44 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2016
    1. Scientists have long been warning that rising ocean temperatures will have drastic effect on marine life.

      Here is what "they" are saying. Due to the increasing temperature of the ocean because of climate change, specifically El Nino, many populations of marine species are being diagnosed with diseases and dying. As seen by a research studies done by Cornell University, sea star wasting disease has become more prevalent. It's affects are devastating as many as 20 species of sea stars along the U.S. coast. Another study also claims that with temperatures continuing to increase, there will eventually be an increase in shell diseases in lobsters found off the Gulf Coast. The rest of the article goes into potential ways to address the issues at hand in special ways.

    2. Study links warming ocean with increased marine diseases

      Berwyn, Bob. "Study Links Warming Ocean with Increased Marine Diseases." Summit County Citizens Voice. N.p., 17 Feb. 2016. Web. 01 Mar. 2016.

      The claim in this article as stated by author Bob Berwyn is that because of climate changes such as the increasing temperature of the ocean, marine life is being put in danger and is dying off.

    3. “Shell disease has devastated the southern New England lobster fishery, and now with warming, it’s created a situation where the Maine lobster industry may be at risk,” said Shields

      I like that Berwyn has shown an example of the economic effect of the increasing temperatures rather than just environmental ones. I think this helps appeal to the audience better because it has shown the effects of climate change in a more relate able way, as people's well being and lifestyles will change along with the marine life. Perhaps this will get people to start taking this issue more seriously if they realize it will start effecting them economically and even socially.

    4. The results showed that warmer ocean temperatures led to higher risk of infection from sea star wasting disease, an affliction that wiped out 90 percent of some populations from Mexico to Alaska between 2013 and 2014

      This is a substantial statistics. It's an example of ethos as it is using statistical data to help argue the seriousness of climate change and warming water.

    5. Bob Berwyn

      The author of this article is different then most of the other sources I've done because he is not a scientist, but rather an influential editor and reporter of the Summit County Citizens Voice. The Summit County Citizens Voice is a news website that has reported "uncensored" and "unfiltered" news since 1996. It specifically reports on news related to the environment.

      Berwyn, as a reporter and editor, is well respected as his work has appeared or been featured in top magazines and news sources across the country. For example, "he has reported for the Denver Post, the Summit Daily, the Summit Times, the Summit Independent, the Vail Daily Trail, the Aspen Daily News, the Durango Herald and the Telluride Daily Planet. His stories have also appeared in High Country News and 5280 magazine". Because of his extensive resume and connections, I find him to be a credible source who reports valid information.

      http://summitcountyvoice.com/about/ https://www.linkedin.com/in/bob-berwyn-b624ab9

    6. sea star wasting disease

      According to the Ecology and Evolutionary Biology website provided by the University of California Santa Barbara, "Sea star wasting syndrome is a general description of a set of symptoms that are found in sea stars. Typically, lesions appear in the ectoderm followed by decay of tissue surrounding the lesions, which leads to eventual fragmentation of the body and death. A deflated appearance can precede other morphological signs of the disease. All of these symptoms are also associated with ordinary attributes of unhealthy stars and can arise when an individual is stranded too high in the intertidal zone (for example) and simply desiccates". The scary thing about this particular disease is that it can kill a sea star in as little as a few days. It seems to be very aggressive and quick targeting to marine life.

    7. Nearly all the world’s oceans were much warmer than average in 2015. Map via NOAA

      The graph used by Berwyn, helps to establish ethos to the audience as it visually shows the dramatic increase in water temperature throughout the world. Compared to the average, the world's oceans are much warmer and could potentially keep rising.

  2. Mar 2016
    1. Climate scientists, meanwhile, know that heat must still be building up somewhere in the climate system, but they have struggled to explain where it is going, if not into the atmosphere.

      This is how I would use this source in my Twine Essay. By showing that scientists are proving the reasons for the rise in intense oceanic temperatures, I can give validity to the concept of climate change, Additionally, I think that it would be interesting in looking at further research to see if we could predict future events or help stop the dramatic effects of them.

    2. And when that happens, if scientists are on the right track, the missing heat will reappear and temperatures will spike once again.

      If the scientist's claims are correct, when would they predict the next switch in climate conditions to take place? Also, can they predict the severity of the next cycle?

    3. A key breakthrough came last year from Shang-Ping Xie and Yu Kosaka at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California. The duo took a different tack, by programming a model with actual sea surface temperatures from recent decades in the eastern equatorial Pacific, and then seeing what happened to the rest of the globe8. Their model not only recreated the hiatus in global temperatures, but also reproduced some of the seasonal and regional climate trends that have marked the hiatus, including warming in many areas and cooler northern winters.

      This adds credibility. It validates the claim, while also showing how the experiment is important and how it came to its conclusions.

    4. This variation in ocean temperature, known as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), may be a crucial piece of the hiatus puzzle.

      This is a specific pieces of information that confirms the reporters claim.

    5. But even those scientists who remain confident in the underlying models acknowledge that there is increasing pressure to work out just what is happening today.

      Good point. It important to show that the counter argument is being acknowledged.

    6. The simplest explanation for both the hiatus and the discrepancy in the models is natural variability.

      This is the counter argument. As stated in the article, the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) hypothesized that from 1998-2012, the temperature should rise at a rate of 0.21 degrees Celsius per decade. Instead, the temperature only rose .04 degrees Celsius during that time period. Therefore, differing perspectives are claiming that instead of having a consistent global warming increase, the world goes through periods of climatic fluctuations. Furthermore, because of this evidence, scientists conclude that global warming effects are being overestimated and overstated.

    7. On a chart of global atmospheric temperatures, the hiatus stands in stark contrast to the rapid warming of the two decades that preceded it.

      The refutation against Tollefson's claim is stated pretty early on in the article.

    8. Now, as the global-warming hiatus enters its sixteenth year, scientists are at last making headway in the case of the missing heat. Some have pointed to the Sun, volcanoes and even pollution from China as potential culprits, but recent studies suggest that the oceans are key to explaining the anomaly.

      Here is what "they" are saying. Because evidence has shown a decline in global-warming for years, scientists are wondering if perhaps its a myth. However, others are saying that global-warming is not in decline, but is rather being stored in places such as the world's oceans. Because of this, the events like El Nino and El Nina exist and are becoming more aggressive each time they occur.

    9. Jeff Tollefson

      Jeff Tollefson has quite the impressive resume as a reporter on issues like energy, climate, and the environment. His work in this article is definitely valid and is credible. As seen on the Nature about the editor website, "Jeff has won a number of accolades, including New Mexico press awards for pieces on pollution and nuclear-weapons work at Los Alamos National Laboratory". He has many years in his field reporting on numerous environmental issues and/or concerns.


      The Nature International Weekly Journal of Science is a well know journal that focuses on innovating science and technology. Their mission statement as found on their website states their responsible "First, to serve scientists through prompt publication of significant advances in any branch of science, and to provide a forum for the reporting and discussion of news and issues concerning science. Second, to ensure that the results of science are rapidly disseminated to the public throughout the world, in a fashion that conveys their significance for knowledge, culture and daily life". The journal itself is high cited and has won awards for their scientists.


    10. Climate change: The case of the missing heat

      Tollefson, Jeff. "Climate Change: The Case Of The Missing Heat." Nature 505.7483 (2014): 276-278. Academic Search Premier. Web. 8 Mar. 2016.

      The claim in this article as stated by the reporter Jeff Tollefson, is that there has been a lack of confidence in the field of climate change over the years due to the fact that temperatures today are in conflict with previous models. Because the new temperatures are straying from the previous records, some are claiming that global warming is beginning to stop; however, others believe it still to be alive, but it is being stored in another way. Therefore, this idea of "The Missing Heat" is being hypothesized to be stored in the world's oceans.

    1. As such, they are a critical tool at adaptation planners' disposal for tackling the threats that climate change poses to peoples' lives and livelihoods.

      This is the targeted group of stakeholders. People whose lives have been or will be affected by climate change.

    2. As climate change increasingly threatens lives and livelihoods, maximizing adaptation opportunities will minimize its potentially catastrophic effects.

      This is how I see me using this reference in my Twine Essay. If I could show people potential actions they could take or that our nation could take to help climate change maybe it will cause them to try and make more of an effort.

    3. Focus now must turn to establishing funding priorities for the Green Climate Fund, which will strongly influence the lending patterns of multilateral agencies and help guide national adaptation policies and planning.

      I would be interested in looking into this and seeing how successful it is.

    4. Furthermore, hard-engineering interventions can have negative and unforeseen impacts on surrounding human and natural systems

      Again, another issue with the EbA approach. If we are trying to help the environment now, we also want to ensure that the future environment will be safe no matter what we use on it now to help fix it. We want to help fix and support the environment, not just temporarily deal with the issue at hand.

    5. Many hard adaptation approaches are essentially permanent and inflexible — a key drawback in some settings. A hard structure can be mismatched to future climatic conditions, either because it was designed based on an assumption that natural systems such as rivers fluctuate within an unchanging envelope of variability30 or because projections of future climatic conditions turn out to be inaccurate31

      This is setback against EbA. If it is not flexible enough to address future issues rather than just the ones human face now that could be a potential problem. It will cost time and money. Hopefully, research will continue to be done to help address this issue.

    6. EbA frequently provide economic, social and environmental co-benefits in the form of both marketable (for example, livestock and fish production) and non-marketable (for example, cultural preservation and biodiversity maintenance) ecosystem goods and services

      I like that the authors make the point that this EbA approach not only helps individuals with the physical effects of climate change, but it will also help will providing economic, social, and environmental effects as well. This could potentially better a nation because it doesn't just address climate change, but it fixes all of the problems associated with it.

    7. Ecosystem-based approaches to adaptation (EbA) harness the capacity of nature to buffer human communities against the adverse impacts of climate change through the sustainable delivery of ecosystem services.

      The authors bring up this idea of ecosystem-based approaches that consist of combing both soft and hard approaches. Ultimately, the result will consist of a broad scope that will use natural infrastructure to provide adaptation services. This approach is valuable because it is effective while at the same time flexible, cost-effective, and seen at a national and international levels.

    8. Adaptation to climate change can incorporate a range of potential actions. Although no single established typology of adaptation actions exists, they can be loosely categorized into 'soft' and 'hard' approaches5.

      Here is what "they" are saying. The authors are stating that there is funding that has been created to help with the effects of climate change on individuals throughout the world. This money; however, needs to be divided into groups such as soft and hard approaches. The soft approaches as stated in the journal, will focus on "information, policy, capacity building, and institutional function." The hard approaches, on the other hand, will focus on technology and actions that will be taken to physically control and/or help the effects of climate change.

    9. Holly P. Jones,1, David G. Hole2, & Erika S. Zavaleta

      Not much was available about the professional lives of each author, but I was able to determine that each author published on the Nature Climate Change website is a PhD- level scientist. Additionally, all work is reviewed by an 'External Advisory Panel in the areas of social sciences, policy and economics to provide advice on submissions in these areas in the initial few months." Therefore, I find this publication to be written by credible sources.


      Furthermore, The Website, Nature Climate Change, mission statement states they are, "dedicated to publishing the most significant and cutting-edge research on the science of climate change, its impacts and wider implications for the economy, society and policy." The journal reports on a wide range of scientific topics and only published original interdisciplinary work.


    10. Harnessing nature to help people adapt to climate change

      Jones, Holly P., David G. Hole, and Erika S. Zavaleta. "Harnessing Nature to Help People Adapt to Climate Change." Nature.com. Nature Publishing Group, 26 June 2012. Web. 09 Mar. 2016.

      The claim in this article by the authors is that people need to learn about the tools and/or steps they can take to help them tackle the threats that climate change causes to people, their lives, and livelihood.

    1. Dylan Ruan

      Dylan Ruan is an Environmental Communication and Media Strategy major from the University of California, Santa Barbara. Most of his work focuses consists of taking notable faculty researchers and publicizing their work through written publication. https://www.linkedin.com/in/dylanruan

      "The Santa Barbara Independent is a true community newspaper with a market penetration higher than almost every other "alternative" weekly in the country" (Reliable Popular Source). http://www.independent.com/history/

      The newspaper has continually grown over the years and penetrates a wide variety of audiences. They report using a unique voice that resonates with independent and involved individuals in the community. It is an innovative newspaper, that knows how to properly report current events.

    2. Meng described El Niño’s rippling effects as impacting one region of the world after another.

      This source might help me going forward with research because it is showing me how one thing can effect everything. It is a chain of both societal and environmental impacts. I should research the effects on each chain if climate change continues to be a big problem.

    3. “We also know that the broader the coverage of a cap-and-trade program, the less costly it’s going to be to make the same amount of reduction,” Meng said of achieving carbon reductions around the world.

      This is a global solution. It helps to see how solutions to the problems with effect a global audience rather than just a local one. This helps to show the big picture for Meng' s work.

      I would be interested in researching other solutions that could be used to reach a more global audience as well.

      This is also an audience appeal as he is showing how Meng's innovations are universally helpful. He is working to better the world, not just a specific nation.

    4. The Carbon Market and Global Climate Issues UCSB’s Kyle Meng Discusses Environmental Economics

      Ruan, Dylan. "The Carbon Market and Global Climate Issues." Santa Barbara Independent 1 Mar. 2016: n. pag. Web.

      Ruan claims that UCSB's Kyle Meng is focusing on creating a future where "climate change is battled with market-based solutions". Moreover, that climate change can be addressed using environmental economics.

    5. Because this consequence is experienced by someone else — the environment, humans on other continents, or animals — there is little obvious incentive for many of us to reduce carbon emissions. One solution to this problem is to put a price on pollution.

      By showing a possible solution to the problem, Ruan establishes early on the credibility in Meng's work. His solution is backed by his vast understanding of economics as he explains to the audience how it would benefit society to put a price of pollution. In doing this, reduction of activity would occur, in turn causing carbon emissions to become reduced.

    6. Meng believes that environmental economics “is fundamentally about harnessing the power of markets to address environmental problems.”

      This is what "they" are saying. Ruan is articulating Meng's philosophy to the audience. Meng, who is well versed in economics and the environment, specifically climate change and market-based solutions, is showing how we can use the market to help fix the environment. Meng addresses primarily two ways economics can be used to bring communities together to reduce emissions. He also addresses environmental effects like El Nino that can have dramatic repercussions if not properly analyzed and helped.

    7. Meng’s research also focuses on the potential impacts of climate change, which he tries to understand by looking to the recent past, such as the global climatic phenomenon known as El Niño

      Another example to help establish credibility falls within Meng's research of a past climate change event, El Nino. Most of the time to better gain understanding of a particular problem and its solutions, a person should look at the past to address what worked and what didn't. This will save both time and money and help in deciding future actions of climate change.

    8. These major agricultural losses, he observed, have the potential to lead to an increased amount of civil unrest and conflict within tropical nations.

      I would be interested in further researching potential conflicts between tropical nations. How prevalent has this issue been and has it ended up causing big conflicts in the past?

    1. In addition to the relationship between knowledge and opinion on climate change, we expect belief in climate change and engagement in public discourse on the issue to be related

      "What" is also being stated is the economists believing there to be a correlation between opinion and discourse on the subject to be related. There are differing conceptions of how this hypothesis should be portrayed. For example some believe that the more talked about the subject, the more the people engaged will have the same belief. However, on the other hand, there is differing belief that engaging in public discourse is separate in relationship to one's political stance/party. Therefore Shreck and Vedlitz, are hoping to determine a correlation in the relation in public discourse and personal opinion/ belief. This however, is to be looked at when controls on societal, economic, and environments roles are still in action.

    2. This conclusion comes with the caveat that further study is needed to determine whether this pattern appears consistently in other studies, or whether it is merely an artifact of this particular sample.

      In my opinion, I find this to be a good audience appeal. Although, some might say this information discredits the ethos of the study, I believe it helps in showing that more information is needed to find out clearer results. The authors establish ethos by showing that this subject needs more study to further understand its results. The fact that they want to further their research and keep looking into the subject is great and shows their true interest in the subject.

    3. One possible conclusion that we might draw from this is that increased engagement in public discourse might be associated with some emerging consensus on the reality of anthropogenic climate change, but not on the policy debates regarding what should be done about it.

      Interesting perspective. Although people might engage in conversation about climate change the real debate needs to be on policy implementation to help change the problem, not on the problem itself.

    4. The Public and Its Climate: Exploring the Relationship Between Public Discourse and Opinion on Global Warming

      Shreck, Brian, and Arnold Vedlitz. "The Public And Its Climate: Exploring The Relationship Between Public Discourse And Opinion On Global Warming." Society & Natural Resources 29.5 (2016): 509-524. Academic Search Premier. Web. 4 Mar. 2016.

      Within Society and Natural Resources: An International Journal, Shreck and Vedlitz claim that there appears to be a positive association between people engaging in conversation about climate change and the strong belief that climate change actually exists. They go on to further state that this conversation about climate change is occurring on both sides of the debate spectrum, which later will force both sides to address the issue.

    5. Brian Shrecka* & Arnold Vedlitz

      Brian Shreck is a joint appointment in the Department of Political Science and the National Wind Institute. He focuses his area of study specifically on wind energy and public policy. I see him as being highly qualified as he is at Texas Tech University as a Postdoctoral Research Scholar. He obviously has credibility on the subject of climate change and how it is being addressed throughout society. http://perg-tamu.com/people/brian-shreck

      Furthermore, Shreck's co author Arnold Vedlitz is obviously just as qualified as him, as he is "holder of the Bob Bullock Chair in Government and Public Policy and director of the Institute for Science, Technology and Public Policy (ISTPP) in the Bush School of Government and Public Service". He has done a lot throughout his career pertaining to the environment which only adds to his credibility. http://bush.tamu.edu/faculty/avedlitz/

    6. Second, for the exchange to be truly deliberative, citizens must be open to receiving and considering this new information and new arguments and, ultimately, to changing their minds when confronted with convincing new arguments or contradictory evidence that make their current positions indefensible.

      This point is a good way to increase credibility as the authors are addressing that people should listen to and welcome refutations of the arguments. Therefore, every aspect of the argument is addressed.

    7. We fielded a national survey to collect opinions, knowledge, and engagement on climate change, including individuals’ informal public discourse with family members, friends, and coworkers

      I would be interested in seeing the survey. I want to know if the same size was large enough to constitute the results of the survey. Who received the survey? Are the questions potentially biased?

    8. However, the polarization on the issue of climate change calls into question what the result of more public discourse might look like. Would the result be an emerging consensus toward belief in the reality of climate change—and accompanying support for public policies to curb human impacts? Or would the outcome be more of the same polarization that we see now?

      This is an interesting point. Because very little people are engaging in conversation about climate change currently, would increasing talk about climate change only cause more polarization on the subject or bring a new light to the subject?

    9. These data give us a unique opportunity to analyze empirically how, and how much, the U.S. public engages in discussion of this very important but technically complex and politically contested issue.

      Here is what "they" are saying. Shreck and Vedlitz are saying that in order for this issue to be truly understood it needs to be looked at two ways. First, is that people need to have an open-mind. One must consider the other sides perspectives and stay impressionable to the argument being made. Second, people need to realize that in order to engage in deliberative democratic theory they must have an active, engaged, and knowledgeable political entity that will consider all ideas equally and will reconsider its existing ideas in the face of new evidence or arguments.Because of this, they will be exposed to new information and ideas which will either help deepen their initial position or help sway them in the opposite direction.