12 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2017
    1. proletarianise

      Proletarianization is the social process by which people move from being either the employer or self-employment to being employed as a wage laborer by an employer.

      Marx, Karl, and David McLellan. Karl Marx: selected writings. Oxford University Press, USA, 2000.

    2. 66,000 Russians living in Eastern Siberia as opposed to the 247,000 in the west.

      This proportion would not change for the next 200 years, despite the large increase in populations in Siberia. In 1897, the huge eastern territory had a population of 909,000 Russian inhabitants, while the west had three times more.

      Forsyth, James. A history of the peoples of Siberia: Russia's north Asian colony, 1581-1990. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992.

    3. offenses.

      These offenses included suspicion of treason intent on the part of couriers if they behaved with insufficient respect to the Tsar, to common crimes such as robbery or forgery. Some of the exiles were put to work on the land as state peasants, or employed as craftsmen in towns, but the majority were drafted into the ranks of the Cossacks.

      Forsyth, James. A history of the peoples of Siberia: Russia's north Asian colony, 1581-1990. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992.

    4. Muscovites

      A Muscovite is a native or citizen of the ancient principality of Moscow or the city of Moscow in Russia.

      "Muscovite." Merriam-Webster. Accessed May 3, 2017. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/muscovite.

    5. Tatar

      The Tatars are a Turkic people who live in Asia and Europe who were one of the five major tribal confederations in the Mongolian Plateau in the 12 century CE. They were numbered at more than 5 million in the late 20th century and lived mainly in west-central Russia along the course of the Volga River and to the east towards the Ural Mountains and also in western Siberia.

      Williams, Brian Glyn. The Crimean Tatars: the diaspora experience and the forging of a nation. Vol. 2. Brill, 2001.

    6. economic planning regions

      The Soviet Union’s economy was one that was planned by leaders in the Party. The Gosplan was the agency that was responsible for the central economic planning in the Soviet Union. It was established in 1921 and did not have a large role at first. However, after the October Revolution and Russian Civil War, a large period of economic collapse occurred and a planned economy was necessary to stimulate the economy, increase productivity, and distribute necessary commodities. The Gosplan’s main task was to create and administer a series of 5-year plans that governed the economy of the USSR. The committee was disbanded in 1991 at the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

      Faulhaber, Gerald R., and David J. Farber. "Spectrum management: Property rights, markets, and the commons." Rethinking rights and regulations: institutional responses to new communication technologies (2003): 193-206.

    7. Siberia

      Here is a link to an Atlas entry of Siberia complete with historical and geographical information and a map : https://www.britannica.com/place/Siberia

    8. Yermak

      Vasiliy “Yermak” Timofeyevich Alenin was a Cossack who started the conquest of Siberia under the reign of Tsar Ivan the Terrible.

      Forsyth, James. A history of the peoples of Siberia: Russia's north Asian colony, 1581-1990. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992.

  2. Mar 2017
    1. Sachs Harbour

      Sachs Harbour is located in the Inuvik region of the Northwest Territories, Canada and is situated on the southwestern coast of Banks Island in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. According to the 2011 census, the population was 112 people. The principle languages spoken in the town are Inuvialuktan and English. The economy is primarily based upon hunting and trapping, but tourism also plays a small role. Residents also engage in ice fishing- harvesting fish from the Amundsen Gulf and Beaufort Sea. Banks Island is ecologically significant for being home to the largest goose colony in North America and is home to three quarters of the world’s population of muskoxen. Barren-ground caribou and polar bears are also seen on the island. On April 26, 2006, the world’s first documented wild-born grizzly-polar bear hybrid was shot near the town. The town has a Visitor Reception Centre that presents the Aulavik National Park and Inuvialuit culture to visitors to the Banks island and serves as a center for community activities. The town is of historical significance for a number of ships sent out to the Arctic Bay by the British Admiralty to find the lost expedition of James Franklin that became trapped in the ice for three years and was abandoned by its crew. One ships primary investigator and captain was Robert McClure who was able to identify the fabled North West Passage- a waterway across the top of North America that would allow passage to Asia from Banks Island. Only few have made this passage since due to icy and dangerous waters, but as the earth warms there may be a day when this passage becomes common. Sachs Harbour is in the Arctic tundra climate zone, which is characterized by long and extremely cold winters. Since many of the activities of the residents in the community revolve aroundfishing hunting,and travel, many residents have considerable knowledge of weather conditions, permafrost, and erosion patterns. Because of climate changes in recent years, many local residents fear that their knowledge of weather patterns may not be as useful as the weather becomes harder to predict. Since the climate has been changing, the sea ice is breaking up earlier than usual taking seals farther south in the summer. Seals are a main food source for the town. Climate change is bringing many other changes to the island’s ecology as well; salmon appeared for the first time in nearby waters between 1999 and 2001, new species of birds are migrating- including robins and barn swallows, and more flies and mosquitos have been appearing. Additionally, there is estimated to be 4 to 12 billion barrels of commercially recoverable oil in the Beaufort Sea and between 13 and 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. As the climate continues to warm it will be easier to access these resources, which could potentially damage the ecology of the island if not managed properly.

      Citations Babaluk , John A., James D. Reist, James D. Johnson, and Lionel Johnson. " First Records of Sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and Pink Salmon (O. gorbuscha) from Banks Island and Other Records of Pacific Salmon in Northwest Territories, Canada." Http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca. June 2000. Accessed March 9, 2017. http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic53-2-161.pdf.

      Callow, Lin. "Oil and Gas Exploration & Development Activity Forecast." Http://www.beaufortrea.ca. March 2013. Accessed March 2017. http://www.beaufortrea.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/NCR-5358624-v4-BREA_-_FINAL_UPDATE_-_EXPLORATION_AND_ACTIVITY_FORECAST-__MAY_2013.pdf.

      Canada, Government Of Canada Statistics. "Census Profile." Census Program. May 31, 2016. Accessed March 09, 2017. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CSD&Code1=6101041&Geo2=PR&Code2=61&Data=Count&SearchText=Sachs Harbour&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&GeoLevel=PR&GeoCode=6101041&TABID=1.

      "Observed Climate Change Impacts in Sachs Harbour, Canada." Observed Climate Change Impacts in Sachs Harbour, Canada. Accessed March 09, 2017. http://www.greenfacts.org/en/arctic-climate-change/toolboxes/observed-climate-change-impacts.htm.

    2. Eskimo

      The word Eskimo has historically been used to refer to the native peoples of Alaska and other Arctic regions, including Siberia, Canada, and Greenland. It comes from a Central Algonquian language called Ojibwe, a language still spoken around the Great Lakes region on both sides of the U.S.- Canadian border. However, the word has a controversial history. People in many parts of the Arctic consider Eskimo a derogatory term because it was widely used by racist, non-native colonizers. Many thought that it meant eater of raw meat, which implied barbarism and violence. In America the word is still commonly used in Alaska while in Canada and Greenland using the word is offensive and racist. Canadians and Greenlanders prefer to use other terms. Aboriginal refers to the first inhabitants of Canada, including First Nations, Inuit, and Métis. First Nation is a term used to describe Aboriginal peoples who are neither Métis nor Inuit. First Nation came to common usage in the 1970s and ‘80s to replace the term Indian. Inuit refers to the people generally living in the far north who are not considered “Indians” under Canadian law. Inuit means people and is the most commonly used. The singular, which means “person,” is Inuk. The term Métis refers to a collective of cultures and ethnic identities that resulted from unions between Aboriginal and European peoples in what is now Canada.


      Joseph, Bob. "Indigenous Peoples terminology guidelines for usage." Indigenous Peoples terminology guidelines for usage. Accessed March 08, 2017. http://www.ictinc.ca/blog/indigenous-peoples-terminology-guidelines-for-usage.

    3. Chemical pollutants in the water could alter the food chain

      The Mackenzie River Delta is considered one of the largest and most intact ecosystems in North America. The majority of the area is covered by boreal forest and tundra biomes. The area is also comprised of wetlands. The area is a diverse interconnected ecosystem that is home to many species of birds, fish, mammals, and plants. There are 54 species of fish in the basin, many of which move en masse between the Mackenzie and its tributaries. Those that move from the sea to freshwater in order to spawn travel some of the farthest distances. For example, the Arctic Cisco travels from the delta up the Mackenzie into the Liard River. If a chemical pollutant disrupted either of these ecosystems, likely the Arctic Cisco would miss the opportunity to spawn that year. Two areas within the Mackenzie River basin, the Peace-Athabasca Delta and the Mackenzie Delta, are important resting and breeding areas for some 215 different bird species in the spring through autumn. Many of the birds catalogued in the area are endangered such as the whooping crane, peregrine falcon, and bald eagle. Damages to the ecosystem in this area could reduce the breeding grounds for many birds and potentially cause some to go extinct. Since the construction of the W.A.C. Bennett Dam on the Peace River, which has reduced seasonal variations of water levels in the Peace-Athabasca Delta, populations of migratory birds have steadily declined since the 1960s. The Mackenzie River Delta is an important staging ground for multiple species of geese and Tundra Swans. Disruptions to this ecosystem could result in a loss of habitat for these species and induce a decline in their numbers. Additionally, depending on the weather, moderate to large numbers of Lesser Snow Geese congregate in the delta just prior to southern migration. Since 1975, the population of Lesser Snow Geese has decreased to a fifth of the 1.5 million that was once known to exist in the region. The area is also home to mammals such as the Arctic Long-Tailed Shrew, the Barren Ground Grizzly Bear, the Black Bear, the Alaska Red Fox, the Wolf, the Canadian Beaver, and many more. Additionally, more than 5,000 Beluga Whales calve in the Mackenzie River estuary. If there were to be a chemical spill in the region the entire ecosystem could be severely disrupted (see trophic pyramid).



      Banfield, A.W.F. "Notes on the Mammals of the Mackenzie District, Northwest Territories." Http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca. Accessed March 7, 2017. http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/arctic4-2-112.pdf.

      Casey-Lefkowitz, Susan. "Migratory bird haven joins NRDC BioGems." NRDC. December 15, 2016. Accessed March 07, 2017. https://www.nrdc.org/experts/susan-casey-lefkowitz/migratory-bird-haven-joins-nrdc-biogems.

      "Canadian Important Bird Areas." Canadian Important Bird Areas. Accessed March 07, 2017. https://www.ibacanada.ca/explore.jsp?lang=EN

      "Trophic pyramid." Why Evolution Is True. January 25, 2014. Accessed March 07, 2017. https://whyevolutionistrue.wordpress.com/2014/01/25/why-there-probably-isnt-a-ghost-ship-full-of-cannibal-rats-headed-for-the-british-isles/trophic-pyramid/.

    4. 1972 Pipeline Guidelines

      In 1972 the Canadian Government expanded the guidelines created in August 1970 for the construction and operation of oil and gas pipelines in the Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories in the document, ‘Expanded Guidelines for Northern Pipelines’. These guidelines address the corridor concept- a strip of land intentionally set aside for linear right-of-way and secondary and interim land uses-, the environment, and social implications. When the guidelines were originally created in 1970, The Government was open to changing them when further scientific evidence was collected and made available. The Government’s purpose in expressing these views were to give further guidelines to industries engaged in research and planning northern pipelines and to provide northern residents opportunities. The Government explicitly states that they want to give native peoples the opportunity to be involved with the construction of pipelines and invite their views on the proposed guidelines.

      Please visit ‘http://yukondigitallibrary.ca/Publications/pipelineguidelines19721/1972%20pipeline%20guidelines.pdf’ to see a full digital copy of the 1972 Pipeline Guidelines.


      Government of Canada, “Expanded Guidelines for Northern Pipelines” The Canadian House of Commons, No. 72-3 (1972), http://yukondigitallibrary.ca/Publications/pipelineguidelines19721/1972%20pipeline%20guidelines.pdf

      Weir, Charles H., C.L.S, P.ENG, and June P. Klassen, "The Corridor Concept Theory and Application." Irwaonline.org. https://www.irwaonline.org/eweb/upload/0886.pdf.