21 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2020
    1. What classifies something as being a creation?  When are we allowed to take ownership of something we make?  Are true "creations" only composed from raw materials?  Or is it the idea and design decisions regardless of the source of materials which makes something a "new" creation? These are the thoughts which ran through my head after watching Kirby Ferguson's TED talk on "remixing." 

      I had the same thoughts as I watched the Kirby Ferguson video as well.

    1. Typical forms of content creation include maintaining and updating web sites, blogging, article writing, photography, videography, online commentary, the maintenance of social media accounts, and editing and distribution of digital media. A Pew survey described content creation as the creation of "the material people contribute to the online world."[3]

      I love the examples provided that show what OCC can look like.

    1. In thinking about this question, I may be splitting hairs, but I believe that the word choice involved in identifying construction as opposed to creation is also of the utmost importance. Creation can be viewed simply as the act of producing, or causing to exist.  Construction is the building or assembling of an infrastructure. Construction is equal parts inspiration and perspiration. Construction calls on creativity as well as persistence, flexibility, and revision. Construction asks our students and teachers to focus on the power and patience employed during work process…and not just the final resultant work product.

      I like the point that is made here. Focusing on construction will lead to better product creation outcomes.

    1. Lessig (2005) claims that at a very general level all of culture can be understood in terms of remix, where someone creates a cultural product by mixing meaningful elements together (e.g., ideas from different people with ideas of one’s own), and then someone else comes along and remixes this cultural artefact with others to create yet another artefact.

      This makes me think of memes. You take an image and a new phrase made popular in some way and combine them into a new product. Brilliant!

    1. Meanwhile, school was a place which inculcated a rudimentary ‘basics’. Literacy, in fact, was two of the ‘three R’s’: reading, writing and arithmetic. Children memorised spelling lists, and learnt the parts of speech and correct grammar. School was a universe of straightforwardly right and wrong answers, of authoritative texts and authoritarian teachers. The underlying lesson of the basics was about the social order and its sources of authority, a lesson which was appropriate for a society which expected its workers to be passively disciplined.

      The old way of doing things just isn't going to cut it in the modern age. Workers can look up factual information, so teaching them soft skills is more important in current education.

    1. When observing students interactingwith text resulting from an Internetsearch, Sutherland-Smith (2002) report-ed that they “perceive Web text readingas different from print text reading” (p.664). Within Internet environments,many readers are easily frustrated whennot instantly gratified in their rapidsearch for immediate answers and mayadopt a “snatch and grab philoso-phy...not apparent in print text environ-ments” (p. 664). Similarly, Eagleton(2001) observed middle school studentswith little experience with Internet in-quiry often making “hasty, randomchoices with little thought and evalua-tion” (p. 3). These shallow, random, andoften passive interactions with text arein direct contrast to the active, strate-gic, and critical processes of construct-ing meaning now being proposed byinstructional leaders and supported by25 years of reading research (Allington,2001; Keene & Zimmermann, 1997;Robb, 2000).

      It is interesting to note that the "instant gratification" mindset that most young people have when searching online is counter-productive to teaching how to construct meaning from what is read. This is why it is important to teach the skills necessary to be proficient online readers.

    1. Reciprocal teaching and Internet reciprocal teaching share core values. The gradual release of responsibility to students is central to both approaches. In Internet reciprocal teaching, there are three specific phases, discussed below. When the majority of students demonstrate proficiency with the skills taught in Phase 1, instruction moves into Phase 2, and finally into Phase 3. Group discussion and sharing of strategies are also integral to both approaches.

      I like how this paragraph tells the educator how to approach internet reciprocal teaching. Only after students show they grasp a phase of instruction does the teacher move on to the next phase.

    1. This process involves the following five phases: Students collaboratively (with the instructor) identify an area of interest and co-construct a driving question to guide inquiry. Students engage in online collaborative inquiry as they search and sift through online texts using digital tools to address their focus of inquiry. Students critically evaluate online information by considering the credibility (truthfulness) and validity (usefulness) of the information obtained. Students synthesize what they have learned during their online inquiry by actively curating and synthesizing information across multiple, multimodal sources. Student engage in online content construction by synthesizing what they have learned and selecting the best digital text or tool before sharing this answer.

      I love how this is broken down into steps that teachers can follow as they try to implement internet inquiry projects in their classrooms.

    1. Instead, the authors of this article, commenting on Greenhow, Robelia, and Hughes (2009), suggest that continuous, not dichotomous, change in the technologies of literacy and learning defines the Internet.

      I like the idea of continuous rather than dichotomous change in literacy online.

    1. Finally, each online tool regularly is updated; each time this happens new affordances appear, requiring addi-tional skills and strategies. It is clear that the nature of literacy regularly and continuously changes in online spaces.

      This shows why it is important as educators to be constantly reevaluating how we teach literacy on the internet

    1. Those are important steps, especially when teaching online for the first time, but in classrooms where tech integration has moved to the mastery level, the last two levels of the SAMR model—modification and redefinition—should also be in the mix. Students in classes where this kind of mastery is embedded find more novel and immersive uses for technology. They are creators and publishers of their own work across multiple forms of media, for example, or they are inviting professionals to provide feedback on their work products, or participating in digital forums with other peers around the world.

      This is where the rubber meets the road with SAMR. These methods will serve to teach our students the soft skills they need for the future!

    2. The SAMR model lays out four tiers of online learning, presented roughly in order of their sophistication and transformative power: substitution, augmentation, modification, and redefinition. When switching to an online format, teachers often focus on the first two levels, which involve replacing traditional materials with digital ones: converting lessons and worksheets into PDFs and posting them online, or recording lectures on video and making them available for asynchronous learning, for example. 

      I definitely had a focus on the first two levels of the SAMR model as my school transitioned to online instruction due to the coronavirus. Now it is time to shift my focus to the next two levels as I try and incorporate tech in a way that redefines what my students learn.

    1. After walking through the different parts of a cell’s anatomy, break your students into small groups and have them collaborate on completing a Check for Understanding quiz via your LMS. Include an interactive question that provides a diagram of a cell with blank labels and requires students to drag and drop the proper labels in place from an answer key (in Schoology’s LMS it’s called a “Label Image” question). Give each group a device with recording capabilities. Have each member of the group choose an organelle to personify, and have them record each other explaining who they are (or which organelle they are) and why they are important for the cell. Finally, have them upload their videos to a media album so your students can watch each other’s videos on their own time and leave comments. Instead of researching a cell process (e.g., cell respiration, energy production, etc.) in one type of cell, have your students compare the process between animal and plant cells and make conclusions regarding the differences they find. Require each group to construct an artifact of their research by creating a one-page brief in Google Drive or Microsoft OneDrive, a flowchart comparison, or a video explanation. This can be turned in via an assignment in your LMS for credit. Armed with their knowledge of cell anatomy, function, and processes, have your students analyze the connections between different animals and plants in their natural habitats. Have each group infer what might happen when one animal or plant is placed in a habitat other than it's natural one. Each group should compile evidence to make their case (articles, videos, etc.) using Padlet, Evernote, or other similar tool. 

      These enhancements are not too difficult to wrap one's head around and begin to apply to other lessons. The student engagement and learning outcomes would be greatly increased by embracing such changes.

    1. Often, teachers give students group tests, which, like the class worksheets, are designed to be harder than the individual assignments. Students quickly realize that they are able to solve problems as a group that they would not be able to solve as individuals.

      This is soft skill development at its core. In the age where anything can be Googled, memorizing rote knowledge is not a desirable outcome for education. Employers are looking for people who can work well in groups and who can problem solve. These are skills that are taught by practicing working in groups and by solving problems over the course of many years. By embracing collaborative learning, teachers will endow their students with the types of skills that will allow them to get good jobs in the future.

    1. Teachers in the substitution and augmentation phase can use technology to accomplish traditional tasks,  but the real learning gains result from engaging students in learning experiences that could not be accomplished without technology. At the Modification and Redefinition level, the task changes and extends the walls of the classroom.

      I have seen first hand how tech can enhance student learning at the modification and redefinition levels. For instance, I have been teaching about the physiology of heart contractions on A&P for years. However in a new class that I picked up called Principles of Biomedical Science, I have access to electrodes and software that will allow the students to record their own EKG. They can then exercise and compare their readouts with their EKG at rest or with those of other students. They can then evaluate the data for trends and link that to physiological processes. I see much more engagement and more solid learning outcomes as a result!

    1. The TPACK framework for teacher knowledge is described in detail, as a complex interaction among three bodies of knowledge: Content, pedagogy, and technology.

      Most teachers know their content well and the basic tenets of pedagogy don't change too much during the career of a teacher. What does change, and changes quickly, is the technology available to teachers that will allow for maximum student engagement and learning outcomes. In order for a teacher to remain in the center of the TPACK graphic, he/she must stay on the forefront of said technology.

    1. “connected learning.” It advocates for broadened access to learning that is socially embedded, interest-driven, and oriented toward educational, economic, or political opportunity. Connected learning is realized when a young person is able to pursue a personal interest or passion with the support of friends and caring adults, and is in turn able to link this learning and interest to academic achievement, career success or civic engagement.

      The lack of an intrinsic motivation to learn is an all-too-common condition of many students today. Unfortunately, it is best indicator of who will be successful in academia. By embracing "connected learning" and trying to utilize individual student interests during teaching, educators may be able to increase that intrinsic motivation and thus increase academic success.

    1. Connected learning combines personal interests, supportive relationships, and opportunities. It is learning in an age of abundant access to information and social connection that embraces the diverse backgrounds and interests of all young people.

      This is great way to approach learning in order to enhance student engagement. If innate student interests are taken into account, their desire to learn about something or to develop a new skill will be promoted.

    1. “[O]ur world changed in April 1993 when the Mosaic 1.0 browser was released to the general public. We need new forms of education. We need to reform our learning institutions, concepts, and modes of assessment for our age. Now, anyone with access to the World Wide Web can go far beyond the passive consumer model to contribute content on the Web. We can customize and remix, alone or in collaboration with others, located anywhere on the Web. That Do-It-Yourself potential for connected, participatory, improvisational learning requires new skills, what many are calling new “literacies”.”

      I remember using Mosaic 1.0 when I was a kid and realizing that the world around me was fundamentally changing. The fact that it has taken nearly 30 years for educators to finally begin to reexamine how they approach teaching in a digital world is shameful. However, at least there is movement in the right direction in teacher certification programs.

    1. Yet, as early adopters, history’s first generation of “always connected” individuals do not have the knowledge and skills to critically explore, build, and connect online. Simply stated, students are often not provided with opportunities in school to practice the web literacies necessary to read, write, and participate on the web.

      I have run across this phenomenon many times during my years as a teacher. One would think that students who were born into this digital world would have digital skills that would far exceed those of older individuals. However, I find that they are woefully lacking in their ability to navigate the web to find valid information to support their topic. Teaching them to think more critically about what they are reading and from where they are getting their information is a worthy undertaking!

  2. www.literacyworldwide.org www.literacyworldwide.org
    1. Think of the use of social media during the Arab Spring. People used social media in a way that went far beyond knowing how to click and deep into civic uses and navigating ways to communicate with others under the radar of a communication-hindering government. It was a way of both encouraging one another to remain critical and supporting one another through adversity in creative ways.

      This is one of the revolutionary aspects of digital communication. I allows the public a way to to thwart the oppression of free speech from authoritarian governments. This is going to be very important to the citizens of Hong Kong now that the Chinese government is beginning to enforce tougher laws curbing free speech