40 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2016
    1. My father was enraptured on finding me freed from the vexations of a criminal charge, that I was again allowed to breathe the fresh atmosphere and permitted to return to my native country.

      Criminal court cases are held very similar to that of the United States criminal court cases. There is one judge and an appointed jury. The jury in Victor's case came to a unanimous decision that he was innocent.

      It seems that the aristocratic party tended to favor those of high rank and often freed them disregarding any factual evidence (European Romantic Review). Mary Shelley may be suggesting that Victor's privileged rank may be the reason he was set free.

  2. Nov 2016

      This phrase seems to appear quite often. Perhaps it is an omen.

    2. The magistrate observed me with a keen eye and of course drew an unfavourable augury from my manner.

      The civil officer becomes a little suspicious of Victor's odd behavior and takes him to view Clerval's body. This is a technique done by criminal investigators. The magistrate became suspicious of Victor's behavior and most likely deemed him as a probable suspect. When taking a suspect into the room with the deceased victim they take careful note of the suspect's body language, facial expression, and overall reaction upon seeing the body. The observation of said suspect will give more insight to the investigator. For instance, if the suspect were to have a cool, calm, collected persona the suspect would be questioned further and most likely held in prison. This technique is rarely used today.

    3. The son confirmed his father's account, but when Daniel Nugent was called he swore positively that just before the fall of his companion, he saw a boat, with a single man in it, at a short distance from the shore; and as far as he could judge by the light of a few stars, it was the same boat in which I had just landed. A woman deposed that she lived near the beach and was standing at the door of her cottage, waiting for the return of the fishermen, about an hour before she heard of the discovery of the body, when she saw a boat with only one man in it push off from that part of the shore where the corpse was afterwards found.

      As we continue to read, we can confirm that the creature's wrath has stuck again! Eye witnesses have reported seeing a single man near the scene of the crime in a boat.

    4. The first part of this deposition did not in the least interest me, but when the mark of the fingers was mentioned I remembered the murder of my brother and felt myself extremely agitated;

      We know from previous chapters that the creature's method of murder is death by strangulation. It may be safe to say that the creature is responsible for yet again, another murder. Here, Victor cannot help but think it was his creation that took his beloved friend's life.

    5. He had apparently been strangled, for there was no sign of any violence except the black mark of fingers on his neck.

      A group of guys went fishing. The weather became unsuitable for such sport and it was nearly pitch black so, they decided to head for town. They arrived at a creek. As the men were walking off the boat and onto the sand one of them tripped over Clerval's body. He was clearly dead. The men thought that perhaps the waves carried his lifeless body to the shore however, his clothes weren't wet and his body was warm. They soon noticed the black finger marks around his neck. They concluded that he was strangled to death.

    6. I was soon introduced into the presence of the magistrate, an old benevolent man with calm and mild manners

      According to Oxford dictionary a magistrate is a civil officer who administers the law, especially one who conducts a court that deals with minor offences and holds preliminary hearings for more serious ones.

    7. "The murderer discovered!

      Switzerland criminal laws and sentencing practices were influenced by French and German legal traditions. The very first approximation of a criminal code was written in 1799. This criminal code was inspired by the Frenchs' criminal code that was written in 1791.

      Source: Crime and Punishment Around the World

    8. But she will be tried today, and you will then hear all

      In the case of a criminal act "tried" means that Justine will be examined or the case will be investigated judicially. In other words, there will be conduct of a trial.

    9. And on the morrow Justine died.

      Capital punishment (legally authorized killing of someone as punishment for a crime) was abolished from federal criminal law in Switzerland in 1942. However, in the early 1700's most countries were still busy executing witches and killing males by decapitation with a sword. Other ways of killing the criminals were drowning, burning, beheading, and lynching them. Some were brutally killed by being smashed by an iron bar. Justine could've been executed by any of the ways listed above.

      Source: http://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/crime-and-punishment_killing-off-the-death-penalty-in-switzerland/41732660

    10. "I did confess, but I confessed a lie. I confessed, that I might obtain absolution; but now that falsehood lies heavier at my heart than all my other sins. The God of heaven forgive me! Ever since I was condemned, my confessor has besieged me; he threatened and menaced, until I almost began to think that I was the monster that he said I was. He threatened excommunication and hell fire in my last moments if I continued obdurate. Dear lady, I had none to support me; all looked on me as a wretch doomed to ignominy and perdition. What could I do? In an evil hour I subscribed to a lie; and now only am I truly miserable."

      Justine confessed a lie. The catholic priest in confession pressured into it telling her she was going to go to hell if she did not confess to the crime.

    11. "My cousin," replied I, "it is decided as you may have expected; all judges had rather that ten innocent should suffer than that one guilty should escape. But she has confessed."

      Justine confessed to the murder she DID NOT commit! Why? Out of her fear of going to hell.

    12. she had passed the evening of the night on which the murder had been committed at the house of an aunt at Chene, a village situated at about a league from Geneva. On her return, at about nine o'clock, she met a man who asked her if she had seen anything of the child who was lost. She was alarmed by this account and passed several hours in looking for him, when the gates of Geneva were shut, and she was forced to remain several hours of the night in a barn belonging to a cottage, being unwilling to call up the inhabitants, to whom she was well known.

      The evening William was murdered Justine was in Chene (about three miles from Geneva), spending time with her aunt.When she was on her way home a man stopped and asked her if she had seen a child who was lost. Justine was alarmed by this and decided to go look for the lost boy. She spent so much time searching for him the gates of Geneva shut and she was forced to stay the night in a barn and she was not able to call anyone she knew.

    13. "God knows," she said, "how entirely I am innocent. But I do not pretend that my protestations should acquit me; I rest my innocence on a plain and simple explanation of the facts which have been adduced against me, and I hope the character I have always borne will incline my judges to a favourable interpretation where any circumstance appears doubtful or suspicious."

      Justine: "I'm innocent and God knows it. I am not going to pretend that the accusations made against me should free me; I place my innocence on the plain and simple facts that I have explained. I hope that you keep in mind my good character whenever doubt or suspicion appears."

    14. She had been out the whole of the night on which the murder had been committed and towards morning had been perceived by a market-woman not far from the spot where the body of the murdered child had been afterwards found. The woman asked her what she did there, but she looked very strangely and only returned a confused and unintelligible answer

      Justine was out the entire night that William was murdered, which doesn't help her claim of innocence. Justine was near the the area where the crime took place. When a woman approached Justine asking her what she was doing there Justine gave an odd look and replied with an answer that was hard to understand. UGH..it is not looking good.

    15. During this interval, one of the servants, happening to examine the apparel she had worn on the night of the murder, had discovered in her pocket the picture of my mother, which had been judged to be the temptation of the murderer. The servant instantly showed it to one of the others, who, without saying a word to any of the family, went to a magistrate; and, upon their deposition, Justine was apprehended.

      Justine was sick the morning of William's death. During that time, a servant was going through her clothes and he found the valuable picture of Victor's mother in her pocket (the picture that was certainly the reason behind the murder). Justine was arrested after the officer had been notified of the discovery.

    16. "Justine Moritz! Poor, poor girl, is she the accused? But it is wrongfully; every one knows that; no one believes it, surely, Ernest?"

      Justine was mentioned earlier in the book. Justine was one of four children. After the death of Justin's father, Justine's mother "treated her very ill." Due to her mother's unkind treatment Justine moved to live with Elizabeth's aunt. According to Elizabeth Justine is beautiful, grateful, smart, and gentle. So, it is very hard to believe she killed William.

    17. As I said these words, I perceived in the gloom a figure which stole from behind a clump of trees near me; I stood fixed, gazing intently: I could not be mistaken. A flash of lightning illuminated the object, and discovered its shape plainly to me; its gigantic stature, and the deformity of its aspect more hideous than belongs to humanity, instantly informed me that it was the wretch, the filthy daemon, to whom I had given life. What did he there? Could he be (I shuddered at the conception) the murderer of my brother? No sooner did that idea cross my imagination, than I became convinced of its truth; my teeth chattered, and I was forced to lean against a tree for support. The figure passed me quickly, and I lost it in the gloom.

      Victor sees his creation creeping behind the trees. Not much longer after his eyes land upon the creature's gigantic stature, he knows that the "daemon" is responsible for William's death.

    18. 'O God! I have murdered my darling child!'

      Elizabeth did not actually kill William. Here, she is merely blaming herself for his death.

    19. This picture is gone, and was doubtless the temptation which urged the murderer to the deed. We have no trace of him at present, although our exertions to discover him are unremitted; but they will not restore my beloved William!

      The valuable picture was gone! They believe that it was certainty the reason behind the murder of young William. They currently have no idea who the murderer is however, they are relentless in their search.

    20. She told me, that that same evening William had teased her to let him wear a very valuable miniature that she possessed of your mother.

      The night William died, he tried to provoke Elizabeth into allowing him to wear a very valuable picture that was once Victor's mother's.

    21. About five in the morning I discovered my lovely boy, whom the night before I had seen blooming and active in health, stretched on the grass livid and motionless; the print of the murder's finger was on his neck.

      Victor's father found his son dead. There were marks around William's neck indicating that he was strangled to death.

    22. "Last Thursday (May 7th), I, my niece, and your two brothers, went to walk in Plainpalais. The evening was warm and serene, and we prolonged our walk farther than usual. It was already dusk before we thought of returning; and then we discovered that William and Ernest, who had gone on before, were not to be found. We accordingly rested on a seat until they should return. Presently Ernest came, and enquired if we had seen his brother; he said, that he had been playing with him, that William had run away to hide himself, and that he vainly sought for him, and afterwards waited for a long time, but that he did not return.

      Plainpalais is a huge open space that is known for hosting flea markets and farmer's markets in Geneva. So, Victor's father, Victor's two brothers, and Victor's future wife were walking around there. It was in the evening and it the weather was warm. Earnest and William went off on there own playing hide-and-seek. They were gone for a pretty long time. Ernest returned to his father and explained that despite his efforts, he could not find William.

    23. So strange an accident has happened to us that I cannot forbear recording it, although it is very probable that you will see me before these papers can come into your possession.

      There was an accident but he cannot write it down, but he will tell her because there is a very good chance that he will be turning around and coming home.

    24. I write a few lines in haste to say that I am safe—and well advanced on my voyage. This letter will reach England by a merchantman now on its homeward voyage from Archangel; more fortunate than I, who may not see my native land, perhaps, for many years. I am, however, in good spirits: my men are bold and apparently firm of purpose, nor do the floating sheets of ice that continually pass us, indicating the dangers of the region towards which we are advancing, appear to dismay them

      Again, Walton is writing his sister to let it be known that he is safe on his journey. He mentions that he may not be able to go back home for a while. However, he will remain in good spirits. It helps that his crewmen are bold and brave. The floating sheets of ice that indicate danger don't even seem to even phase them.

    25. hitherto

      According to the Oxford dictionary, this word means until now or until this point in time.

    26. I cannot describe to you my sensations on the near prospect of my undertaking. It is impossible to communicate to you a conception of the trembling sensation, half pleasurable and half fearful, with which I am preparing to depart. I am going to unexplored regions, to "the land of mist and snow," but I shall kill no albatross; therefore do not be alarmed for my safety or if I should come back to you as worn and woeful as the "Ancient Mariner."

      Walton finds it difficult to describe the feelings he is experiencing while on his journey. He is fearful but very excited. He makes a reference to the poem by Coleridge titled 'The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.' Walton says he will be exploring land, like the Mariner in Coleridge's poem, but he will not be killing an albatross (unlike the Mariner).

    27. Do you understand this feeling? This breeze, which has travelled from the regions towards which I am advancing, gives me a foretaste of those icy climes. Inspirited by this wind of promise, my daydreams become more fervent and vivid

      Walton is asking his sister if she knows how it feels to feel the cold breeze coming from the north. He is describing it as very delightful. The breeze that he feels upon his cheeks comes from the place he is traveling toward. The winds are a preview of the icy regions and he beings to daydream about them more vividly.

    28. You will rejoice to hear that no disaster has accompanied the commencement of an enterprise which you have regarded with such evil forebodings. I arrived here yesterday, and my first task is to assure my dear sister of my welfare and increasing confidence in the success of my undertaking.

      Walton is writing to his sister. He is informing her that there has not been any natural catastrophe during the start of his endeavor. His sister was fearful that there would be. Walton arrived at his destination yesterday and the first thing he wanted to do was let her know that he was okay and that he has confidence that he will be successful in his journey on discovery.

    1. Chapters 7-8 with Chapters 21-23: Justine, the death of Clerval, legal actions (two students may team up on this)

      JK this is me

    2. Walton’s framing letters, at the start and end of the text (two students may team up on this)


  3. Oct 2016
  4. www.poetryfoundation.org www.poetryfoundation.org
    1. They crossed the moat

      This castle almost perfectly fits the description of the castle Christabel and her family reside. There is a moat and if you look closely you can see a what looks like an iron gate. The castle pictured is also surrounded by a wooded area much like the castle described in this poem.

    2. Tu—whit! Tu—whoo!

      In the nineteenth century many poets used owls to represent a bad omen. They refereed to the owl as the "bird of doom." So, here we can see Coleridge warning us that the plot is headed somewhere dark.

    3. Quoth Christabel, So let it be! And as the lady bade, did she. Her gentle limbs did she undress, And lay down in her loveliness.

      Christabel is a symbol of purity and devoutness. She is very christ-like. While Gerdaline seems to be symbolic for sexuality and sin. Christabel is constantly praying throughout the poem whereas Gerdaline is asking Christabel to undress herself to cast a curse on her.

    4. Langdale Pike

      Langdale Pike is a group of peaks in the Lake District (England).

  5. Sep 2016
    1. With white-flowered jasmin, and the broad-leaved myrtle,5(Meet emblems they of Innocence and Love!)6And watch the clouds, that late were rich with light,

      According to Oxford dictionary the word "jasmin" means a shrub that bears white, pink, purple flowers. The word "myrtle" is an evergreen shrub with white flowers and oval shaped berries.

    2. My pensive Sara! thy soft cheek reclined2Thus on mine arm, most soothing sweet it is3To sit beside our cot, our cot o'ergrown

      Coleridge is referring to his wife Sara, whom he married shortly after writing this poem. Her cheek is resting against his arm and it is soothing to him as they side on their cot. According to Oxford dictionary the word "cot" means bed.

    1. 8Just at sun-set, when thrushes sing, 9I saw her dash with rapid wing, 10And hail’d her as she pass’d.

      According to the Oxford dictionary, "thrushes" means a medium-sized song bird. Smith is saying just as the sun sets the song-bird/thrush sings. She says she saw the bird with her rapid wings. The words rapid and dash implies that the bird was flying with control and great control.

    2. 1Come, summer visitant, attach 12To my reed roof your nest of clay, 13And let my ear your music catch 14Low twittering underneath the thatch 15At the gray dawn of day.

      According to Oxford dictionary, the word "reed" means a tall slender leaved-plant that grows in water. Smith is referring to the the swallow (a migratory bird) as the summer visitant. She tells the swallow to attach to the tall plant where perhaps the swallow's nest rests. She goes on to say that she would like to her the music the bird is making.

    1. Hesperian

      According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word hesperian pertains to the land of the west, or where the sun sets.