28 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2017
    1. Learning is a lifelong and year-round pursuit, which takes place throughout the campus, not just fragmented indoors in designated instructional spaces

      I agree with this particular phrase and not just in the context of college campuses. An adult who wants to be learning actively is going to, usually, place themselves in an environment which they will learn in. It doesn't have to be a classroom. It can take place even inside their own home. College is a short 4-6 years typically. Although higher education is a very influential part of people's lives, it is only about 5.5% of their life time. Humans begin learning the second their brains are developed, even subconsciously. We learn without trying to. That is why this article was slightly frustrating for me. Standardized learning beings around age 4 or 5, where toddlers are placed into a room made of 4 cinderblock walls, with about 30 minutes of outside time per 7 hours in the classroom. Therefore, this entire theory of cognitive learning and holistic learning environments shouldn't be held off until the ages of 18-25 when humans brains are almost fully developed.

  2. www.histarch.illinois.edu www.histarch.illinois.edu
    1. Prior to the various emancipation actions, beginning in Massachusetts in 1783 and continuing into the nineteenth century, blacks - 187 - were chattels, property to be disposed of in any way their owners saw fit.

      This quote reminds me of the irony with "Black Lives Matter" In the article it tells of how the black lives matter movement started after George Zimmerman was acquitted of his murder of unarmed teen Trayvon Martin. It is interesting to see how our lives are valued more in these times compared to pre-emancipation times. It is interesting to see a change in a opinion in only a century. I feel like there is only one race and that is the human race. We just have different concentrations of melanin. It is pretty unfair to judge someone off their skin color alone. That irritates me a whole lot. I never asked to be this way, I was just reincarnated into the person I am now. Another thing I was told in class was that your environment affects your phenotype. If I was in the arctic area, my skin would probably be a few shades lighter so it is not really my fault that I am black. It is genetics and my environment around me.

    2. Nothing is known of Cato Howe's early life, before his military service.

      Interesting thing about this quote is that it is true. I googled Cato Howe and there is honestly nothing listed before he was 25 years of age and put into the military."Howe enlisted in the spring of 1775 and served for the entire war in the 2nd Massachusetts (Commander, Colonel John Bailey)." Until he was in the military, none of his records are available." Its just fascinating to know that only his time into the military to the end of his life was only recorded. It is pretty weird why they'd only record that. I would think that they would want to record the live of a man who dedicated his time and efforts into the war. Cato Howe (1756 - 1824) - Find A Grave Memorial. (n.d.). Retrieved February 02, 2017


      The problem I had with this quote is that the people were freed due to their service in the Revolutionary War. If they were freed, why are they still called negro slaves. They could have called them freed men or at least acknowledge that they are not slaves anymore. I feel as though this is more disrespectful than anything else because the people gained their freedom so they should not be called slaves anymore. To me this kind of relates to the whole black lives matter movement. It isn't fair that we get the minimal recognition for everything we have done for the country. If it were white indentured servants they'd probably be called heroes. The blacks deserve proper recognition. I would want proper recognition after I helped the country get its independence from Great Britain. Especially since I helping the people that stole me from my land and my family. I deserve some type of recognition. TIME Person of the Year 2015 Runner-Up: Black Lives Matter. (n.d.). Retrieved February 02, 2017

    4. terminus post quem

      I stumbled on this phrased so I googled what it means. terminus post quem- a latin phrase that means the end after which---the date after which a stratum, feature, or artifact must have been deposited. I am still unsure by what context to use this word in. "Archaeology Wordsmith." Archaeology Wordsmith. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Feb. 2017.

    5. The more northerly one consisted of two sugar jars, a stoneware jug, miscellaneous pressed glass objects,

      The fact that they were instilled in slavery during their lives, they till kept African traditions. I find that very interesting. Many times when I think about slavery I think that there could be times where your will is broken and you just follow the culture that is being enforced onto you. I'm pretty sure I would have kept some of item that symbolizes my heritage because I can be somewhat of a rebel at times where I fight in something I believe in. It can be to the point that I get really hard headed. I find it interesting that they kept a piece of their natural culture with them. It is like I am looking at some of my qualities in myself in four other deceased people.

    6. although the strength of oral tradition has preserved more than we might hope.

      Oral tradition is also a part of traditional African culture, further emphasizing the importance of African culture in early African American history. (Orators pass down information/stories from generation to generation.) Another culture that has successfully used oral history as a viable method of historical preservation are the Native American civilizations. Furthermore, the oral tradition also assess the artifact’s influence on the individual and their everyday life. It also allows the historian to access a more subjective, personal perspective from the time period, instead of an objective view residing in most educational textbooks.

    7. People who held such a status could hardly be expected to have recorded a history of their own in any conventional way

      To me, this is an unfortunate example of how lesser known, but equally important, cultures can get lost in the mainstream of history. By this I mean that in educational classes we are taught about the same material over and over again that is deemed important. These events are important for the students to learn about, but it is also crucial that they are exposed to cultures outside of their "bubble". In order to make history seem more relatable and individualized we have to incorporate more stories like that of the Parting Ways community. However, unfortunately these historical sites are likely to be damaged or lost. But, by using the methods found in this document we can analyze and preserve lesser known cultures.

    8. complementary body of information

      Written records are essential to the history of mankind, and as previously stated can also be useful in filling in the holes left by personal verbal accounts. After reading this quote I brainstormed some written resources that could be useful to the historian analyzing a lost or damaged historical site. Here is the list I created: schematics, photographs with descriptions, observations, educational articles, and other public documents.

      Additionally, some questions that written records could address or help to address include the following: Who used these structures? Was the structure made to simply fulfill a basic human need of shelter or did it have a deeper purpose? Was the structure for private use or public use? How was the structure incorporated into the greater cultural environment?

    9. The open cellar hole had all of the appearances of having had a house standing over it in the not too distant past.

      One of the more obvious ways of preserving damaged structures is to use ruins to reconstruct and document the original condition of the building or artifact. Furthermore, the structural ruins can provided additional information, such as the materials used to build the structure, how they were assembled, and the relative time period. This method is essential to our knowledge of historical sites, because every structure will eventually deteriorate no matter whether it is due to a natural disaster or just the passage of time.

    10. Such a seeming conflict is not at all uncommon when dealing with informants, and the discrepancy is mentioned to illustrate - 197 - that complete agreement among all sources is rare indeed.

      This is a great example of the author establishing ethos, or his credibility. More specifically, Deetz is depicting to the reader that he cares about finding accurate sources to convey the correct information.

      Also when using oral history as a method to preserve lost or damaged historical sites it is important to keep this thought in mind. Further, the difference in the stories (due in part to personal perspectives) creates the need for more objective evidence to sort out what is accurate and what is less than accurate. One method of fulfilling this need would be written records. For example, a historian hears two stories: one that the house burned down in a fire and one that recalled the house being demolished by the owner. Which one should the historian believe? Using public records the historian can decipher which story is closer to the truth.

    11. Test excavations in the shallow depression nearby produced a sample of pottery all dating to the main period of occupation of the site, from circa 1790 through circa 1840.

      With much focus on the external structures, it is also important to consider the artifacts located within the sites. One such artifact that is common at most historical locations is pottery. More specifically pottery can be extremely helpful for determining the time period as well as revealing other historical information. For example, what material was the ceramic made out of? Was there anything painted on the surface or symbols carved out of the piece? What do they represent or mean? Other than pottery the historical artifacts could be paintings, books, ceremonial pieces, and garments.

    12. In addition to the article focused on the historical devastation after the earthquake in Italy, I also felt that the Time's article showed the importance of historical preservation, because it helps us to understand our current situation and how we got to this point. Namely, how the historical lives of African Americans contributed to the social inequality present in modern American society.

      The article begins with a discussion of how activists are participating in the political area in order to create change. For example, Black Lives Matter members arranged a meeting with the 2016 presidential candidate Hillary Clinton, as well as questioned her at an Atlanta campaign stop concerning legislation to further their cause. As the article proceeds, the reader finds that the protesters actions had a significant impact on Secretary Clinton when she add stances such as promoting the use of body cameras on police officers, "[denouncing] mass incarceration", and "[refusing] donations from private-prison lobbyists". Further, the activists work continued to sweep the nation using various methods to address not only police brutality, but also other social issues "from gender inequality to the minimum wage to housing and education policy".

      From there, the article then discusses the "accidental" roots of the movement. More specifically, Alicia Garza tweeted “Black people. I love you. I love us. Our lives matter.” after the acquittal of George Zimmerman. Her friend, Patrisse Cullors, later created the hashtag that would transcend the nation. Since the creation, the Black Lives Matter movement has gained momentum through both physical demonstrations and social media resulting in "nearly 30 official chapters, including an outpost in Canada". One of the most active sites of the movement is college campuses. For example, football players at the University of Missouri boycotted the team after the system president "[failed] to address allegations of racism on campus". He was removed shortly there after.

      Although the effects of the Black Lives Movement is contested amongst various groups, there is no question that the movement has made a significant impact on American culture. In order to move forward we must first recognize where we are and how we got there. As I previously mentioned to do this we have to understand where we went wrong and how we can improve. This relates to "Parting Ways', because methods used in the reading can restore and preserve lost information about the condition of African Americans in the past. Additionally, the movement promotes the idea that black lives matter both in the past, present, and future. "Parting Ways" is an example of how historians can preserve the history of all people, no matter their race.

      Altman, Alex. "Black Lives Matter."Time, 2016. Retrieved from http://time.com/time-person-of-the-year-2015-runner-up-black-lives-matter/. Accessed 3 February 2017.

    13. In our world today, other lessons gained from thinking about artifacts might be applicable.

      The historical preservation method used in “Parting Ways” could also be applied to the artifact loss in Italy. On August 24, 2016, “a 6.2-magnitude earthquake struck central Italy” taking the lives of at least 247 people (Sanchez). Along with the loss of life, the earthquake devastated “at least 293 cultural heritage assets” located within the earthquake zone, a huge loss for the Italian people and the history of mankind (Orjoux). As one might expect, the most significant damage was done to central Italy’s historic structures: Catterale di Urbino, Monastero Santa Chiara, San Guilano cathedral, Basilica Di San Franceso, Chiesa di Agostino, Benedictine of Monks of Norcia, and Amatrice’s “historic medieval walls (Orjoux).

      Due to the amount of devastation that occurred, Italy has lost significant, tangible pieces of its history, but using alternative methods, like those explained in “Parting Ways”, historians can use generalizations found in surviving artifacts to apply to the analysis of the ruins. By doing so central Italy’s individual history may be preserved instead of forgotten and incorporated into the mainstream.

      Orjoux, Alanne. “Historical Treasures Lost, Damaged in Italian Quake.” CNN, 25 August 2016, http://www.cnn.com/2016/08/25/europe/italy-earthquake-historic-sites-damaged/. Accessed 26 January 2017.

      Sanchez, Ray. “At Least 247 Killed in Earthquake in Central Italy.” CNN, 25 August 2016, http://www.cnn.com/2016/08/23/europe/italy-earthquake/. Accessed 26 January 2017.

    14. The two concentrations differed from each other. The more northerly one consisted of two sugar jars, a stoneware jug, miscellaneous pressed glass objects, - 207 - and a variety of bottles. One of the sugar jars had a hole broken through the base.

      What exactly were these people looking for? Pieces of shared cultural? Relevance to Anglo-Saxon or African American history? These artifacts, although important, don't seem to reveal much about Parting Ways as a whole.

    15. A discovery made in 1978 not only calls into question the identity of the occupants of the graves, but adds yet one more dimension to the nature of the cultural heritage of the - 206 - Parting Ways residents, in this case a somewhat enigmatic but dramatic one.

      This grave stone is not one to honor these four men who fought for the country. But, despite the boring headstone, slaves didn't usually get any sort of recognition after death. Because they were property and their lives weren't seen as lesser, this headstone might have been very honoring for it's time. It tells of their duties and their land.

    16. Parting Ways is a very special site, in that it was occupied by at least three families of African Americans who were free of those constraints which might have been imposed on them under the institution of slavery.

      Parting Ways seems to serve as a trophy for these 4 men. Although slavery was still very much intact, they were able to make a life for themselves. After the war they were granted the land, were married, and farmed. They more than likely lived a life in poverty, but were able to escape freedom over all.

    17. Although the town clerk's map explicitly designates discrete portions of the ninety-four acres as having been cleared by each of the four men, they still placed their houses close to one another.

      This is something you continuously see throughout history, even though there is plenty of space for the 4 men to live very spaced out, they still choose to place their houses near each other. This might have been for social purposes. Maybe the men were all close personally.

    18. The enlarged house is the one seen in the photograph.

      All though it seemed as though he added a lot to the house, this picture doesn't seem much larger the the drawing previously shown in the story. But because the house was no longer standing, how were they able to tell building infrastructures from two separate times?

    19. If we were to rely only on the documentary sources for our knowledge of the life of the four men who lived at Parting Ways, we would have little on which to proceed.

      At the point in this document I am wondering why this piece of property and these 4 men were so intriguing to the team investigating them. In the beginning of the story Howe and the other 3 men that resided on this property seemed like ordinary men who didn't have much of a history behind their lives.

    20. The ninety-four acres of land on which these four men lived were provisionally granted to Cato Howe in 1792, although there is no record of an outright grant of title to him

      94 acres is quite a bit of land to be granted. These 4 men were given this large piece of land by the government but there was no actual record of it, this seems strange to me. How can such a piece of land go unrecognized? Was it because they were colored men?

    21. but since he was but one of a large army, he shares his anonymity with all the other foot soldiers who have served their country's cause in countless battles from Lexington to Danang. Like them, he returned home after his release from the Army and lived out his life in a modest way

      This statement is very raw. It is very important for Americans to fail to realize just how many soldiers are protecting us. It's not just the fallen or the major names we need to recognize, but every man involved in the Army. Although Howe might have entered the Army to escape his previous life as a slave, it was still a courageous act from him, as well as every other man involved in the battle.

    22. Total Value: 27 dollars.

      Although the dollar had a completely different value in the 1800's, this amount of money shocks me. A cow is worth over $1,000 nowadays and you can't even find a chair for under $20, let alone 5. It is very interesting to see just how different life was just through the value of the dollar.

    23. For my supplemental reading, I chose Historical treasures lost, damaged in Italian quake" on CNN.com. This article speaks of the damages done by the measured 6.2 earthquake in Italy that left many historical buildings damaged. Among those were hundreds of years old cathedrals, basilicas, and churches. This devastating earthquake damaged "293 cultural heritage assets" and 50 of them were completely destroyed.

    24. Again we see a strong parallel with Language

      The comparison between language and the jars is very helpful to the reader, because they are concrete examples of how people can incorporate their cultural identity into the common culture of their surroundings. This, in turn, helps the reader to understand the overall message of the piece. More specifically, that lesser-known cultures are not always as clear cut as they seem, but using the historical methods prevalent in the text, we can get a more accurate historical picture.

    25. While the state saw to it that these people were free, it did little or nothing to provide for their new needs, and subsistence, employment, and housing were difficult to come by.

      This quotes reminds me little of the action of states' rights. The states often find loop holes so they do not have to do something all the way. An example would be during the time that colored people were allowed to vote they decided to make them take literacy tests in order to stop them from voting. Also I learned in the article "States’ Rights & The Civil War" one of the causes of the Civil War was states' right clashing with the political power of the federal government. It is really interesting to see how this is similar to states rights as not giving these people their needs even though they are seen as free. It is sort of like an early echo of the civil rights era. States' Rights & The Civil War. (n.d.). Retrieved February 02, 2017

  3. Jan 2017
    1. A discovery made in 1978 not only calls into question the identity of the occupants of the graves

      This is an example of the nature of history. In other words, like other subjects history is constantly changing and evolving when new information comes to light. This shows the reader that history is messy. In order to create a more cohesive whole from the pieces, educated guessing and generalization may be required. Overall, history is constantly evolving and will continue to evolve as more evidence is found and better methods are instituted.

    2. Battle of Bunker Hill

      American Revolutionary War (1775) - British Victory

      Understanding the historical context of which cultures are located within is the first step of the research process. Without doing the necessary research it would be nearly impossible to get an accurate picture of historical lives. For example, imagine someone looking back on our lives in the future. What if they disregarded the importance of technology in our lives? This would lead to a great misunderstanding. As you can see, understanding the background knowledge is essential to understanding the lives of historical individuals.