47 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2024
    1. Types of Social Movements Sociologists identify several types of social movements according to the nature and extent of the change they seek. This typology helps us understand the differences among the many kinds of social movements that existed in the past and continue to exist today (Snow & Soule, 2009). One of the most common and important types of social movements is the reform movement, which seeks limited, though still significant, changes in some aspect of a nation’s political, economic, or social systems. It does not try to overthrow the existing government but rather works to improve conditions within the existing regime. Some of the most important social movements in U.S. history have been reform movements. These include the abolitionist movement preceding the Civil War, the women’s suffrage movement that followed the Civil War, the labor movement, the Southern civil rights movement, the Vietnam era’s antiwar movement, the contemporary women’s movement, the gay rights movement, and the environmental movement. A revolutionary movement goes one large step further than a reform movement in seeking to overthrow the existing government and to bring about a new one and even a new way of life. Revolutionary movements were common in the past and were responsible for the world’s great revolutions in Russia, China, and several other nations. Reform and revolutionary movements are often referred to as political movements because the changes they seek are political in nature. Another type of political movement is the reactionary movement, so named because it tries to block social change or to reverse social changes that have already been achieved. The antiabortion movement is a contemporary example of a reactionary movement, as it arose after the U.S. Supreme Court legalized most abortions in Roe v. Wade (1973) and seeks to limit or eliminate the legality of abortion.

      slide 6

    2. Government responses to a social movement may also cause the movement to decline. The government may “co-opt” a movement by granting it small, mostly symbolic concessions that reduce people’s discontent but leave largely intact the conditions that originally motivated their activism. If their discontent declines, the movement will decline even though these conditions have not changed. Movements also may decline because of government repression. Authoritarian governments may effectively repress movements by arbitrarily arresting activists, beating them up, or even shooting them when they protest (Earl, 2006). Democratic governments are less violent in their response to protest, but their arrest and prosecution of activists may still serve a repressive function by imposing huge legal expenses on a social movement and frightening activists and sympathizers who may not wish to risk arrest and imprisonment.

      slide 12

    3. The Life Cycle of Social Movements Although the many past and present social movements around the world differ from each other in many ways, they all generally go through a life cycle marked by several stages that have long been recognized (Blumer, 1969). Stage 1 is emergence. This is the stage when social movements begin for one or more of the reasons indicated in the previous section. Stage 2 is coalescence. At this stage a movement and its leaders must decide how they will recruit new members and they must determine the strategies they will use to achieve their goals. They also may use the news media to win favorable publicity and to convince the public of the justness of their cause. Stage 3 is institutionalization or bureaucratization. As a movement grows, it often tends to become bureaucratized, as paid leaders and a paid staff replace the volunteers that began the movement. It also means that clear lines of authority develop, as they do in any bureaucracy. More attention is also devoted to fund-raising. As movement organizations bureaucratize, they may well reduce their effectiveness by turning from the disruptive activities that succeeded in the movement’s earlier stages to more conventional activity by working within the system instead of outside it (Piven & Cloward, 1979). At the same time, if movements do not bureaucratize to at least some degree, they may lose their focus and not have enough money to keep on going. Stage 4 is the decline of a social movement. Social movements eventually decline for one or more of many reasons. Sometimes they achieve their goals and naturally cease because there is no more reason to continue. More often, however, they decline because they fail. Both the lack of money and loss of enthusiasm among a movement’s members may lead to a movement’s decline, and so might factionalism, or strong divisions of opinion within a movement.

      slide 7-11

    1. reactionary movement advocates the restoration of a previous state of social affairs,
    2. Types of social movements
    3. revolutionary movement advocates rapid, precipitous change
    4. reform movement works for slow, evolutionary change
    1. are those which are organised for ‘improvement’ or ‘purification’ of the cultural or socialorder by eliminating ‘evil’ or ‘low’ customs, beliefs or institutions.

      slide 6 (approximate)

    2. typologies widely used for social movements to tribal movements: (1)reactionary; (2) conservative; (3) revisionary or revolutionary. The reactionary movementtries to launch a movement to bring back ‘the good old days’, whereas the conservativemovement tries to maintain the status quo. The revisionary or revolutionary movements

      slide 6 (approximate)

    3. institutionalised

      slide 3

    4. struggle to overthrow not only the established government and regime but also the socio-economic structure which sustains it, and replace the structure by an alternative socialorder.For Partha Mukherji (1977), social movements are accumulative, alternative andtransformatory. Accumulative changes are changes within the given structure and system.M.S.A. Rao (1978) also offers more or less similar typologies: reformist, transformatoryand revolutionary. However, T.K. Oommen believes that ‘the movements will neitherhave the potentialities to root out the existing system completely nor will they succumb tothe traditional structures entirely. Essentially then, social movements provide the stagefor confluence between the old and new values and structures’ (1977: 16). His typologiesare related to the process of movement crystallisation, the life style and the phases ofsocial movements. For him, movements are charismatic, ideological and organisational.

      slide 5

    5. Shah (1977) classifies movements as revolt,rebellion, reform, and revolution to bring about changes in the political system. Reformdoes not challenge the political system per se. It attempts to bring about changes in therelations between the parts of the system in order to make it more efficient, responsiveand workable. A revolt is a challenge to political authority, aimed at over-throwing thegovernment. A rebellion is an attack on existing authority without any intention ofseizing state power. In a revolution, a section or sections of society launch an organised

      slide 5

    6. Sometimes, resistance of the people against dominance, directionand commands of the dominant groups and the state is treated as a social movement.Resistance is certainly an expression of protest. But so long as it remains at an individuallevel and desists from confrontation involving collective action it is not a movement

      slide 3

    7. objectives

      slide 5

    8. All those who strive for ‘political change’ do not always struggleagainst the government alone. The collective actions of the people are at various levelsagainst dominant culture, caste, class and ideology.Non-institutionalised collective action takes several forms, such as, protests,agitations, strikes, satyagrahas, hartals, gheraos, riots. Agitations or protests are notstrictly social movements, if we follow the working definition quoted earlier. But, moreoften than not, a social movement develops in course of time, arid it begins with protestor agitation on a particular issue which may not have the ‘organisation’ or ‘ideology’ forchange

      slide 3

    9. In David Bayley’s words, it is ‘illegal publicprotest’ (1962). The term ‘illegal’ raises many questions and it is a matter ofinterpretation of law and the constitution. A particular action can be interpreted as illegalby those who are in authority or support the status quo, but the same action may beinterpreted as legal by those who strive for social change. ‘Direct action can be defined’,according to Rajni Kothari, ‘as an extra-constitutional political technique that takes theform or a group action, land] is aimed at some political change directed against thegovernment in power’

      slide 3

    10. direct actions of agroup of people confronting authorit

      slide 3

    11. Objectives, ideology, programmes, leadership, and organisation are importantcomponents of social movements.

      slide 4

    12. Paul Wilkinsongives the following working concept of ‘social movement’:A social movement is a deliberate collective endeavour to promote cTisirigelnanydirection and by any means, not excluding violence, illegality, revolution or withdrawalinto ‘utopian’ community. Social movements are thus clearly different from historicalmovements, tendencies or trends. It is important to note, however, that such tendenciesand trends, and the influence of the unconscious or irrational factors in human behaviour,may be of crucial importance in illuminating the problems of interpreting and explainingsocial movement.A social movement must evince a minimal degree of organization, though this mayrange from a loose, informal or partial level of organization to the highly institutionalizedand bureaucratized movement and the corporate grou

      slide 2

    13. The term ‘social movement’ gained currency in European languages in the earlynineteenth century. This was the period of social upheaval.The political leaders and authors who used the term were concerned with theemancipation of exploited classes and the creation of a new society by changing valuesystems as well as institutions and/or property relationships. Their ideological orientationis reflected in their definition.

      slide 2

  2. Oct 2023
    2. Active noise-canceling

      calculation on signal is done in frequency domain, do fourier transfer then do calculation.

      LMS, hilbert - after frequency domain change.

    3. lowPassFilter.inputBlock(block);lowPassFilter.update()

      with filter take low

    4. if (adaptiveFilter.update()) {// The adaptive filter coefficients have been updated// Apply the adaptive filter to cancel the noiseadaptiveFilter.adapt();}

      update to next state, adapt is standard way

      FSM - mealy machine

    5. void loop() {// Do nothing in the loop}

      Mic and speaker

    6. adaptiveFilter.setAdaptStep(0.01);


    7. const int filterSize = 128; // Size of the adaptive filterfloat filterCoefficients[filterSize]; // Filter coefficients array

      Adaptive filter takes some and leaves others out.

      Adaptive filter can't do all.

      All pass filter

      Band pass filter

    8. lowPassFilter.setLowpass(0, 5000, 0.707); // Cutoff frequency: 5 kHz

      0 to 5000 frequency 0.707 q factor

    9. patchCord5(adaptiveFilter, 0, reverb, 0);

      Just connection between adaptive and reverb.

    10. AudioConnection patchCord3(mic, 0, lowPassFilter, 0);AudioConnection patchCord4(lowPassFilter, 0, adaptiveFilter, 0)

      Filter on side of mic.

      Mic gets both lowpass and adaptive.

    11. AudioConnection patchCord6(reverb, 0, speaker, 0);AudioConnection patchCord7(reverb, 0, speaker, 1)


    12. patchCord3(mic, 0, lowPassFilter, 0);

      mic gets low pass

    13. reverb

      For reverse soundwaves

    14. adaptiveFilter

      Adaptive - adjust to real environment frequencies

    15. // Additional libraries for advanced noise cancellation techniques

      Filter reason - audio analog so need finite samples. FIR - finite impulse response

    16. #include <AudioFilterBiquad.h>


    17. #include <AudioEffectFreeverb.h>


    18. #include <AudioFilterFIR.h>

      Finite Impulse Response

    19. i2s_in.begin();


    20. i2s_out.begin();


    21. AudioNoInterrupts();

      Function has error and goes into infinite loop.

    22. #include <SPI.h>

      Serial peripheral device - speaker - mic

    23. #include <Wire.h>

      To make channel


      Real time

      SD card slow

    25. // Set the waveform1 object to generate a sine wave

      Frequency domain, 0.5 phase 180 degree shift.

      Only code check, not for use.

      SD card save to memory and fetch data and channel output to speaker after multiplying with reverse function.

    26. 9600

      Baud Rate


  3. May 2016