31 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2021
  2. Aug 2021
    1. world order contains structural as well as ideational (like ideas, values, and ideologies) relations, but also different material interests, po- litical relations, military and economic capability, discursive control (i.e. con- trol over what can be discussed and what cannot) as well as other relations (of power)

      World order and legitimacy.

    2. The concept “world order” can be understood as the (collected) pattern of activities maintaining the fundamental values of international society.

      Definition of World Order.


    1. Is there anything hybrid about using special forces, with the support of elite infantry, to prepare the battlespace for a conventional invasion?

      Personally, I don't see this as a form of hybrid warfare as the article states. Definitely a covert form of warfare.

    2. Ultimately, Gerasimov was not trying to drill a doctrine of non-linear warfare or hybrid warfare into Russia’s national security establishment, but rather hoping they would understand the challenges posed by the current operating environment as he saw it, and start coming up with answers.

      Underlying takeaway of Gerasimov's Doctrine.

    3. n his view, the West pioneered indirect approaches to warfare, leveraging political subversion, propaganda, and social media, along with economic measures such as sanctions. From his perspective, humanitarian interventions, the use of Western special forces, funding for democracy movements, and the deployment of mercenaries and proxies were all features of a U.S. doctrine of indirect warfare.

      Western Indirect Warfare. Gerasimov scrutinizes wars conducted by the west.

    4. The short answer in the Russia-watcher community is everything. The church of Russian hybrid warfare has a broad and influential following these days, but finds few worshippers among experts who study the Russian military.

      What is hybrid warfare and what is it used for?

    5. “a tailored mix of conventional weapons, irregular tactics, terrorism, and criminal behavior in the same time and battlespace to obtain [a group’s] political objectives.”

      Hoffman's definition for "hybrid warfare."

  3. May 2021
    1. Authoritarian-Libertarian cultural cleavage, reflecting party positions onissues such as environmental protection and climate change, multiculturalism andsexual equality, human rights, international development aid and cosmopolitan ornationalistic policies

      authoritarianism and libertarianism party competition dimension

    2. The position of parties on the Pluralism-Populism dimen-sion of party competition, reflecting contention about where legitimate power lies in thenation-state, is predicted to divide Populists, claiming that governance should reflect thepreferences of the vox populi, from Pluralists, arguing that decision should be made bythe elected officials and divided among governing institutions in liberal democracy.

      Pluralism and populism party competition dimension

    3. herefore but how this narrative is used in conjunction with alternativeideologies. In particular, authoritarian and libertarian forms of populism differ.

      Populism programmatic orientation requires a consistent ideaology

    4. does not furnish a roadmap prescribing any consistent set of sub-stantive programmatic policies or provide a coherent set of beliefs about what govern-ments should do.

      Populism does not have a direct programmatic orientation


    1. what motivated the Pingiiinos to stage the largest protests since the return of democracy? How did secondary school students, a social group that in previous years had been regarded as disorganised and ineffectual, challenge the political order? And finally, in a context where civil society actors had commonly been excluded from defining the policy agenda, how did the Pinguino movement succeed in making education a top government priority?

      Main lines of inquiry

    1. Breakdowns are exogenous when the source of theevent comes from outside the government, andendogenous when the event springs from within thegovernment.


    2. The othergrouping involves those cases where democraticallyelected leaders ended the democratic process themselvesthrough such acts as: suspending the constitution, arrest-ing opposition politicians, restricting the activities of themass media, or rigging electoral results.

      Endogenous democratic termination


  4. Feb 2021
    1. flaring — the intentional burning of natural gas as companies drill faster than pipelines can move the energy away.

      def of flaring

    1. Reconstruction amendments of 1865-1870 marked a second constitutional founding that rested on other premises.

      "Second" bill of rights.

  5. Jan 2021
    1. een something almost random or haphazard, and something like a restrictive or selec- tive contro

      Very intuitive way of defining human freedom.