The bur-den of such schemes and the reduced quotas of legal mitas and tributes fell most heavily on the least powerful and poorest segments of native so-ciety

      stealing from the poor

    7. Tributary status did not apply to independent women heads of household, and women accounted for over a third (35.8 per-cent) of Indian purchases or rentals of property.

      woman landowners didn't have to pay taxes

    8. To avoid dependence on a European overlord, a forastero might seek a livelihood in a new Indian community setting.4 But earning the ac-ceptance of foreign ayllus might entail new kinship bonds, or payments of rent for land-use rights, which limited accumulation

      They built wealth among other indian communities to keep it away from the spanish

    1. "semasiographic" writing—texts that, unlike written English,Chinese, and Maya, are not representations of spoken languag

      what in the world, that's literally so amazing

    2. three-dimensional binary code,unlike any other form of writing on earth

      amazing, they would have been great at creating new technologies

    3. —parsed the knots both by inspecting them visually and by running theirfingers a l o ng them, Braille-style, sometimes accompanying this by manipulat-ing black and white ston

      This is an amazing form of written language.

    1. With this way of doing things, none of them con-sidered it hard work even if they spent their whole life in the mines, and none of them died from overwork. Besides, they were permitted to stop work several days in the month for their feasts and recreation; and the same Indians were not continuously in the mines, but every so often they were sent away and others came in their place.

      Native way of collecting gold & silver.

    2. the taxation is carried out with moderation so that the Indians can be free and masters of their per-son and property, without other taxes or tributes than the levy on each settlement. I shall go into this later on in more detail.

      Wow, it's nice to see that one spaniard thought this way

    1. Uc was the name for the figure one; chungafor ten; pachacafor 100; huarangafor 1,000; hunofor 1,000,000; and pantacac huno for infinity

      wow, what an advanced system considering the time period

    2. The messengers with a trumpet worked in relays, one chasqui relieving another after a distance of just under two miles.

      Quite similar to our postal service today.

  3. Aug 2020
    1. Even with strong cognitive defenses, it's hard to escape the emotional pull of the America syndrome. It's manipulated by politicians, invoked by the mass media, and stoked by jeremiads that make us alternately into sinners and saints.

      Immigrant children probably notice this more because of the dichotomy of the American world and their home world.

    1. Grades don’t prepare children for the “real world”

      It actually makes work worse. When I was working in a group this summer and we were allowed to dictate our own boundaries for our project, more often than not, I noticed my teammates were trying to find a right answer that didn't exist.

    2. Infact, negative reactions to this proposal (“It’s unrealistic!”) point up how grades functionas a mechanism for controlling students rather than as a necessary or constructive wayto report information about their performance

      I like this, it's something I never thought about

    3. First, they can stop putting letter ornumber grades on individual assignments and instead offer only qualitative feedback.

      I feel like this only increases anxiety unless teachers make it known that students are doing consistently well. I wouldn't like my only assessment to be comments on where my paper needs fixes.

    4. Rather, “it is a symbol offailure — failure to teach well, failure to test well, and failure to have any influence at allon the intellectual lives of students

      I like how this is phrased

    5. CarolDweck

      highly recommend looking into her work

    6. hey’ll choose a shorter book, or aproject on a familiar topic, in order to minimize the chance of doing poorly — notbecause they’re “unmotivated” but because they’re rational.

      This has also lead to a lack of creativity in education. It's like every time there is a group project, half of the class is doing the exact same thing, because it is the topic with the most easily accessible information.

    1. Shamefaced, she explained that, despite my obvious foreign appearance, each woman suspected that I was associ- ated with the widely feared intelligence service

      government service?

    2. Second, many wanted to consult their families before responding to some of the questions

      it's sad because they are probably hesitant since so many others are cheated by large corporations into handing over their land this way

    3. A distinct lan- guage was being "spoken" through everyday materials and nonalphabetic imagery

      studies artifacts

    4. But in Peru in the mid-1980s, an armed struggle begun earlier in the remote southern highlands was spreading, with increasingly tragic consequences.

      peru is at war

    1. Yanacocha claims legal ownership of Máxima’s land while Máxima says she never sold any of her land to the company, and the land deeds bear her name

      Often times they cheat people out of their land by making it difficult to read contracts, targetting the illiterate, amongst other things

    2. women feel the negative impacts more

      Extractivism spills over into other social issues

    3. One year later, and the family was still suffering intimidation: on 5 February 2016 Máxima’s home was again stormed by security forces, this time to destroy her crop of potatoes.

      Intimidation practices by the police especially. Governmental corruption?

    4. Yanacocha is the largest gold mine in Latin America and fourth largest in the world

      Geography to consider

    5. Yanacocha mine on the area’s water quality found traces of lead, arsenic, cyanide and mercury in the drinking water, linked to the rising rates of gastrointestinal cancer amongst residents of Cajamarca

      toxic to the people

  4. Apr 2020
    1. maintaining the criterion of ‘first come, first served’ would amount to a decision to exclude late-arriving patients from access to intensive care

      Who will be first notified of an open position? The twenty year old barista or the millionaire seventy year old willing to donate "a large amount of money" for that spot? I just don't see this ending up well. Older populations simply just have too much power to allow this to happen.

    2. an age limit for access to intensive care.

      What are the social impacts of this considering that most of the wealthy populations in the world are quite old. Won't this make people more likely for that spot, where they are willing to pay "anything"? What does this mean for the poor people who are both young and old?

    3. maximizing benefits for the largest number,

      This can be taken in so many ways. A doctor has the potential to save multiple lives, whereas a postal man doesn't. Do we give life saving care to the doctor rather than the postal man, even if the postal man may be further ahead in recovery?

    4. “Informed by the principle of maximizing benefits for the largest number,” they suggest that “the allocation criteria need to guarantee that those patients with the highest chance of therapeutic success will retain access to intensive care.”

      Those who are most likely to survive get to live. I wonder what this means for those who we consider "essential workers" but aren't wealthy enough to maintain a healthy lifestyle. If the poorer of our "essential workers" were to contract coronavirus, do we just leave them to die? What does this say about our society and how it values people?

    5. published guidelines

      What are the United States guidelines?

    6. wartime triage

      Will this situation cause us to enter social norms of wartime? As we have already seen with the bulk buying the mental states of people at the beginning of this situation was horrifying, I can't imagine what it'll be like once more people start dying.

  5. Mar 2020
    1. "It is the demeanor that is difficult. If there is work to be done, disciples shoulder the burden, and when wine and food are served, elders are given precedence, but surely filial piety con­sists of more than this."

      take care of your elders

    2. People today think of 'learning' as the pursuit of knowledge, whereas the ancients thought of 'learning' as cultivating the self."

      How does this relate to the other texts we've read in legacies

    3. mastering the basics, discussing them with fellow students and working hard at mastering them, and finally becoming a teacher of others.

      breaking down learning

    4. learning (xue *) has more to do with actual behavior than academic theory,

      something to remember

    5. BOOK ONE

      Book One

    1. YoushedtearsoverfallenHungary,andmakethesadstoryofherwrongsthethemeofyourpoets,statesmen,andorators,tillyourgallantsonsarereadytoflytoarmstovindicatehercauseagainsttheoppressor;but,inregardtothetenthousandwrongsoftheAmericanslave,youwouldenforcethestrictestsilence,andwouldhailhimasanenemyofthenationwhodarestomakethosewrongsthesubjectofpublicdiscourse!

      This sounds a lot like the Colin Kapernick protest

    2. Butaboveandbeyondthis,itfedhisvanitybecauseitassociatedhimwiththemasters.

      Psychological aspect of slavery. this touches back on the souls of white folks

    3. thatis,therewereactuallymorewhitepeopletopolicetheslavesthantherewereslaves.

      poor whites policed the slaves. willingly? or unwillingly?

    4. theNegroeswereprotectedbyacertainprimitivesortofold-agepension,jobinsurance,andsicknessinsur-ance;thatis,theymustbesupportedinsomefashion,whentheyweretoooldtowork;theymusthaveattentioninsickness,fortheyrepre-sentedinvestedcapital;andtheycouldneverbeamongtheunem-ployed.

      Interesting thought. What he is saying is that although, there were multiple physical benefits with being a slave that people don't usually pay attention to, most of the damage was psychological.

    5. Itwasthesubmergencebelowthearbitrarywillofanysortofindividual.

      This connects to that author who says that people are built by what society wants them to be

    6. Itwasinpartpsychological,theenforcedpersonalfeelingofinferiority,thecallingofanotherMaster;thestandingwithhatinhand.Itwasthehelplessness.Itwasthede-fenselessnessoffamilylife

      Slavery has a more psychological aspect to it than most people think

    7. InConnecti-cuttheyweredisfranchisedin1814;in1865thisrestrictionwasre-tained,andNegroesdidnotregaintherightuntilaftertheCivilWar.

      They lost and got these rights back in some states

    8. AsslaverygrewtoasystemandtheCottonKingdombegantoexpandintoimperialwhitedomination,afreeNegrowasacontra-diction,athreatandamenace.Asathiefandavagabond,hethreat-enedsociety;butasaneducatedpropertyholder,asuccessfulmechanicorevenprofessionalman,hemorethanthreatenedslavery.Hecon-tradictedandunderminedit.Hemustnotbe.Hemustbesuppressed,enslaved,colonized.Andnothingsobadcouldbesaidabouthimthatdidnoteasilyappearastruetoslaveholders.

      As the base in capitalism relied more heavily on black labor, the more the superstructure converted and grew to hate black people

    9. InthestatescarvedoutoftheSouthwest,theyweredisfranchisedassoonasthestatecameintotheUnion,althoughinKentuckytheyvotedbetween1792and1799,andTennesseeallowedfreeNegroestovoteinherconstitutionof1796.InNorthCarolina,whereevendisfranchisement,in1835,didnotapplytoNegroeswhoalreadyhadtherighttovote,itwassaidthattheseveralhundredNegroeswhohadbeenvotingbeforethenusu-allyvotedprudentlyandjudiciously.

      Black voting was allowed in some states, and they exercised this ability

    10. Theirslaverywasamatterofbothraceandsocialcondition,buttheconditionwaslimitedanddeterminedbyrace.Theywerecongenitalwardsandchildren,tobewell-treatedandcaredfor,butfarhappierandsaferherethanintheirownland.

      they saw it as better for black people to be working there rather than to be in Africa

    11. newcitieswerebuiltontheresultsofblacklabor,andanewlaborproblem,involvingallwhitelabor,arosebothinEuropeandAmerica.

      The question arose, if blacks were doing all the manual labor, what jobs are there for white people to do?

    12. Ini860,atleast90%werebornintheUnitedStates,13%werevisiblyofwhiteaswellasNegrodescentandactuallymorethanone-fourthwereprobablyofwhite,IndianandNegroblood.

      .25 mixed

    13. fhebelievesthattheNegroinAmericaandingeneralisanaverageandordinaryhumanbeing,whoundergivenenvironmentdevelopslikeotherhumanbeings,thenhewillreadthisstoryandjudgeitbythefactsadduced.If,however,heregardstheNegroasadistinctlyinferiorcreation,whocanneversuccessfullytakepartinmoderncivilizationandwhoseemancipationandenfranchisementweregesturesagainstnature,thenhewillneedsomethingmorethanthesortoffactsthatIhavesetdown.

      The audience are people who don't see black people as less than human. So those who didn't buy into racist ideals of character.