22 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2016
    1. Since the Rio Carnival participants are largely domestic, and the spread of Zika virus is already extensive, it will be challenging to assess if there was excess transmission related to the Carnival. Although winter temperatures mean that mosquito density is expected to be low in Brazil at the time of the Olympics, given the summer time mosquito density in the northern hemisphere, including in Saudi Arabia, the introduction of a few infections to the mosquito population might be sufficient to cause outbreaks of Zika virus in other countries.

      The author addresses an important counter-argument that the mosquitoes are not in their maximum capacity during the time of the Carnival, but quickly counters this by stating that it takes just a few infections to cause an outbreak in a new area.

    2. On Jan 15, 2016, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advised pregnant women to refrain from travelling to countries affected by Zika, given a possible association between Zika virus infection with microcephaly and other neurological disorders.2

      Authors state the issue that they are reporting on the virus' major outbreak area.

    3. The potential role of scheduled international mass gatherings in 2016 could exacerbate the spread of Zika virus beyond the Americas.

      This is the authors' claim as they believe that the meeting of massive amounts of people for the Olympic games in Brazil could prompt the spread of this virus worldwide.

    4. In Brazil, the Rio Carnival on Feb 5–10 attracts more than 500 000 visitors, and on Aug 5–21 more than 1 million visitors are expected to go to the summer Olympics followed by Paralympic Games on Sep 7–18. Meanwhile, Saudi Arabia expects to host more than 7 million pilgrims from over 180 countries for the Umrah, between June and September, and the Hajj pilgrimage on Sept 8–13.4 and 5 Saudi Arabia receives about 7000 pilgrims from Latin America annually.

      The authors exhibit ethos as they show the exact scale of the gathering of people in the coming years. They show that millions of people will be gathering in close proximity in various locations around the world. If the virus infects travelers coming to Brazil for the Rio Carnival or for the summer Olympics then the spread of the virus to the traveler's homeland is likely. This poses big problems for the world as the virus could spread worldwide very easily with the infection of mosquitoes in areas that didn't originally have the virus. An example of this would be if someone from Egypt were to go and be a spectator at the Olympic games and were to get bitten by a mosquito carrying the virus. If the now infected Egyptian were to travel back home and get bit by a domestic Egyptian mosquito then now the mosquito would contract the virus. The mosquito would continue to feed on people all the while spreading the disease to these unsuspecting hosts. All of these newly infected hosts are bitten by different mosquitoes and the trend continues. The mosquitoes also would be reproducing during this time and creating massive amounts of Zika vectors. There is a clear snowball effect here as this new hypothetical area has become a new ground-zero for the virus on another continent.

    5. A crucial time for public health preparedness: Zika virus and the 2016 Olympics, Umrah, and Hajj

      Elachola, Habida, et al. "A Crucial Time For Public Health Preparedness: Zika Virus And The 2016 Olympics, Umrah, And Hajj." Lancet 387.10019 (2016): 630-632. Academic Search Premier. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.

    1. The Lancet began as an independent, international weekly general medical journal founded in 1823

      Shows that the journal has some history and has had enough popularity to stay around for nearly 200 years.

    2. : medical research, clinical practice, global health, and news and comment. The journal's editors will collaborate over any contribution that advances or illuminates medical science or practice, or that educates or engages readers on important matters in the practice, policy, and politics of research, medicine, and public health.

      The journal is focused on all things science and medical. The Lancet umbrellas multiple different journals that are specific to different subjects such as pathology, neurophysiology etc.


    1. Jan 2011–present Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine · Vector Group United Kingdom · Liverpool

      Again gives very little information, but shows that she has background in vector work.


    1. Biology PhD

      This is all of the information I can find on this author as I do not speak Spanish and her bio is published in a Brazilian University Biology department. She has 45 publications and 1450 reads. With this extent in popularity she must be a credible author as she has been able to get 45 papers published which is not an easy task.

    1. A good example involves Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Brazil. Both species are known as good dengue vectors; however, A aegypti plays a major part in dengue transmission in the country due to its vectorial capacity, whereas A albopictus does not because its level of infestation is low and it prefers sylvatic environments.

      She backs up the Logos she made in the previous statement with the use of Ethos, explaining the difference between a carrier and a vector of the virus and giving a clear example. She presents the example in a way that the reader can understand whether or not the reader has a background in science. This source is a heavily research based article and there is not a lot of audience appeal as Constância F J Ayres is really just stating the facts and research.

    2. In this respect, the urban transmission of Zika virus could involve other mosquito species, especially considering the adaptability of this virus,12 and this issue deserves urgent attention. Vector control strategies must be directed at all potential vectors. To assume that the main vector is A aegypti in areas in which other mosquito species coexist is naive, and could be catastrophic if other species are found to have important roles in Zika virus transmission. Therefore, researchers from different institutions who are working on vector–pathogen interactions must attempt to answer this important question as soon as possible, to direct control actions towards the correct target and to help to minimise the drastic effects of Zika virus disease outbreaks.

      In this paragraph the author both ties her research back to her original claim and states what is important to consider moving forward in the fight against this virus. She makes the point that the world must not overlook other possible vectors as it could lead to the continual spread and lack of control of this very infectious virus.

    3. It is important to prove in laboratory conditions that an organism is able to acquire the pathogen and maintain and transmit it to other hosts. Additionally, even if the ability of a given species to transmit a pathogen is proven in laboratory conditions, that species is not necessarily the primary vector

      Author addresses the counter argument for her claim in this statement as it is possible that these organisms that carry the disease are not able to transmit it to another host rather they are just infected with it.

    4. Faye and colleagues 10 reported a long list of mosquito species from which Zika virus strains were isolated, including several species of Aedes and Anopheles coustani. Diallo and colleagues 11 surveyed mosquitoes from different environments from Senegal and detected by RT-PCR the presence of Zika virus in ten species from the genus Aedes, and Mansonia uniformis, Anopheles coustani, and Culex perfuscus. These mosquito species probably contribute to the zoonotic cycle of Zika virus transmission.

      The author exhibits Ethos here as she supports her claim that there are many carriers of this disease including several different types of mosquitoes. She uses other experts to appear more credible by presenting their research in a way that it applies to her claim that there are many vectors of the virus.

    1. Meanwhile health authorities in at least five of the affected countries—Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, and Jamaica—are advising women to avoid pregnancy for the moment.1

      This quote can be used to showcase the exact severity of the disease as health officials are not just advising that people try and stay safe from contracting the disease, but also advising that they refrain from getting pregnant. This is due to the fact that there is an anticipated risk that the pregnant women in these areas may contract or already have contracted the disease. This also addresses what the government is saying. By issuing this statement the governments of these regions are not only indicating that there is a risk of Zika infection, but they are also indicating that the populous is not in control of whether or not they will contract the virus. If the government thought the disease were preventable by the civilians' efforts to stay safe then they would have released a statement indicating people to remain extra safe during pregnancy or if there is risk women may become pregnant. This is a showcase of how the Virus' spread is actually not able to be contolled by the people.

    2. The rapid spread of Zika virus in the Americas, where there is little population immunity, is a major concern, especially given the possible link between infection during pregnancy and the congenital abnormality microcephaly

      Ingrid Torjesen's claim is that this outbreak of Zika virus that is currently occurring in the Americas (primarily South America) is something that the world should be incredibly concerned about.

    3. Margaret Chan, WHO’s director general, said, “Although a causal link between Zika infection in pregnancy and microcephaly has not been established, the circumstantial evidence is suggestive and extremely worrisome. An increased occurrence of neurological syndromes, noted in some countries coincident with arrival of the virus, adds to the concern.”

      The Author brings the statement of the World Health Organization's director general to support her claim and justify the exact severity of this outbreak. The quoted Margaret Chan also speaks to the fact that a direct linkage of the disease during pregnancy to microcephaly has not yet been established, but it is largely observed and should also be worried about. Linkage of microcephaly would appear in the form of birth defects, neurological problems, and death of a newborn baby that has been affected by this disease. Microcephaly would also include linkage to Guillain-Barre.

    4. Zika virus outbreaks prompt warnings to pregnant women

      Torjesen, Ingrid. "Zika Virus Outbreaks Prompt Warnings To Pregnant Women." BMJ: British Medical Journal 352.8042 (2016): i500-2. Academic Search Premier. Web. 8 Mar. 2016.

    1. He challenged you to answer with substance, not insults. How do you answer Mitt Romney, sir?

      Good question from Wallace as it addresses one of Trump's biggest criticisms: his bluntness and insults towards anyone who critiques him.

  2. Jan 2016
    1. Okay. Yeah that sounds right. It kind of all comes back a little bit.

      Koenig isn't necessarily putting words in Becky's mouth, but the trouble is that Koenig is the one that tells this part of the story and Becky only responds that it "sounds" right in a hesitant tone. If it were insisted by the interviewer, in the same way this previous statement was, that Adnan jumped in her car and went, which is contrary to the real statement, Would she also agree and say that it "sounds" right? It is unclear if Becky truly does remember it like that or if she is simply agreeing to a statement that sounds like it would be correct. If the interviewer asked Becky to report this part herself rather than restating it to her then the testomony would be more strong.

    2. It is true that no one at the time described Adnan as acting obsessed or menacing in any way. Not even Aisha. And in her diary, Hae never expresses any concerns about Adnan’s post breakup behavior.

      Koenig writes this statement to reiterate that there were no obvious motives or intentions that the state accused him of having. Jay and the State prosecution are the only people whom have testified against Adnan and indicate that he is the killer. This could all be speculation as they have included many interviews of people who say he wouldn't have done it, but they could be excluding classmates or other people's statements that say he could have killed her. These would be excluded to both build a better story (for the listeners) or to build a stronger defense.

    1.   I don't. Because I know school let out around 2:15. So it was probably around 2:30.

      This ambiguous timeline that keeps coming up is very important to the case as there truly is not one person who knows exactly where Adnan was during the time of the murder. That's not to say he didn't do it, it just makes solving this case so much harder. Without a timeline that is probable the state will deny that Adnan was confirmed in the library because the memory is both 15 years ago and Asia could have motivation to lie to protect her friend.