109 Matching Annotations
  1. Jan 2022
  2. www.blackwellpublishing.com www.blackwellpublishing.com
    1. elucidation

      clarification; to make something clear

    2. New Criticism that has remained most abiding is the concern with the closereading of texts and with the analysis of the operation of literary language in all itscomplexity.

      American New Criticism gave us close reading and the analysis of literary language.

    3. The realm of universal meaning, however, is beyond sensory experienceand cannot be analyzed using scientific methods

      How it should be

    4. Poetic language thusreconciles the ordinarily opposed elements of the concrete and the universal, thespecific word and general meaning, body and spirit.

      I love how this sentence feels like a love letter to poetry

    5. poetry uses language connotatively orin a way that evokes secondary meanings. Such language use allows poetry to be bothconcrete and specific as well as universal and genera

      Because of the nature of poetry, the linguistic aspect of it is fluid.

    6. ‘concrete universals.’’

      elucidation of the way literature embodies universal truth

    7. ‘‘Close reading’’

      Associated with American New Criticism

    8. affective fallacy

      emotional reactions a work provokes in readers are irrelevant, the objective structure contains the meaning of the work

    9. intentional fallacy

      Meaning resides in the verbal design of a literary work, not in the statements an author makes.

    10. literary language that makes it different from the ordinary use oflanguage

      similarity between the two styles

    11. Structuralists

      Structuralists and small biography of Roman Jakobson

    12. Half the original Formalists were lin-guists, with Jakobson being the most influential


    13. For literature to be literature, it must constantly defamiliarize the familiar

      core ideal of Russian formalists; defamiliarization of literature

    14. literary change isthe result of the autonomous evolution of literary devices

      Russian formalists belief on literary change.

    15. literary evolution is the result of the constant attempt to disrupt existingliterary conventions and to generate new ones

      Russian formalists belief on literary evolution

    16. focus was on the qualities of poetic lan-guage that distinguish it from ordinary practical language

      The breakdown of Russian formalists group two. In the poetry section they tried to distinguish ordinary language from poetry language.

    17. poetic speech contorts and roughens up ordinary language and submits it to whatRoman Jakobson called ‘‘organized violence

      I love the way that this is described

    18. TheScarlet Letter for its narrative strategies instead of for the ways in which it depictsPuritanism

      EX of Russian formalists ideology.

    19. The Formalists noticed that narrative literature consisted of two majorcomponents: the plo

      The breakdown of the Russian formalists into two main forms. In the prose narrative section, they found that once the plot and the sequence of events you can easily find the details and devices the author used to make the story.

    20. presents objects or experiences from such an unusual perspective or in such uncon-ventional and self-conscious language that our habitual, ordinary, rote perceptions ofthose things are disturbed

      A Russian formalists famous claim of defamiliarization (definition above)

    21. literature should be studied for the way literary language differs from ordinarypractical language and for the unique truths conveyed only through such literarylanguage

      The divergence between studying literature and language

    22. cannot be rendered in the direct, denotative, fact-naming language of the sci-ences.

      A direct rebut in association with the historical context (everything had to be fact based and if it wasn't then it wasn't "true").

    23. rebut the claim of science that all truth is grounded

      Benedetto Croce and the American New Criticism believed that literature is a piece of art that can only be obtained through the use of literary devices.

    24. devices alone that produce that impression, and they aloneare what makes literature literary

      Russian formalists believe that literary devices make up literature.

    25. specifically literary characteristics that make itliterature

      Abandons the idea of literature being illuminating for many different fields not just English. This makes it smaller and diminishes it (I feel).

    26. isolate objects of knowledge in their unmixed purity

      Edmund Husserl's idea of Russian formalism

    27. philosophers of science

      Why are philosophers of science getting involved in a literary studies debate/

    28. Two movements

      Russian Formalism and American New Criticism

    29. literary work was about

      Before the formalist movements literary studies was about what literature was about. Encompassing the historical context and background of the author allowed you to fully understand the book.

    30. Russian Formalism and American New Criticism

      What is the significance of these relating to literary studies? (i.e. how did the formation of these associations cause the shift in study?

  3. Oct 2021
    1. febrile
      1. great deal of excitement
      2. showing symptoms of a fever (one fits context with transient more)
    2. This excitement is bad for master

      maybe weak heart?

    3. begging friar of St. Francis

      another religious reference

    4. Faithful fellow!” cried Captain Delano. “Don Benito, I envy you such a friend; slave I cannot call him

      He may be a friend but he is still a slave

    5. But it is Babo here to whom, under God, I owe not only my own preservation

      thankful to him for helping him to recover

    6. He was thinking of the plague that followed the gales

      does he have the plague?

    7. mata


    8. It is now a hundred and ninety days

      most likely got lost due to the long duration and the supply running out.

    9. He maintained this posture so long

      He is absent minded and has moments were he goes blank for a while and then pops back

    10. But the Spaniard, perhaps, thought that it was with captains as with gods: reserve, under all events, must still be their cue

      allusion to captains being Gods, satirical. Benito's attitude would fit if his ship was fully restored yet it is in disarray and chaos.

    11. nvoluntary victim of mental disorder

      Maybe anxiety or something like that? Could explain the nervous habits he was displaying earlier.

    12. At bottom it was Don Benito’s reserve which displeased him; but the same reserve was shown towards all but his faithful personal attendant

      why wasn't it extended to his faithful personal attendant? (reserve)

    13. At bottom it was Don Benito’s reserve which displeased him; but the same reserve was shown towards all but his faithful personal attendant.

      Why wasn't his reserve extended to his faithful personal attendant?

    14. twitching his beard

      nervous habits

    15. biting his lip, biting his finger-nail

      nervous habits

    16. His mind appeared unstrung, if not still more seriously affected.

      He is losing his grip on reality due to his journey, his ship being in disarray, starvation, and the crew moral.

    17. Benito Cereno

      the name of the Spanish Captain?

    18. converse with some freedom in their native tongue.

      He wants them to feel safe and calm so he wants to approach them in their native tongue; another gesture that shows his good heartedness.

    19. rose into an ample elevated poop


    20. They each had bits of unstranded old junk in their hands

      shows the differences between cultures, automatically assumes it's junk and not offerings of some sort or possessions.

    21. slovenly neglect pervading her. The spars, ropes, and great part of the bulwarks, looked woolly, from long unacquaintance with the scraper, tar, and the brush

      The Spanish merchant doesn't take care of his ship or show it the proper cleaning and maintenance it needs.

    22. Black Friars pacing the cloisters

      religious reference

    23. the stranger might have been long off soundings, the good captain put several baskets of the fish, for presents, into his boat, and so pulled away.

      Shows the captains viewpoint and how he feels in general. He is kind hearted and good. He thinks that the they might be hungry and lost from a fishing trip so he packs a basket of fish for them.

    24. her

      Ships are usually female pronouns for some reason. It is very gendered like the other comment mentions.

    25. observing that, the ship, in navigating into the harbor, was drawing too near the land; a sunken reef making out off her bow.

      suggests that the stranger is not good at steering the boat or proximities to the harbor and island; maybe fleeing or doesn't actually know how to steer a boat.

    26. showed no colors

      everything is colorless or mute in color.

    27. Shadows present, foreshadowing deeper shadows to come.

      foreshadowing. the sky and the sea imitating a calm yet producing such hues foreshadow the forthcoming storm. Gray is repeated frequently within this paragraph as well, intentional or not what do you think?

    28. Everything was mute and calm; everything gray.

      the calm before the storm

    29. a small, desert, uninhabited island

      why uninhabited? valuable cargo + docking at an uninhabited island.. something might be fishy here

  4. Sep 2021
    1. Most literature at the time was centered around the colonists and Europeans not towards Native Americans

    2. alluding to the ending.

    3. every action they both take is motivated by the pursuit of a man.

      A lot of novels are like that, especially one's with romance

    4. If you had asked her she would have said she did it all for love. If you asked me, I’d say it’s nonsense

      I kind of agree because isn't that the sort of thig you do for passionate burning love? But at the same time my rational brain knows that is extreme and a way of destroying one's image

    5. I think the best and most female empowering part of the entire courtship between Winkfield and Princess Unca is when she forgoes her entire belief system and religion to conform to Winkfield’s with about the same amount of resistance that her sister had when she decided to murder the both of them

      powerful comparison. love the use of sarcasm

    6. Calling out the author and bringing awareness

    7. Truly seems unreal, could feed into the notion of magic

    8. All this could be yours for the small price of 29.95 plus state tax!


    9. authentic

      How do you define authentic?

    1. Thus she traveled three days together, not knowing whither she was going; having nothing to eat or drink but water, and green hirtle-berries.

      Seems highly unlikely. How old is her daughter? What's her name?

    2. I told him no: I was not willing to run away, but desired to wait God’s time, that I might go home quietly, and without fear.

      Here highlights the difference between the Englishmen and the Native Americans captivity. A native Americans captivity would have no end date whereas an Englishmen would.

    3. They mourned (with their black faces) for their own losses, yet triumphed and rejoiced in their inhumane, and many times devilish cruelty to the English.

      Casas dictates some pretty devilish cruelty the English showed to the Native Americans

    4. But now our perverse and evil carriages in the sight of the Lord, have so offended Him, that instead of turning His hand against them, the Lord feeds and nourishes them up to be a scourge to the whole land.

      She sees God being 'godly' and loving every person no mater what as Mary personally disappointed God and so he feeds the Native Americans and makes sure they prosper in hopes of crushing the English

    5. strangely did the Lord provide for them; that I did not see (all the time I was among them) one man, woman, or child, die with hunger.

      Strange how God seems to think Native Americans are people and not barbarous creatures

    1. I told them, they had as good knock me in head as starve me to death.

      The risk highlighted within the sentence is contributed to her long captivity and the hope of being sold to her husband and watching it tear apart in front of her. She is losing her faith therein her will and hope to survive and thrive.

    2. Then I took it of the child, and eat it myself, and savory it was to my taste.

      She took a child's food that was snuck to her. That was probably the only food she had gotten in a while and upon seeing her struggle she decided the right thing was to take it and eat it. Not the "Christianly" thing to do

    3. they that owned her would not suffer it

      So is it only Mary who can go from wigwam to wigwam? This shows that other slaves do not have permission to tarry in the night like Mary does.

    4. Then I went to another wigwam

      If she can walk freely from wigwam to wigwam, I start to wonder if she couldn't escape quite easily.

    1. So like were these barbarous creatures to him who was a liar from the beginning.

      So even the nice Native American who let you stay at his wigwam and have nuts and offered you more the next day is a barbarous creature?

    2. But I knew that He laid upon me less than I deserved.

      Crisis of faith come to fruition. Embodiment of white guilt perhaps?

    3. Then also I took my Bible to read, but I found no comfort here neither, which many times I was wont to find. So easy a thing it is with God to dry up the streams of Scripture comfort from us.

      Her bible is failing to comfort her; a crisis in faith, drop in hope

    4. “Have pity upon me, O ye my Friends, for the Hand of the Lord has touched me.”

      She wants to put everything on the Lord even though it was just her tears pushing the dirt out of her eyes.

    5. But the Lord upheld my Spirit, under this discouragement;

      She is trying to operate on blind faith and the hope that her son is still alive

    1. But the thoughts of my going homeward (for so we bent our course) much cheered my spirit, and made my burden seem light, and almost nothing at all.

      Her captivity is coming to an end and she feels the burden of being a slave slowly being lifted off her as they get closer to their destination.

    2. I went to one wigwam, and they told me they had no room. Then I went to another, and they said the same; at last an old Indian bade me to come to him, and his squaw gave me some ground nuts; she gave me also something to lay under my head, and a good fire we had; and through the good providence of God, I had a comfortable lodging that night.

      Contrary to what is stated right above she is able to find a wigwam after two tries and it was "comfortable lodging". The Native American who ran that wigwam showed her kindness and even stated if she came back he would help her again. This shows a very different version from "being angry and sent back".

    3. Which stilled my spirit for the present.

      She was impatient on the delay yet after quoting scripture she sees her spirit has calmed down. Not only is her faith her hope it shows how it keeps her alive and unhurt.

    4. I took my Bible to read, and that quieting Scripture came to my hand, “Be still, and know that I am God” (Psalm 46.10).

      She is seeking solace within her bible and using it to remain hopeful while she is in captivity.

    1. I told them it was the Sabbath day, and desired them to let me rest

      She hadn't practiced a sabbath before, why is she upset about this one?

    2. She didn't even pass through the water like a baptism entails she skirted over it in a raft. It even dictates that "my food did not wet"

    3. stoutest men, and sent them back to hold the English army in play whilst the rest escaped.

      Men who would die for the benefit of the tribe. A war with the English army

    1. “Wait on the Lord, Be of good courage, and he shall strengthen thine Heart, wait I say on the Lord.”

      it seems like she isn't exactly bothered by captivity. Although I understand her urging her not because she's pregnant and due soon. But shouldn't she at least think about running away too if she's captive and unhappy.

    2. chapter of Deuteronomy

      What is the significance to this chapter?

    3. One of the Indians that came from Medfield fight, had brought some plunder, came to me, and asked me, if I would have a Bible, he had got one in his basket. I was glad of it, and asked him, whether he thought the Indians would let me read? He answered, yes. So I took the Bible,

      They treat captives with more kindness than the Englishmen do. They still let her have access to religious texts.

    4. Then they went and showed me where it was, where I saw the ground was newly digged, and there they told me they had buried it.

      They took the time to bury it upon a hill and to tell her where her baby was buried

    5. my sweet babe like a lamb departed this life on Feb. 18, 1675. It being about six years, and five months old.

      No one should go through the death of a baby. Why is there no distinguishing language about the baby? no possessive descriptions or even a name

    6. Then I took oaken leaves

      Seems like herbal remedies which are common from pagans and Native Americans

    7. and my child’s being so exceeding sick,

      I thought her children died??

    8. One of the Indians got up upon a horse, and they set me up behind him, with my poor sick babe in my lap.

      It seems to be that the once off act of kindness might actually be a pattern

    1. still the Lord upheld me with His gracious and merciful spirit, and we were both alive to see the light of the next morning.

      God's mercy and love kept them alive through to the morning

    2. with my sick child in my arms


    3. but God was with me in a wonderful manner, carrying me along, and bearing up my spirit, that it did not quite fail.

      Why is God with her all of a sudden? I'm sensing a theme of Christianity and praising the Lord.

    4. One of the Indians carried my poor wounded babe upon a horse

      Quite interesting since they are 'barbaric' creatures. Why would they carry her wounded baby on a horse showing kindness to her?

    1. All was gone, my husband gone (at least separated from me, he being in the Bay; and to add to my grief, the Indians told me they would kill him as he came homeward), my children gone, my relations and friends gone, our house and home and all our comforts—within door and without—all was gone (except my life), and I knew not but the next moment that might go too.

      Alluding to how the Englishmen killed the Natives and took them slaves as a way of profit.

    2. one-eyed John, and Marlborough’s Praying Indians

      Are these characters to be followed up on?

    3. Oh the roaring, and singing and dancing, and yelling of those black creatures in the night, which made the place a lively resemblance of hell.

      Shows the disconnect that English people felt at the time and the animistic view of Native Americans that was portrayed.

    4. “What, will you love English men still?”

      Her being in Native American territory somehow denotes her English nature?

    5. barbarous creatures

      animalistic connotation that denotes Native Americans