81 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2022
    1. However, in the case of text generation, “comprehension” comes about only by conflating the program structure with its output, much like confusing a language with its grammar. It is not sufficient to use terms like “rereading” to describe what happens in different iterations of such works, since to “reread” is to suggest that the repeated elements are visible instead of a phantasmic structural trace of the source code and to suggest that the product on screen is only what matters, not the concept of the generator itself.

      What it means to "comprehend" a generative text -- which is not just re-reading, since the object itself is in flux.

    2. This is summed up well by a distinction Marjorie Perloff makes between rules and constraints in writing poetry: rules create definite expectations for an audience that an author will follow, as in poetic measure, whereas constraints are "primarily generative, the constraint determining, not what is already fixed as a property of the text, but how the writer will proceed with his composition [Perloff 1991, 139]. “Anti-chance” in this sense may then be redefined according to the legibility of such a constraint within a composition.

      Chance, anti-chance; rules vs. constraints. Distinguishing cut-ups from constraints, in part in terms of the experience of the reader (legibility to reader).

    3. Nick Montfort's poetry generator Taroko Gorge, which includes clear structural elements resulting from procedure as well as an emergent aesthetic features irreducible to that structure, shows the limits of both experiential and procedural approaches in understanding such works.

      Montfort Taroko Gorge

    4. Therein lies the significance of digital art’s unique temporality: by removing real-time computation from the equation and turning to the static form of the document, one creates legibility, allowing the past to be reproduced (or at least re-written), but in doing so one diminishes the performative and theatrical aspects of the art

      The "capture" of a digital work in video is not the same as the live, real-time computation?

    5. One might be tempted to make the assumption that an archived recording of a live digital art performance is equivalent to “previously recorded

      So what is the status of the recording of a live work?

    6. To engage random variation in digital art requires a combined approach, one that acknowledges the importance of procedure in giving shape to the randomness while also treating the experience of the work as a prospective act of discovery in which that underlying procedural shape gradually comes into view through repetition and feedback

      The argument - combined approach -- necessary because of the "presentness" of digital art (esp. chance work?)

    7. processes and experience

      For A., neither a focus on process or experience in itself can be sufficient for a change work.

    8. In essence, this move attempts to stay the disorder of variation by setting limits, identifying rules that govern what would otherwise appear to be undifferentiated output or response in playable media including video games, hypertext fiction, and other forms of interactive digital art.

      For A., the focus on rules / structure is a heuristic that falsely stabilizes the work -- a critical convenience. But this omits the dynamics of the "readers's inferential process" -- the necessary puzzling out of the rules.

    9. aesthetics of randomization

  2. Jul 2021
    1. Avoid allowing learners to select which essay items they answer. This keeps learner scores comparable. If learners can choose which essay questions to answer, the test is not assessing the same thing for all students.

      This is an interesting position -- it reveals a lot about the values encoded in (and the trade-offs involved in) assessment driven teaching. An alternative perspective would be to look at how multiple essays options gives divergent learners the chance to demonstrate their learning if varied ways. So, while the logic of this item is solid -- the "rightness" of its injunction is open to question.

  3. May 2020
    1. strategy #1: present a social presence and have students do so as wellSocial presence is an important concept for developing community.26 It is an individual’s sense that he or she is connected to other real people, and that the re-verse also applies.27 Social presence requires being there and being seen as being there, and it is achie

      Strategies for creating and maintaining community online.

    2. Being personally engaged as an educator and serv-ing as a role model—displaying commitment, drive, and care—are the first steps in developing a culture within a class that can foster a sense of community.To me, this means that a teacher is an active learner in spaces where the students can witness that teacher behaving like a good learner. This can take place anywhere online or in physical spaces. The instructor is a cultivator of connections, and those connections to people and ideas are what need tending in order to create a community.The use of various tools can help instructors create this type of envi-ronment, but it is not the tools themselves that will make it work. Teach-ers need to show that they are engaged in a community of practice in their profession and that they are contributing members, not just passive recipients of content.

      Teachers model engaged learning and participation in community.

    3. In an onsite course, members may receive recognition from their classmates through nonverbal behavior. For example, when a student makes a particularly good point, classmates can nod their approval. That student is recognized and thus is encouraged to participate in the future. The compe-tence and capabilities of other students may also be assessed quickly, both through their comments and the ac knowledgment given to them by their class-mates. Online, however, students have to make an effort to write to another stu-dent to congratulate him or her on a point well made.

      How can we engineer online community? Student / peer recognition and response?

    4. Membership requires a system of common symbols. Understanding common symbols—which may involve a name, landmark, logo, or architectural style—is a prerequisite to understanding community.In an onsite course, membership is established decisively and relatively quickly. It is bounded by the walls and doors of the classroom. Those on the inside are mem-bers; those on the outside are not. Members have an established sense of belong-ing; they have a right to be inside the walls of the classroom. Students often dis-play common symbols, from similar styles of clothing to wearing school colors or logos, although some intentionally choose not to conform.

      Membership in a traditional community is earned; in an online course community, it is automatic?

    5. When it comes to web publishing at UMW, “open” (rather than “closed/private”) is the default setting. The next stage is to make the process for publishing and sharing information about each academic de-partment, faculty member, and student that much simpler and more transparent.

      Open web publishing can turn the campus into a learning community.

    6. n online courses, community still develops through patterns of communica-tion, but the community structure typically is not determined by geography. Rather than individuals who are in close physical proximity creating communities and cliques, an online community can develop more evenly among the members of the class, because of the absence of spatial limitations. Thus an online community has a structure that potentially can be fairly inclusive, and barriers to entry into the course’s community may be less rigid.

      Some (paradoxial) advantages to online community.

    7. Students in an online course may not have the same level of interest in the sub-ject as a virtual community, in which membership is voluntary. They do, however, enter an established community in which there are experienced members who are already engaged.

      Online courses (virtual) are not necessarily equal to online communities, but we can try to develop a sense of community (albeit virtual) in an online course.

    8. Thus community is differ-ent onsite than it is online.

      Community is "different" online but not nonexistent. No shared physical space.

    9. Our tech-nologies now enable our communities to extend beyond the limitations of our phys-ical beings and thus span the boundaries of time and place

      Virtual communities. Learning communicites ...

    10. Such communities may be either informal, such as when they form around the participants’ interests in movies, old cars, a specific type of music, sports, and so forth. Alternately, they may be more formal, such as in communities of practice, where members share a craft, or communities of inquiry, composed of members of a scientific community who are involved in a certain type of inquiry into social problem

      Some various kinds of community.

    11. They connect with each other, work well together, and encourage and support each other. They look out for each other. They generally seem to enjoy being in the course to-gether as a group.

      Community in a class that "gells"

    1. ke Algebra, Geometry and Geometrical Drawing must beextended beyond the mere circle of geometrical ideas.

      An example of making geometry study of real present, would be to link it to manufacturing or even to making of maps.

    2. to feel that they are studying something, and are not merelyexecuting intellectual minuets.

      A lively evocation of what it means to "study"

    3. But in considering this description, I must beg you to rememberwhat I have been insisting on above. In the first place, one train ofthought will not suit all groups of children. For example, I shouldexpect that artisan children will want something more concrete and, ina sense, swifter than I have set down here. Perhaps I am wrong, butthat is what I should guess. In the second place, I am notcontemplating one beautiful lecture stimulating, once and for all, anadmiring class. That is not the way in which education proceeds. No;all the time the pupils are hard at work solving examples drawinggraphs, and making experiments, until they have a thorough hold on thewhole subject. I am describing the interspersed explanations, thedirections which should be given to their thoughts.

      ANW advocates something like a tutorial model (or perhaps what we call "personalized learning" today.

    4. Reformation must begin at the other end. First, you must make upyour mind as to those quantitative aspects of the world which ar

      "Reformation" involves not thinking about "content" of knowledge, but connectedness and application. What would this look like in practice?

    5. Whatever interest attaches to your subject-matter must beevoked here and now; whatever powers you are strengthening in thepupil, must be exercised here and now; whatever possibilities of mentallife your teaching should impart, must be exhibited here and now.

      ANW emphasizes active, applied learning at every point. No "inert" knowledge.

    6. I would only remark that the understanding which we want is anunderstanding of an insistent present. The only use of a knowledge ofthe past is to equip us for the present. No more deadly harm can bedone to young minds than by depreciation of the present. The presentcontains all that there is.

      Presentness emphasized -- understanding as a way of engaging, fully, in one's own situation. Implications for Black Mountain poetics and pedagogy?

    7. call "inert ideas" -- that is to say, ideasthat are merely received into the mind without being utilised, ortested, or thrown into fresh combinations.

      The emphasis is not "practical" in only a vocational sense but applied, used, in motion...

    8. We have to remember that the valuableintellectual development is self development, and that it mostly takesplace between the ages of sixteen and thirty.

      Education is related to "self development" with a strong emphasis on the self.

  4. Oct 2019
  5. kennethsherwood.com kennethsherwood.com
    1. Like an ageing rock star, it can adapt itself to new audiences. Even so, we should not assume that such classics are up and running all the time. Like business enterprises, they can close down and start up again.

      Notes how the purported Self EVIDENT classic may not be so next decade or last.

    2. A literary classic, some critics consider, is not so much a work whose value is changeless as one that is able t

      Key idea -- classic is not an enternal condition; it's a badge worn if it can generate new meanings in the present!

    3. There may be something in this claim, but it raises a number of questions. Antigone and Oedipus the King have survived for thou-sands of years. But is the Antigone we admire today quite the same piece of drama that the ancient Greeks applauded?

      Eagleton historicizes timelessness. Greek plays survive but not because they were /are timeless ... more because we find a way (and perhaps because they have something in their material/form) that allows us to continue to find a use/value in them.

    4. Are all major works of literature timeless and universal in their appeal?


    5. A literary work may be realist but not realistic. It may present a world which appears familiar, but in a way that is shallow and unconvincing

      realism and realistic

    6. what counts as realism is a contentious matter.

      Even if representation / realism were key, what is "realist"?

    7. truth and immediacy. On this theory, the only good literary texts are realist ones.

      Truth and immediacy might also not be eternal or sustainable categories...

    8. f good literature is always ground-breaking literature, we would be forced to deny the value of a great many literary works, from ancient pastoral and medieval mystery plays to sonnets and folk ballads

      Argument as to why we don't/can't really use the criterion of ground=breaking. Too many examples don't fit.

    9. It is with postmodernism that the hunger for novelty begins to fade. Postmodern theory does not rate originality very highly. It has put revolution well behind it. Instead, it embraces a world in which everything is a recycled, translated, parodied or derivative version of something else.

      Postmodernism wnats to make new without claiming it's new -- since everything has been done before, but also we can violate the rules of the past.

    10. But it is also true, as Noam Chomsky reminds us, that we constantly produce sentences we have never heard or spoken before. And to this extent the Romantics and modernists are in the right of it. Language is a work of astonishing creativity.

      Eagleton goes back and forth, pro/con as to the relative virtues of tradition and novelty.

    11. even the most innovative literary work is made up among other things of the scraps and leavings of countless texts that have come before. The medium of literature is language, and every word we use is shop-soiled, tarnished, worn thin and feature-less by billions of previous usages.

      Eagleton offers some skepticism about a commitment to total "orginality" -- it is impossible in his view.

    12. The task of art was to provide us with lively images of what we already knew. The present was for the most part a recycling of the past. It was its fidelity to the past that lent it legitimacy.

      So here Eagleton pushes further on the notion of why 18th/19th century might have valued tradition more than novelty in literature. It linked with powerful ideas about the role of literature (what it should do for us in a society) AND also had a relation to the roles of religion and science.

    13. Romantics, men and women are creative spirits with an inexhaustible power to transform their world.

      Romanticism viewed the world, and individuals, in such a wy that it also implied a different value in literature.

    14. The modernist work of art takes a stand against a world in which everything seems standardised, stereotyped and prefabricated.

      Modernism builds off Romanticism. How do we make sense of Duchamp, Log (even Cage -- who might be classified as postmodern) ... resistance to conformity.

    15. The poet may imitate the divine act of creation, yet she does so from her restricted situation in time. In any case, this theory is plainly at odds with what writers actually get up to. No work of art springs out of nothing

      Eagleton opines that the emphasis on Romantic originality might be overdone, since on one level, you can't really transcend your contraints (i.e. Romantics couldn't possibly be as original as they desired to be...)

    16. rich and strange

      Eagleton concludes description of Romantic world view with a summation of what is most valued in a work of art or literature "rich and strange.

    17. neo-classical view

      Naming the "pro-tradition" view: neo-classical

    18. Novelty was a kind of eccentricity. The crea-tive imagination was dangerously close to idle fantasy. In any case, innovation was strictly speaking impossible. There could be no new moral truths. It would have been outrageously inconsiderate of God not to have revealed to us from the outset the few, simple precepts necessary for our salvation.

      Different ideas about qualities to evaluate may not be accident, but can be linked with broader world view and even politics of an era.

    19. tradition and convention

      originality is in tension with tradition/convention

    20. originality

      Often seen as important now, but not always.

    21. Depth of insight, truth-to-life, formal unity, universal appeal, moral complexity, verbal inventiveness, imaginative vision:

      Eagleton gives a suggestive range of qualities, but he hints that they are contingent -- i.e. have risen/fallen in importance over time. Why? And who effects this?

  6. Aug 2019
    1. To sum up:—Wemaybelieve what goes beyond our experience, only when it is inferred fromthat experience by the assumption that what we do not know is like what we know.Wemaybelievethestatementofanotherperson,whenthereisreasonablegroundforsupposingthatheknowsthematterofwhich he speaks, and that he is speaking thetruth so far as he knows it

      Conservative principlie = we can extend beyond personal knowing if based on evidence and logic, i.e. a principle of uniformity.

    2. Certainlynot,ifitisacceptedonunworthygrounds,andwithoutsomeunderstandingoftheprocessbywhichitisgotat.Butwhenthisprocessistakeninasthegroundofthebelief, it becomes a very serious and practical matter. For if there is nohydrogeninthesun,thespectroscope

      we can trust the spectroscope, but why?

    3. Wemaygobeyondexperiencebyassumingthatwhatwedonotknowislikewhatwedoknow;or,inotherwords,wemayaddtoourexperienceontheassumptionofauniformityinnature.

      we can use reason to extend our confident belief beyond simple experience of present to future, to other scenarios if based on evidence/reason.

    4. Is it possible to doubt and to test it? and if possible, is it right?

      OK, even necessary to test received wisdom of AUTHORITY.

    5. So that we have no reason to fear lest a habit ofconscientious inquiry should paralyse the actions of our daily life

      We can ACT on probabilities, but A. has no concern that investigation, skepticism will cause problems.


      A solution to the problem/ responsibility of personal knowledge.

    7. But,” says one, “I am a busy man; I have no time for the long course of studywhich would be necessary to make me in any degree a competent judge of certainquestions, or even able to understand the nature of the arguments.” Then he should have no time to believe

      Does the author accept the paralysis of skepticism then?

    8. In like manner, if I let myself believe anything oninsufficientevidence,theremaybenogreatharmdonebythemerebelief;itmaybetrueafterall,orImayneverhaveoccasiontoexhibititinoutwardacts.ButIcannothelpdoingthisgreatwrongtowardsMan,thatImakemyselfcredulous.Thedangertosocietyisnotmerelythatitshouldbelievewrongthings,thoughthatisgreatenough;butthatitshouldbecomecredulous, and losethehabitoftestingthingsandinquiringintothem;forthenit must sink back into savagery

      What do we make of this sense of an individual's responsibility to test, to be skeptical/critical? "CREDULITY"-is a "sin" here. Harms society.

      NOTE Descartian confidence in an external, knowable truth towards which we are responsible.

    9. Everytimeweletourselvesbelieveforunworthyreasons,weweakenourpowersofself-control,ofdoubting,ofjudiciallyandfairly weighing evidence. We all suffer severelyenoughfromthe maintenance and supportoffalsebeliefsandthefatallywrongactionswhichtheyleadto,andtheevilbornwhenonesuchbeliefisentertainedisgreatandwide

      Demanding insistence that we must all, always, seek to know. IS this feasible?

    10. we naturally do not like to find that we arereallyignorantandpowerless,thatwehavetobeginagainatthebeginning,andtrytolearnwhatthethingisandhowitistobe dealt with—if indeed anything can be learntaboutit.Itisthesenseofpowerattachedtoasenseofknowledgethatmakesmendesirousof believing, and afraid of doubting.

      So, this high standard of what it means to know - and the obligation to earn belief -- can be humbling, can make us feel less confident.

      IS being "in doubt" here celebrated? Or simply accepted as a cost or risk?

    11. No simplicity of mind, no obscurity ofstation, can escape the universal duty of questioning all that we believe

      This seems to point towards "skepticism" which may itself harbor dangers.

    12. Butforasmuchasnobeliefheldbyoneman,howeverseeminglytrivialthebelief,andhoweverobscurethebeliever,iseveractuallyinsignificantorwithoutitseffectonthefateofmankind,wehavenochoicebuttoextendourjudgmenttoallcasesofbeliefwhatever.

      CLIFFORD's SUMMATION of OBLIGATION -- No belief is significant, private, without consequence. True? Persuasive? What are the consequences of this position?

    13. Andnooneman’sbeliefisinanycasea private matter which concerns himselfalone. Our lives are guided by that generalconceptionofthe course of things which hasbeen created by society for social purposes. Our words, our phrases, our forms andprocessesandmodesofthought,arecommonproperty,fashionedandperfectedfromagetoage;anheirloomwhicheverysucceedinggenerationinheritsasapreciousdepositandasacredtrusttobehandledontothenextone,notunchangedbutenlargedandpurified,with some clear marks of its proper handiwork

      Consider SOCIAL nature of this ethical issue. Author argues that it's not just launching ships or accusing of crimes. ALL BELIEF has an ethical implication, because our "bad" beliefs are passed on, as if a contamination.

    14. Foritisnotpossiblesotoseverthebelieffromtheactionitsuggestsastocondemntheonewithoutcondemningtheother.Nomanholdingastrongbeliefononesideofaquestion,orevenwishingtoholdabeliefononeside,caninvestigateitwithsuchfairnessandcompletenessasifhewerereallyindoubt and unbiased; so that the existence of a beliefnot founded on fair inquiry unfits aman for the performance of this necessary duty

      Author insists its not just a matter of the action that follows belief that is right/wrong . But that the belief itself needs justification. I.e. not good enough to hold back the ship (absent knowledge, or earned belief).

    15. Foralthoughtheyhadsincerelyandconscientiouslybelievedinthechargestheyhadmade,yettheyhadnorighttobelieveonsuchevidenceaswasbeforethem.Theirsincereconvictions, instead of being honestly earned by patientinquiring, were stolen by listening to the voice of prejudice and passion.

      is this example different from the first, and if so, how?

    16. Will that diminish theguiltofherowner?Notonejot.Whenanaction is once done, it is right or wrong for ever; noaccidentalfailureofitsgoodorevilfruitscanpossiblyalterthat

      Irony or complexity in sense that his wrongness is not dependent on outcomes.

    17. hehadnorighttobelieveonsuchevidence aswasbeforehim.

      What is the relationship of knowledge and belief here? Are these synonymous or distinguished in Clifford's terms?

    18. he acquired a sincere andcomfortableconvictionthathisvesselwasthoroughlysafeandseaworthy

      How do we acquire our "sincere and comfortable conviction"? Is it earned? Is it justified?

    19. Hewoulddismissfromhismindallungeneroussuspicions

      Dismissal - a kind of denial of evidence, an effort to rationalize?

    20. ought

      ought - should, terms of ethical obligation

    21. knewthatshewasold,andnotoverwellbuiltatthefirst;thatshehadseenmanyseasandclimes,andoftenhadneededrepairs.

      Owner "knows" their are causes for concern. Justified evidence?

  7. Jun 2019
    1. What is it?The term “digital humanities

      DH existed before it was named.

    2. Digital human-ities can enrich pedagogy as well, such as when a student uses visualized data to study voter patterns or conducts data-driven analyses of works of literature

      In a pedagogical frame, this is one of the most exciting prospects of DH. So often humanities students do not get to experience what it means to produce knowledge. They often feel their research is about digesting other, second-hand research. Using DH as an engine for inquiry really has promise -- and not just at the graduate education level.

    3. there is an intentionality about combining the two that defines it.

      This idea of "intentionality" is important to me, since on one level we're all doing DH if we use contemporary tools. Most faculty at IUP use an LMS. But to what degree is this use intentional, informed, oriented towards critical reflection on the changes brought about?

      Or consider the K-12 context. Many students now attend schools where e-texts are the norm. What difference does this make? How are lessons and assignments structured to take advantage of this? What are the trade-offs? (Hint: reading comprehension on screens tends to be lower for most readers; reading speed, however, increases).

    4. also extends to fields such as

      The interdisciplinary potential of DH can be quite interesting. Outside the humanities, researchers often work in labs with others; they jointly author publications. DH tends to create similar opportunities for collaboration among humanists and others.

    5. e tools and meth-odologies of digital humanities open new avenues of inquiry and scholarly production

      The emphasis on tools is accurate if problematic; still, it can be useful to see the bent towards transformation. Does DH mean doing it differently?

    1. During our course, the blog served a similar role to a spider’s web.

      Spider's web is not hierarchical

  8. Aug 2016
  9. Apr 2016
    1. beginning in the 12th week of class; these should be administered by mentors at a date/hour of mutual convenience. They cannot be administered by