1,065 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. eLife assessment

      This valuable study examines a largely ignored brain structure (the thalamus) in functional brain imaging studies. In general, the study shows convincing evidence from the reanalysis of two task-based MRI studies that localized thalamic regions show hub properties in terms of their activation properties and connectivity to cortical regions. While the strength of the study is that converging evidence was shown across two large data sets, the empirical support for some of the claims in the current version remains incomplete.

    1. eLife assessment

      This is a fundamental study that demonstrates that ongoing neuronal activity plays a key role in the vulnerability of specific neuronal cell types in layer 2 of the entorhinal cortex that communicates with the hippocampus. The authors provide compelling evidence that chronic silencing of inhibitory but not excitatory neurons in the entorhinal cortex leads to their degeneration. Reelin-positive interneurons were the most vulnerable to silencing. The authors propose that developmental mechanisms associated with activity-dependent programmed cell death could be aberrantly reactivated in the context of Alzheimer's disease.

    1. eLife assessment

      This manuscript is of primary interest to immunologists with a focus on the effects of interleukin-2 and T cell receptor (TCR) signaling on effector T cell differentiation and function. Extensive and well-controlled experiments support a model where TCR and interleukin-2 signals promote a specific subset of effector CD8+ T cells - termed KILR cells - with superior target cell killing properties.

    1. eLife assessment

      This valuable study presents a new optimal control cost framework to predict features of walking bouts, adding a cost function term proportional to the duration of the walking bout in addition to the conventional energetic term. While predicted optimal trajectories from simulations qualitatively matched walking data from human subjects, the evidence supporting these claims is incomplete, as some methodological choices raise questions about the strength of the authors' claims.

    1. eLife assessment

      This is an important paper that proposes a novel evolutionary mechanism by which copy-number mutations can slow down the accumulation of point mutations in populations evolving in certain environments. The authors use an evolution experiment in bacteria equipped with a clever reporter system to provide solid evidence that this mechanism indeed operates. This paper will be of broad interest to readers in evolutionary biology and related fields.

    1. eLife assessment

      The C-type lectin receptor family recognise pathogens and self-components. Dectin-1 is known to recognize glucan on pathogens. In this fundamental study Dectin-1 and CLEC-2 another - C-type lectin receptor, expressed on platelets - interact through an O-glycosylated ligand presented in the stalk region of Dectin-1. This compelling study demonstrates a potential role for pattern recognition receptors in physiological processes.

    1. eLife assessment

      This study is of relevance to the field of collective animal behavior. The proposed crop-cue-based motion-switching rules provide a welcome alternative to other models that assume far more deliberative abilities of ants, and it will be valuable to add this example to the collective motion and collective decision-making literature. There were several major issues that need addressing, including: overly simplistic models, no connection to similar phenomena in motion ecology and statistical mechanics, potential deficiences in the stochastic modeling approach, as well as some confusing terms and curious citations of the literature.

    1. eLife assessment

      This paper presents findings from a novel experimental study of the dynamics of human overground running on naturalistically uneven terrain. The terrain used in the experiments has mildly stochastic undulating roughness, a condition that closely resembles many natural terrain conditions, such as trail running. The authors present evidence that humans use open-loop intrinsically stable strategies to run on this terrain, and do not visually guided foot placement. The findings make an important contribution toward understanding the context-dependent role of vision in navigating uneven terrain.

    1. eLife assessment

      This paper addresses the long-standing problem of color categorization and the forces that bring it about, which can be potentially interesting to researchers in cognition, visual neuroscience, society, and culture. In particular, the authors show that as a "model organism", a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) trained with the human-labelled image dataset ImageNet for object recognition can represent color categories. The finding reveals important features of deep neural networks in color processing and can also guide future theoretical and empirical work in high-level color vision.

    1. eLife assessment

      The authors collected and analyzed blood samples from >9,000 participants from two cross-sectional cohort studies in the UK, the ALSPAC cohort and the TwinsUK cohort. They measured anti-Nucleocapsid and anti-Spike antibodies using the collected blood samples. They investigated the variation in antibody levels and risk factors for lower antibody levels following each round of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. They identify that following the third vaccination, risk factors associated with low antibody response after the first vaccination are less likely to lead to sub-protective levels. While this finding is of potential importance, the presentation of the data is diffuse and not focused at times, and more discussion is needed to highlight its relevance to the current stage of the pandemic.

    1. eLife assessment

      This paper reports a fundamental set of new results describing replisome organization and dynamics in E. coli. Cellular sites of active DNA replication (forks) spatially co-localize into structures termed replication factories, but the biological rationale for this fork co-localization has remained unknown. In an elegant study, the authors provide strong evidence that these factories are necessary to both coordinate and promote the progression of colocalized forks, and to help prevent them from spontaneously and prematurely dissociating. Through these findings, it is shown, for the first time, that replisomes' association has a beneficial impact on the bacterium. This is important work that provides robust data in favor of the factory and splitting model.

    1. eLife assessment

      This valuable study combines phenotypic analysis, quantitative genetics and population genomics to propose that multiple genes underlie adaptive divergence in a marine midge system linked to tidal rhythm. Genes with a plausible role in perceiving and responding to lunar information are among the loci that most highly differentiate populations with distinct behaviors, but how much of this might be due to demography remains unclear. The evidence from quantitative trait locus is also deemed incomplete at this point.

    1. eLife assessment

      This manuscript is of interest to scientists studying the genetics of complex human diseases. The approach introduced here is potentially useful for the identification of tissues linked to complex disease heritability. Currently, the key claims of the paper are not entirely supported by the data. The claims may become well supported once the authors improve statistical rigor and perform a more comprehensive comparison with other methods.

    1. eLife assessment

      This manuscript provides valuable evidence for the role of magnesium homeostasis and relevant signaling pathway in Drosophila sleep regulation. It will be of interest to cellular biologists and neuroscientists interested in sleep:wake behavior and the potential role of magnesium in promoting sleep. Nevertheless, the evidence for the key claims of the manuscript is incomplete and is not fully supported by the data as reasonable alternative explanations exist.

    1. eLife assessment

      Tran-Van-Minh et al., attempt to develop a statistical approach which will allow consolidation of new, as well as previously-acquired datasets, to yield biologically significant insights into the logic underlying rabies vectors' expansion from single starter cells. While such work is called for, many of the premises presented here will need to be significantly adjusted, before the approach could be put into widespread use.

    1. eLife assessment

      This study presents an important finding on the decoy effect in multiattribute economic choices in humans. It makes a compelling case for the conclusion that the distractor effect reported in previous articles was confounded with the additive utility difference between the available alternatives. Though the contribution is somewhat narrowly focused with respect to the phenomenon that it addresses - the distractor effect in risky choice, it is important for understanding this particular phenomenon. The main weakness is the complexity of the current manuscript.

    1. eLife assessment

      This manuscript provides the first cellular analysis of how neuronal activity in axons (in this case the optic nerve) regulates the diameter of nearby blood vessels and hence the energy supply to neuronal axons and their associated cells. This is an important subject because, in a variety of neurological disorders, there is damage to the white matter that may result from a lack of sufficient energy supply. This paper will stimulate work on this important subject.

    1. eLife assessment

      This is an important study linking metabolic traits and head and neck cancer risk using Mendelian randomisation. The findings, well supported by the data, were inconclusive. This work will be of interest to researchers working in head and neck cancer.

    1. eLife assessment

      This study provides compelling structural evidence on regulation of cerebellar synapses by sleep-wake states. The authors used serial block face scanning electron microscopy to obtain 3D reconstruction of more than 7,000 spines and their parallel fiber synapses in the mouse posterior vermis. The analysis shows that sleep increases the fraction of the 'naked' spines that don't carry a presynaptic partner at Purkinje cells. The authors propose that sleep promotes the pruning of branched synapses to single spines. This is an elegant and thorough study and the observations are important in light of the circuit-specific mechanisms by which sleep modulate synaptic structure and function.

    1. eLife assessment

      This important study describes transcriptomic profiles of sensory and non-sensory cells of the zebrafish inner ear at single-cell resolution in embryonic through adult stages. These solid results catalogue transcriptomic data and show evidence that distinct cell subtypes exist between cells of the ear and the lateral line as well as within subcellular compartments in the inner ear. These findings provide information toward comparison studies of inner ear hair cell function in zebrafish and mammals.

    1. eLife assessment

      This important work presents the mutant analysis of Nazo, the Drosophila homologs of c19orf12, a functionally uncharacterized gene, which is defective in patients suffering from Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA). The results demonstrate a novel function of this gene family in lipid metabolism control and, accordingly, are of potential interest for a broad readership from clinicians to neurobiologists and Drosophila metabolism researchers. While an important role for Nazo in lipid metabolism is well supported, at this stage experimental evidence falls short to convincingly prove the mechanistic model put forward by the authors.

    1. eLife assessment

      This study refuted earlier work on the same subject. The two reviewers felt the manuscript was accurate, concise, and unbiased. The experimental evidence were thorough and supported the conclusions. The reviewers concurred the overall significance and quality of the experimental research were compelling and addressed previous work on this problem.

    1. eLife assessment

      This work reveals that lymphatic vascular development can occur independent of VegfC signaling, and that genetic interactions between a large extracellular matrix protein Svep1 and Tie1 receptor are important for the development of facial lymphatics and other aspects of lymphatic vascular development. The data link Svep1 to Tie1 signaling via elegant genetic experiments and provide important insights into a complex signaling pathway that is widely utilized in vascular development. The genetic evidence is convincing in supporting the findings that Tie1 but not Tie2 interacts with Svep1 in aspects of lymphangiogenesis.

    1. eLife assessment

      This paper is of interest to scientists within the field of RNA silencing and evolution. The data analysis is rigorous, and the conclusions are justified by the data. The key claims of the manuscript provide a compelling approach to identifying and annotating microRNAs in fungi although there is a limitation in the functional validation of the identified miRNAs.

    1. eLife assessment

      The study, using cryo-electron tomography represents a valuable study to the research community, to raise awareness that in vitro-assembled microtubules have more lattice defects than microtubules assembled in cell extracts. However the evidence supporting the claims was incomplete in places and there was not enough data. It is not clear how generalizable these findings are regarding tubulin assembly into microtubules.

    1. eLife assessment

      This valuable study provides solid evidence for a new intervention, exposure to male vs. female olfactory cues, with an impact on female mouse lifespan. This is interesting to the field of aging research, especially since most described pro-longevity interventions to date tend to work better in male mice. Although the data broadly support the claims, additional analyses showing all probed phenotypes are needed to support all claims.

    1. eLife assessment

      Malis et al present a novel sequence attempting to non-invasively measure the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid, which is potentially an important contribution given the growing interest in the glymphatic system. Their reported findings are generally consistent with previous literature and prevailing theories, however, no robust validation of the sequence is supplied rendering the evidence base incomplete.

    1. eLife assessment

      This study represents an important contribution to our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics in France, Europe and globally during the early pandemic in 2020. Through evaluation of the contributions of intra- and inter-regional transmission at global, continental, and domestic levels, the authors explore how international travel restrictions reduced inter-regional transmission while permitting increased transmission intra-regionally. Unfortunately, at this time this work suffers from a number of serious analytical shortcomings, all of which can be overcome with major revisions and re-analysis.

    1. eLife assessment

      The article is of importance to the field of glomerular diseases and rare diseases. The authors propose a link between the inhibition of SGLT2 and lipotoxicity-mediated renal injury in experimental Alport syndrome (AS) by modulation pathways linked to CKD progression, possibly through metabolic adaption in podocytes. Although there is scientific merit in the work presented, the functional analyses are incomplete to support the claim that effects pharmacological effects are mediated through podocytes in Alport Syndrome.

    1. eLife assessment

      This paper is of interest to scientists within the cilia and centrosome fields, in particular those studying photoreceptor and sperm development and the diseases associated with their dysfunction. The authors describe the generation and characteristics of Cep78 knockout mice. Consistent with the phenotype observed in patients carrying mutations in CEP78, Cep78 knockout mice show degeneration in photoreceptor cells as well as male infertility associated with multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF). The phenotypic characterisation of Cep78 knockout mice is thorough and convincing, and the Cep78 knockout model will be useful for further elucidating disease mechanism in humans and for potential therapy development. The authors also provide results suggesting that CEP78 directly interacts with IFT20 and TTC21A (IFT139) to form a trimeric complex, but this claim is not justified by the data provided.

    1. eLife assessment

      This boundary-crossing work on dandelion diaspore flight is an excellent demonstration of how to address fundamental questions about wind dispersal of plant seeds from biophysical and ecological perspectives. Both wind-tunnel experiments and models provide compelling evidence that the aerodynamics of dandelion diaspores change with the environment. Addition of local climate data enables the authors to make a convincing case about how the biophysical properties can scale up to affect dispersal across the landscape under different environmental conditions. In addition to the strong data, this is a clear, accessible, and very enjoyable read.

    1. eLife assessment

      This important paper describes the connectivity of V2a/V2b sibling neurons in the zebrafish spinal cord, where one sibling receives Notch signaling (Notch-ON) and the other does not (Notch-OFF). They find that V2a and V2b siblings have different morphology, inputs, outputs, and are not synaptically connected, unlike findings in the mouse cortex. This work provides new insight into the role of lineage in specifying neuronal connectivity; the experiments are convincing and the conclusions are supported by the data presented.

    1. eLife assessment

      This study revealed the biogenesis of the 3'UTR-derived sRNA GlnZ by RNase E-mediated processing and identified target mRNAs in both E. coli and S. enterica. By introducing point mutations within the predicted seed region of GlnZ and analyzing compensatory mutations in the target mRNAs, the sRNA binding site in those targets could convincingly be mapped. This is an important piece of work and the findings are relevant for researchers within the microbiology and RNA communities and should inspire future studies of 3'derived sRNAs in bacteria. Overall, most of the statements are sufficiently supported by experimental data, but certain amendments to the work are required to fully support the conclusions.

  2. Nov 2022
    1. eLife assessment

      This is a valuable study characterizing seasonal deviations in indoor activity at the county level in the United States with relevance to respiratory disease transmission. Whereas the data are compelling, some of the main claims are only partially supported and need more work. This study and its results are of potential interest to those people constructing more evidence-based infectious disease transmission models.

    1. eLife assessment

      The aims and hypothesis of the study, which addresses the genetic basis of an iconic example of developmental plasticity, are clear, and the experiments are well conducted. The authors propose that a novel gene that arose through gene duplication, REPTOR2, stimulates autophagy to generate wingless aphid morphs. The implication of a novel gene in wing autophagy for the generation of wingless aphids is novel and interesting, but the link between TOR and REPTOR2 requires further support.

    1. eLife assessment

      The authors measure the work output of shrinking mammalian microtubules, reporting results of fundamental importance that advance our mechanistic understanding of how shrinking microtubules exert forces on chromosomes during cell division. Carefully performed, technically advanced experiments and model-based quantitative data analysis provide compelling evidence for the authors' conclusions. This work will be of interest for cell biologists interested in cell division, biophysicists interested in force production by biopolymers, and structural biologists interested in microtubule dynamics.

    1. eLife assessment

      This paper will be of importance to visual neuroscientists, in particular those interested in the functional organization of subcortical visual pathways. The work provides evidence for a much greater diversity of functional cell types in the mouse superior colliculus than previously suggested, and that the functional organization of cell types in the superior colliculus is distinct from that of the retina. These results are based on an impressive data set. However, the conclusions require additional support.

    1. eLife assessment

      The work describes the generation of novel reagents, nanobodies, which are single molecule antibodies from alpacas, which the authors raised against specific domains of two giant fly muscle proteins called Sallimus and Projectin. These nanobodies, combined with the so-called DNA-Paint approach, enabled the authors to reach an unprecedented spatial resolution and define the position of those domains. Thereby, the authors could propose a model for the organization and extent of those proteins along muscle sarcomeres.

    1. eLife assessment

      This is a well-designed study to show how phosphorylation of the intrinsically disordered regions can control their ability to undergo liquid-liquid phase separation and thus impact protein function. The authors report how regulation of the F-BAR-containing protein Cdc15 via phosphorylation impacts its ability to phase separate and promote cytokinesis. This paper is of interest to not just the field of cytokinesis, but also to the general field of protein chemistry which is interested in how phase separation controls protein function.

    1. eLife assessment

      This paper posits that higher uncertainty environments should lead to more reliance on episodic memory, finding compelling evidence for this idea across several analysis approaches and across two independent samples. This is an important paper that will be of interest to a broad group of learning, memory, and decision-making researchers.

    1. Evaluation Summary:

      Cancers have frequently been found to show little evidence for purifying selection in their patterns of mutations. The key observation here is that tumors with low mutation burden show compelling evidence of efficient selection, but that tumors with high mutation burden do not. This is an important finding. The broader implication is that high mutation load tumors carry a substantial deleterious mutation load and may use common strategies to tolerate them, possibly providing a therapeutic target. Overall this work makes important observational and conceptual contributions to cancer genomics.

      (This preprint has been reviewed by eLife. We include the public reviews from the reviewers here; the authors also receive private feedback with suggested changes to the manuscript. Reviewer #1 and Reviewer #3 agreed to share their name with the authors.)

    1. eLife assessment

      The authors use an elegant design to tackle a longstanding question about the extent to which learning social information relies on specialized computational and neural mechanism. They find that learning about ostensible others is more accurate than learning about non-social objects, despite identical statistical information, and that such effects are mediated by the dmPFC and pTPJ - regions previously implicated in social cognition. While likely of interest to a broad range of social, behavioral, and cognitive neuroscientists, the work is not sufficiently framed by relevant previous research. Moreover, the difference between social (faces) and non-social (fruits) stimuli raises concerns about attentional confounds.

    1. eLife assessment

      The authors have used state of the art tools to discover and visualize the role of a known ER-localized lipid hydrolase/acyl transferase (which they call Aphyd) in creating lipids that facilitate the localization of proteins required for mitochondrial fission and fusion at nodal points of interaction between the ER and mitochondria. The data are clear, quantitative and compelling in respect to the role of this protein in the processes of mitochondrial constriction, fission and fusion.

    1. eLife assessment

      Malaria is still one of the world's most deadly diseases because our bodies cannot make appropriate acquired immunity upon Plasmodium infection (the causative agent of malaria). By using animal models of malaria infection and vaccination, this important work shows that Dendritic cells (DCs) have a lower ability to uptake Plasmodium-infected RBCs (particle antigen). This DC dysfunction could be an important reason behind T cell dysfunction in Plasmodium infection. The data presented here convincingly supports the conclusions.

    1. eLife assessment

      Najar et al., present a method for the identification of the emergence of new variants prior to the accompanying surge in cases by examining the trend of accumulated non-synonymous mutations from the original Wuhan 2020 SARS-CoV-2 strain. This is an interesting idea but requires additional evidence to establish this as a robust tool for predictions.

    1. eLife assessment

      This interesting manuscript assesses calcium dynamics in the kisspeptin neurons of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus during the estrous cycle and during reproductive aging in female mice. In particular, the authors succeed in tracking arcuate kisspeptin calcium activity in the same mice over 10 months, which is quite impressive and provides novel findings that will be of interest to the field.

    1. eLife assessment

      This study makes an important contribution to the function of the iron transporter Ferroportin (Fpn). By using a combination of proteoliposome assays, mutagenesis and structural studies by cryo EM, the authors are able to demonstrate that the H+-driven transporter for Fe2+-efflux is also capable of passive Ca2+ influx. The evidence supporting the conclusions is convincing, but the rate of Ca2+ influx and the physiological relevance of Ca2+ entry is yet to be established. The work will be of broad interest to cell biologists and biochemists.

    1. eLife assessment

      This study provides convincing evidence supporting the important finding that acoustic and linguistic features contribute to brain responses as people listen to speech. However, the innovation of the methodological advance relative to other papers in the subfield is not entirely clear.

    1. eLife assessment

      This is a valuable study of Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem maintenance and organ initiation, defining the expression, interactions and functions of four transcription factors (SHR, SCR, JKD, and SCL23) whose roles were initially described in the root apical meristem. The imaging, genetics and FRET-FLIM evidence supporting the claims of the authors is comprehensive, extensive, and solid, although similar mechanisms, protein interactions, and gene regulatory interactions were previously reported in the root. The work will be of interest and importance for plant developmental biologists.

    1. The Console now supports redeclaration of const statement, in addition to the existing let and class redeclarations. The inability to redeclare was a common annoyance for web developers who use the Console to experiment with new JavaScript code.
    1. eLife assessment

      This paper will be of interest to researchers in the field of genomic medicine and cancer mutagenesis. It presents predictive models with potential clinical applications that can identify patients with specific gene dysfunction based on characteristic patterns of mutation. The key findings are well supported.

    1. eLife assessment

      The authors convincingly demonstrate that, in the absence of any shutdowns, the Danish colorectal cancer screening program experienced only minor decreases in program participation during the COVID-19 pandemic period. This likely ensured ongoing program effectiveness in detecting early colorectal cancers and precancerous polyps. The evidence is solid, as the national screening database was used and only a small proportion of participants were excluded.

    1. eLife assessment

      This fundamental work substantially advances our understanding of the kidney interstitium and how it influences kidney development focusing on zebrafish as a model organism. The evidence supporting the conclusions is compelling, using single-cell analysis combined with in vivo zebrafish studies to mechanistically explore the functional importance of the discovery. The work will be of broad interest to cell and developmental biologists as well as the kidney community.

    1. eLife assessment

      Tan and colleagues studied synaptic transmission, presynaptic protein levels, and synaptic ultra-structure in hippocampal cultures of mice lacking the key active-zone proteins RIM (1, 2), ELKS (1, 2), and Munc13 (1, 2). Compared to cultures lacking only RIM and ELKS, additional deletion of Munc13 results in a further decrease of synaptic Munc13-1 levels, a similar reduction of the number of docked synaptic vesicles, and a more pronounced decrease of total synaptic vesicle number. At the physiological level, these RIM-ELKS-Munc13 hextuple knockout cultures display a further decrease in the pool of release-ready synaptic vesicles with largely unchanged release probability compared with RIM-ELKS quadruple KO cultures. The results support the conclusion of the nonredundant role of Munc13 in synaptic vesicle priming. On the other hand, while the genetic removal of all six genes involved clearly require the use of conditional KO mice, the resulting outcome of the experimental design is a hypomorphic phenotype, as neurotransmitter release is still detected and this complicates the interpretation of the findings. Overall, this study reinforces the notion that synapse formation is a remarkably resilient process that occurs even under strong perturbation of presynaptic function.

    1. eLife assessment

      Overall, this is an interesting paper that explains molecular underpinnings of hair cell reprogramming. This paper could have significant implications for our understanding of how different cellular programs can dictate phenotypic outcomes such as hearing.

    1. eLife assessment

      Chemical fixation of cells is ubiquitous in microscopy. However, fixation artifacts can lead the incorrect interpretations of biological processes. In here, Irgen-Gioro et al. show that in the context of liquid condensates formed by liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), paraformaldehyde (PFA) fixation can lead to artifacts such as changes in the number, appearance, or disappearance of liquid condensates, when comparing fixed to live cells. This will be of great interest not only for those in the LLPS field but for cell biologists, in general, using fixed samples for microscopy.

    1. eLife assessment

      This manuscript makes a major contribution to the study of early visual representation in primates by showing that intermediate cortical areas V2 and V4, as well as primary cortical area V1 (previously shown), contain orthogonal maps of orientation and spatial frequency, which are recursive across the visual field representation. This is a fundamental principle of functional mapping across the two-dimensional cortical surface that ensures and optimizes the complete representation of all combinations across two coding dimensions.

    1. eLife assessment

      Auwerx and colleagues take a new approach to mine large datasets of the intermediary molecular data between GWAS and phenotype, touncover molecular mechanisms that lead from a GWAS hit to a phenotypic effect. The approach should be of great use to all (human) geneticists. Revisions are necessary to ensure that the significant findings from this approach are understood by the bioinformatic community and that these methods can be applied generally, given that the paper's main novelty is in its approach to mine large datasets, rather than a specific, key molecular finding.

    1. eLife assessment

      In this study, the authors performed mass cytometry (CyTOF) analysis and T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing to study immune cell composition and expansion of joint-derived Tregs and non-Tregs in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). They studied different joints affected at the same time and found that the composition and functional characteristics of immune infiltrates are strikingly similar between joints within one patient. The research design of this study is appropriate and the methods used in this study are adequately described in the manuscript. The study may be potentially beneficial for the JIA treatment.

    1. eLife assessment

      This article establishes a model experimental bacterial community to represent the microbiome found in ~1/3 of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) with the goal of understanding why these infections do not respond to treatments that are effective in single-species infections. The authors show that susceptibility to the most common antibiotic used against the dominant pathogen P. aeruginosa is different when grown in this mixed community, and a mutant of this pathogen (lasR) that frequently occurs during infections alters this sensitivity. This study is significant for producing an experimental resource for the microbiology of CF, and it could be strengthened by more detailed measures of interactions between species and how the phenotypes produced by lasR alter species interactions.

    1. eLife assessment

      This competently performed retrospective analysis presents important findings concerning the clinical use of tafenoquine, a drug against Plasmodium vivax malaria. The assembly of the majority of global tafenoquine pharmacology data from clinical treatment studies provides compelling evidence in support of the drug's regimen that includes an increase in dosing, which would lead to a significant enhancement of the drug efficacy, hence a decrease in recurrent parasitemia. The manuscript could benefit from a more detailed analysis and discussion concerning the side effects of the drug affecting more susceptible populations.

    1. eLife Assessment

      The paper pushes the known preservation of ancient proteins, and their successful recovery, into the late Miocene. The results of the study also have implications for avian taxonomic classification. The findings reported in the paper are a welcome addition to the field of paleoproteomics and encourage future research on ancient proteins in deep antiquity and across various taxa. The paper will be of great interest to paleoscientists.

    1. eLife assessment

      This paper deploys elegant genetic tools to understand how synapses are formed in the Drosophila central nervous system. The synaptic connections between two identified neurons in the Drosophila central nervous system are used as a system to document the role of cell ablation and activity in dendrite growth and circuit wiring. In so doing, they identify a brief window of time that appears critical for these wiring and growth decisions.

    1. eLife assessment

      This article shows how the COVID-19 pandemic affected cervical cancer screening participation in the organized screening program of Denmark. Through registry data covering the entire population, the study shows that while short-term (90 days) participation after invitation dropped, long-term (365 days) participation remained stable. These results will be of interest to public health specialists and researchers working on pandemic recovery efforts related to cancer screening worldwide.

    1. eLife assessment

      Acute inflammation in mammals activates the hypothalamic pituatary axis leading to increased glucocorticoid release, which is required to restrain the inflammatory response. However, in settings of severe or prolonged inflammation, such as that seen in sepsis, there is reduced adrenal steridogenesis. The studies described in this paper provide a plausible mechanism for adrenal resistance which develops during excessive inflammation.

    1. eLife assessment

      Neverov and colleagues analyze patterns of correlated changes of amino acids in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to identify networks of interacting positions using an improved version of the previously validated method. Identifying such patterns of co-evolution is important for a better understanding of spike-protein evolution. The evidence for the identified co-evolving pairs is solid, though the degree of certainty varies among the different identified groups of potentially interacting positions.

    1. eLife assessment

      This paper is expected to be of interest to systems neuroscientists in the fields of emotion, hippocampal function, and anxiety-related behavior. The authors performed recordings in ventral hippocampus and show that 1) place fields become concentrated near the open areas of a maze, 2) direction-dependent coding decreases in these open areas, and 3) ventral hippocampal population activity in the closed area can be used to predict how mice explore the open area in the immediate future. These valuable findings support a potential role for the ventral hippocampus in the exploration of anxiety-provoking environments, however, the manuscript in its current form is incomplete, with some support for the main findings but also some limitations.

    1. eLife assessment

      This is a useful study exploring multi-modality brain age (structural plus resting state MRI) in people in the early stages or at risk of Alzheimer's disease. They found solid evidence that people with cognitive impairment had older-appearing brains and that older-appearing brains were related to Alzheimer's risk factors such as amyloid and tau deposition. They claim to show that the multi-modality brain age model is more accurate than a unimodal structural MRI model, though the evidence for that is incomplete.

    1. eLife assessment

      This is an important and fundamental, well-written and easily comprehended quantitative imaging study, analyzing the motion of endo-lysosomal compartments within axons in vivo using simultaneous multiphoton imaging in the mammalian brain. Taken together, this is a significant technical advance with interesting observations that substantively move the field forward.

    1. eLife assessment

      Hebart et al., present a new massive multi-model dataset to support the study of visual object representation, including data measured from functional magnetic resonance imaging, magnetoencephalography, and behavioral similarity judgments. The general, condition-rich design, conducted over a thoughtfully curated and sampled set of object concepts will be highly valuable to the cognitive/computational/neuroscience community, yielding data that will be amenable to many empirical questions beyond the field of visual object recognition. The dataset is accompanied by quality control evaluations as well as examples of analyses that the community can re-run and further explore for building new hypotheses that can be tested with such a rich dataset.

    1. eLife assessment

      This manuscript from Ramírez-Flandes will be of interest to marine biologists, deep ocean ecologists, conservation biologists, and biogeographers. At times, the comparison of merely a pair of samples or sampling locales can substantially widen our view of biological and ecological systems and processes. In the case of this study, the pattern of metazoan diversity from eDNA samples from across the water columns in comparable series from two deep trench systems (to below 8000 m) is markedly different, including evidence of substantial biological diversity deep in the Atacama Trench (to a much greater extent than observed in the Kermadec Trench), contradicting existing paradigms about biodiversity potential in abyssal-hadal regions.

    1. eLife assessment

      This work investigates the cellular and cerebellar origins of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) phenotypes. One human chromosome 21 gene is Pericentrin (PCNT), encoding a component of the centrosome. The authors use several models with 3 or 4 copies of human chromosome 21 (or mouse equivalents) to reveal how increasing PCNT gene dosage alters ciliogenesis and ciliary signaling.

    1. eLife assessment

      McKay, et al. describe development of a new wireless, network-enabled automated feeder system with which diet amount and schedule can be controlled across individually housed killifish. The system is constructed using open-source components and software and is amenable to manufacture by individual research groups and is highly scalable. The authors then use this system to explore dietary restriction effects on killifish lifespan and to develop an associative learning assay, two important goals in the KF /longevity field. The authors demonstrate that precise control of food allows automated investigation of lifespan extension under calorie restriction conditions. Secondly, they show an exciting modification of the system that involves only addition of a simple LED light. This modification allows use of the system in an associative learning / conditioning paradigm. Finally, using this paradigm, they demonstrate an age-dependent decline in learning.

    1. eLife assessment

      This study describes a previously unrecognized positive feedback loop between leukemic cells and stromal cells impeding normal hematopoiesis mediated by lymphotoxin produced by cancer cells and its receptor expressed in stromal cells. These valuable findings will guide future research in both basic and clinical medicine. However, additional experimental evidence including more comparator groups would have further substantiated the authors' conclusions.

    1. eLife assessment

      This manuscript characterizes the localization and function of two proteins promoting division asymmetry in developing stomata of the grass Brachypodium distachyon. The authors demonstrate that the opposing polarity domains of these proteins are linked to cell division orientation. While both proteins have been studied previously in other systems, there was no prior evidence of cooperative functions in a single cell type, as shown here. With further clarification of some of the localization findings, this study will be of strong interest to plant cell biologists and those interested in asymmetric cell division generally.

    1. eLife assessment

      This study provides compelling evidence for the involvement of RAM pathway in the survival of C. neoformans in high CO2 concentrations. The work is important to understand how this fungus adapts to the high CO2 concentrations in host tissues. The experimental approach combines genetic and biochemical approaches to explore a complex topic that is of essential for cryptococcal pathogenesis.

    1. eLife assessment

      The authors re-analyzed a previously published dataset and identify patterns suggestive of increased bacterial biodiversity in the gut may creating new niches that lead to gene loss in a focal species and promote generation of more diversity. Two limitations are (i) that sequencing depth may not be sufficient to analyze strain-level diversity and (ii) that the evidence is exclusively based on correlations, and the observed patterns could also be explained by other eco-evolutionary processes. The claims should be supported by a more detailed analysis, and alternative hypotheses that the results do not fully exclude should be discussed. Understanding drivers of diversity in natural microbial communities is an important question that is of central interest to biomedically oriented microbiome scientists, microbial ecologists and evolutionary biologists.

    1. eLife assessment

      This paper is of broad interest to infer the causal effect of exposures on outcomes. It proposed an interesting idea for the identification of risk factors amongst highly correlated traits in a Mendelian randomization paradigm. The intuition for this method is clearly presented. However, critical details about implementation are missing and its application is not sufficiently demonstrated in the current form.

    1. eLife assessment

      This manuscript is relevant to experimental and theoretical neuroscientists interested in the trade-off between chaos and reliability in the brain, and may also pique the interest of the machine learning community, particularly those seeking to understand the computational capacity of recurrent neural networks. The findings are valuable, with practical and theoretical implications for this subfield. Using a spiking neural network model firmly anchored in experimental data from the turtle brain, the authors examine the reliability and flexibility of spike train sequences and determine the differential roles of strong and weak connections. The results show clearly that strong but sparse connections in a sub-network can produce a highly reliable response to single spikes, with reliability and multiplexing across sub-networks controlled by weak connectivity. The strength of evidence for the claims is convincing, using appropriate and validated methodology in line with current state-of-the-art.

    1. eLife assessment

      This report illustrates the marked alteration of red blood cell (RBC) morphology that occurs with COVID-19 infection. Of particular importance is the observation that RBC morphology is dramatically affected whether cells are suspended in plasma from healthy vs COVID-infected blood. The claims of the manuscript are well supported by the data, and the approaches used are thoughtful and rigorous. The results are important for consideration of the broader pathophysiology of COVID-19, particularly with regard to the impact on vascular biology.

    1. eLife assessment

      This paper directly estimates the fitness cost of loss-of-function mutations in almost every gene in the human genome, providing an interpretable measure of the severity of mutations. The authors then compare datasets of presumably healthy individuals and individuals affected by severe complex disorders or genetic disorders, finding enrichment of de novo loss-of-function mutations in highly constrained genes among probands alongside other illuminating results. This important study will be useful to researchers interested in interpreting and prioritizing disease-causing mutations and in the process of human evolution. Overall, the approach is elegant and the results are of high quality and compelling.

    1. eLife assessment

      In this manuscript, the authors address the variable results and data regarding the role of the FAAH variant (C385A at the nucleotide level and P129T at the protein level) in the control of feeding. The authors hypothesize that the variable results might be due to the environmental context, specifically stress related conditions. They designed studies to address the role of glucocorticoids in regulating feeding and metabolism.

    1. eLife assessment

      In this study the authors show that neural tuning for object orientation in IT is unaffected by whole-body tilt, suggesting that neurons are encoding objects relative to the gravitational vertical. However, these observations could also be because IT neurons may encode object orientation relative to cues and not due to gravity, or due to dynamic, compensatory torsional eye movements made by the animals. With these concerns adequately addressed, this would be an important study showing that IT neurons may play a role not only in object recognition but more broadly in physical scene understanding.

    1. eLife assessment

      This fundamental work reveals a novel direct projection from the lateral entorhinal cortex to the medial entorhinal cortex. Using multiple techniques, the authors provide compelling evidence that fan cells from the lateral entorhinal cortex project to superficial neurons in the medial entorhinal cortex. This newly identified connection may support the combination of spatial inputs with sensory or high-order signals, providing novel insight into potentially how the 'what' (lateral entorhinal cortex) and 'where' (medial entorhinal cortex) features of memory are incorporated.

    1. eLife assessment

      This paper will be of interest to those studying DNA replication in the context of chromatin and development. This important study uncovers a new interaction partner for the chromatin protein SuUR and tries to understand how this complex (SUMM4) functions to control under-replication in polytene chromosomes. While the experiments are of high quality and carefully controlled, the data currently do not fully support all the conclusions, particularly as they relate to conclusions about DNA replication timing.

    1. eLife Assessment

      In this manuscript, Sell et al., investigate the role of the long non-coding RNA H19 in regulating cellular senescence. Using several cell models they identify upstream and downstream effectors of H19 including let-7 and EZH2. The advances in this work include the identification of a specific cascade of factors connecting H19, senescence and the actions of rapamycin.

    1. eLife assessment

      This study presents a valuable finding that adds to a growing body of evidence reporting heritable cell states that can guide fate choices in single cells, in this case the fate of early IFN-I response. The evidence supporting the claims of the authors is solid, although testing the generalizability of the result to other cell types or contexts and strengthening the link to epigenetic regulation would have strengthened the study. Overall, this work will be of interest to a wide set of scientists, including cell biologists, immunologists, and systems biologists.

    1. eLife assessment

      This important study reports cryo-EM structures of human ferroportin (FPN), a protein essential for iron transport in humans. This manuscript will be of interest to researchers studying membrane transport mechanisms as well as to those interested in drug design. The structures detail interactions between FPN and the small-molecule inhibitor vamifeport, which is currently in clinical trials for sickle cell disease, and ta new (occluded) protein conformation that is stabilized by a sybody (a nanobody selected from a synthetic library) is identified. Evidence for the mechanism of inhibition by vamifeport is convincing, but evidence for the physiological relevance of the occluded conformation is still incomplete.

    1. Aral Balkan's personal (single-user) Mastodon instance costs him ~50 EUR per month to run.

    1. eLife assessment

      This manuscript is extremely useful for describing an R package that provides a valuable pattern and overlay framework for producing colorblind-friendly scatter plots for the field. The utility of this tool for making plots more accessible was demonstrated compellingly. This work will be of broad interest to many biomedical scientists, especially to viewers with color-vision deficiency.

    1. eLife assessment

      The authors investigate the cost and benefits of maintaining seemingly redundant multiple copies of the translation machinery components. The authors demonstrate that while redundant multiple copies are beneficial in a nutrient-rich environment, maintaining these extra copies is costly and deleterious in a nutrient-poor environment. This explains why copy numbers of translation machinery genes are under selection according to the environmental niche an organism occupies. The work is very important and the findings exciting and supported by compelling evidence. In particular, the fitness gain upon deletion of translation genes in poor conditions is an insightful observation.

    1. eLife assessment

      Giesberg and colleagues provide evidence both in yeast and human cells that fast elongation speeds of RNA polymerases result in a "downstream-shifted" poly(A) profile while the opposite is true for slower speeds of elongating polymerases. GC content of sequences downstream of poly(A) clusters influences the cluster profiles by affecting elongation and thus allowing more time for the 3'-cleavage complex to find the poly(A) site and form the transcript terminus. Although the findings presented in this manuscript are not surprising, they are new and contribute a missing piece to our knowledge of how the transcription machinery determines which poly(A) site to utilize at the end of genes.

    1. eLife assessment

      As shown by the authors, the focal adhesion protein, kindlin-2, plays an essential role in liver development in that its genetic inactivation leads to severe fibrosis and death in young mice. This lethality is attributed to increased liver inflammation and cell death. This work will be of interest to readers studying mechanisms of liver development and pathological fibrosis.

    1. eLife assessment

      The authors use a clever experimental design and approach to tackle an important set of questions in the field of decision-making. From this work, the authors have a number of intriguing results. However, questions remain regarding the extent to which a number of alternative models and interpretations, not considered in the paper, could account for the observed effects.

    1. eLife assessment

      The authors report that, in the murine liver, intermittent fasting alters the homeostatic regenerative programme. This has fundamental implications for the use of murine models to study liver regeneration and cancer and highlights through a series of solid mechanistic studies the role of FGF/Wnt signalling interactions in modulating fasted associated regeneration. It opens up further questions as to why this occurs, how this is beneficial to adapting to a fasting state, and the potential for translation.

    1. eLife assessment

      This study, supported by reasonably solid evidence, will be of interest to breast cancer researchers. The finding that EHD2 promotes tumor growth and impacts store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) adds to our understanding of breast cancer cell physiology. If supported by further research, the study provides a rationale for using SOCE inhibitors in a subset of breast cancers, with high expression of EHD2 serving as a potential predictive biomarker for using SOCE inhibitors.

    1. eLife assessment

      The paper will be of interest to cognitive neuroscientists in the field of spatial navigation as well as to systems neuroscientists interested in neural representations. Using simultaneous electrophysiological recordings in the anterior thalamus and the retrosplenial cortex, the study investigates the coordination of neurons coding for the head direction in this thalamocortical network. Environmental manipulations led to a near-synchronous update of the head direction signal encoded by the two populations. Further data analysis is needed to support the main claim of the study.

    1. eLife assessment

      This paper, which provides useful information on the assembly of volume-regulated anions channels formed by LRRC8 proteins, will be of interest scientists in the field of ion channels. The authors report the structure of a LRRC8C-LRRC8A chimera with native functional properties as a heptameric complex with a lipid-filled pore. This is very interesting and well-presented work, but the evidence supporting the physiological relevance of the heptameric assembly and the hypothesized role of lipids is still incomplete.

    1. eLife assessment

      This is an important study that resolves a controversy about a proposed molecular linkage between the fields of mechanobiology and RNA signaling. While prior research had claimed that a specific mechanosensitive ion channel in the gut responds to a specific fecal RNA, this study provides compelling evidence that the mechanosensitive ion channel does not respond to the RNA.

    1. eLife assessment

      This paper will interest neuroscientists working in the field(s) of basal ganglia, amygdala, and fear learning. Overall this is an important study that examines the contribution of an understudied brain region to fear conditioning in male subjects. Some conclusions will benefit from additional verification and evaluation of the specificity of the findings to the amygdala-striatal transition zone relative to adjacent regions.

    1. eLife assessment

      The fluorescently tagged SYT-1 mouse line will be useful for the field. Importantly, the authors used a comprehensive set of immunohistochemical and physiological experiments to demonstrate that the fluorescence tagging did not alter the function of SYT-1. These are important control experiments that will make the strain useful for physiological experiments in the future. However, the advance of this manuscript is less clear.

    1. eLife assessment

      This paper provides important evidence for the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer screening for breast, cervix, and colorectal cancer in Italy. The authors compared Invitation and examination coverage, as well as conducted telephone interviews, investigated the population screening test coverage, before and during the pandemic, according to educational attainment, perceived economic difficulties and citizenship. Their findings convincingly show that the lockdown and pandemic restrictions caused delays in screening activities but particularly increased the pre-existing individual and geographical inequalities in access.

    1. eLife assessment

      The paper describes an online tool, CausalCell, intended for the analysis of causal links in single-cell datasets. Regarding its significance, this work is timely and important, with potentially broad applications as a generally useful tool. However, there are major concerns about the suitability of the tool for its intended purpose, and the extent of validation in the current manuscript is incomplete.

    1. eLife assessment

      This paper provides valuable evidence for a weakening of the association between cognitive ability and height from 1957 to 2018 in the UK. The authors find the strength of the association declined over this time frame. These associations were further attenuated after accounting for proxy measures of social class. This paper is a solid contribution to debates about how genetic, environmental, and social factors have affected the joint distribution of height and cognitive ability over the last 60 years.

    1. eLife assessment:

      This study by Li et al describes an interesting attempt to predict the functional status of the p53 tumor suppressor in tumors where no DNA mutations in p53 could be identified. To this end, the authors employed SVM models to train the algorithm for the detection of 'p53 inactivation' features contrasting normal and tumor tissues. The approach could be a valuable tool for attributing tumors with unknown p53 status. The authors provide solid evidence supporting their findings and the concept of the study is solid, but in its current formulation, some of the bioinformatic analyses are incomplete, particularly related to the selection of associated genes and the potential mechanism(s).

    1. eLife assessment

      NOX2 is the most well-studied member of the NADPH oxidase family, membrane enzymes that produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the proper function of NOX2 is critical for innate immunity against pathogens in mammals. This study reports a high-resolution structure of the NOX2-p22 complex, providing valuable information for a mechanistic understanding of NOX2 activation at the molecular level.

    1. eLife assessment

      In this study, Hung et al. address the biology and therapy of chondrosarcoma. The authors provided high-quality data that uncovered a new signaling axis, EZH2/hSULF1/c-Met, that promotes chondrosarcoma growth and progress. The authors also reported evidence showing that c-Met inhibition may be a plausible treatment option for chondrosarcoma. The findings are novel and translational and are of interest to cancer biologists and oncologists.

    1. eLife assessment

      Sodium selenate reduced seizures when administered after initiation of epilepsy, complementing earlier work showing efficacy if administered before initiation. The novelty of the results is not much more than the earlier study. Sodium selenate reduced phospho-tau and increased PP2A protein expression, and reversed TLE-associated telomere-shortening. However, whether these effects were critical to the reduced seizures is not clear. Finally, proteome and metabolome data from the animal model of epilepsy is discussed and provide initial insights into the effects of sodium selenate treatment on molecular pathology, however, the data are not well developed so revisions along these lines will be important so conclusions can be made.

    1. eLife Assessment:

      Predicting the effect of mutations on protein stability is important both for protein engineering and for helping to decipher the effects of genetic and clinical mutations. The machine learning methodology introduce here is timely in view of the millions of AlphaFold model structures that are now becoming available, which could hypothetically be examined through approaches such as this one. The methodology presented is valuable, but the manuscript would benefit from a substantial amount of comparative data to provide more compelling evidence for the validity of the methods.

    1. eLife assessment

      This manuscript addresses the mechanism of ligand specificity of odorant receptors (OR) through mutational analyses and structure prediction. The authors identify a single amino acid substitution that switches ligand specificity between two olfactory receptors. Obtaining structures of OR complexes has been challenging, so such an approach is valuable and will be of interest to scientists within the fields of chemical ecology and sensory neuroscience.

    1. eLife assessment

      The manuscript makes an important contribution to understanding the roles of the bee host and microbiome in degrading amygdalin, a dietary secondary metabolite. Several bacterial strains and their enzymes responsible for the deglycosylation of amygdalin are identified. Conclusions are reached convincingly through a comprehensive combination of in vitro and in vivo experiments including gene-expression analysis, proteomics, HPLC-MS, and the use of recombinant E. coli to test enzyme function. As the consequences of microbial-derived amygdalin metabolisation on host health remain uncertain from the experiments conducted, the manuscript could be improved through a clearer discussion of future work needed and in parts more careful wording to not prematurely suggest benefits to the host.

    1. eLife assessment

      This paper is of potential interest to neuroscientists expert in cortical circuitry and behavioral role of neuron types. The imaging technique used permitted to detect a specific group of cortical neurons known as vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing interneurons from several cortical regions with high temporal resolution. The main message conveyed by this manuscript is that many VIP-expressing interneurons respond to reward and punishment but also show regional differences. The conclusions drawn are generally supported by the data, but some claims and interpretations require further attention and clarification.

    1. eLife assessment

      This large-scale collaborative study is a timely contribution that will be of interest to researchers working in the fields of infectious disease forecasting and epidemic control. This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of the predictive skills of real-time COVID-19 forecasting models in Europe. The conclusions of the paper are well supported by the data and are consistent with findings from studies in other countries.

    1. eLife assessment

      In this valuable contribution, the authors apply an artificial intelligence method to predict the three-dimensional structure of complexes of outer membrane proteins of the Gram-negative bacterium E. coli. Some of the cases presented are compelling, as they explain previously published biochemical data and/or reproduce existing structural data.

    1. eLife assessment

      The authors provided strong evidence that the Fusarium oxysporum effector protein FolSpv1 enhances virulence by targeting tomato SlPR1 and preventing the generation of the SlPR1-derived phytocytokine CAPE1, which otherwise positively regulates disease resistance in tomato plants. Strikingly, they show that FolSpv1 translocates SlPR1 from the apoplast back into the nucleus of tomato cell, suggesting a previously unknown mechanism employed by pathogenic microbes.

    1. eLife assessment

      The work, which examines how Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs), commonly found in processed and other cooked foods, affect eating behavior and signaling in the nematode C. elegans, is in a fundamentally important area of research with clear translational potential for humans. Some aspects of the manuscript are compelling, including the well-characterized assays on food intake, while other aspects are still incomplete, such as the mechanistic work on the neural network responsible for the response to AGEs.

    1. eLife assessment

      This is an important and timely characterization of a diversity of behaviors male and female rats exhibit during the acquisition of Pavlovian fear conditioning in a conditioned suppression procedure. The data are compelling and provide an exhaustive analysis of behavior in a complex associative learning paradigm that blends aversive Pavlovian and appetitive instrumental elements. The generalizability of these findings to other paradigms could be enhanced, however, with the inclusion of tests of cue responses in a neutral environment. These findings are likely to be of interest to those who study fear conditioning and associative learning more broadly in rodents.

    1. eLife assessment

      Primates perceive and detect stimuli differently depending on the stimulus context in which they are embedded, and have a remarkable ability to understand the way in which objects and parts of objects are embedded in natural scenes (scene segmentation). An example of this is figure-ground segmentation, a well documented phenomenon resulting in a "pop-out" of a figure region and corresponding enhanced neural firing rates in visual areas. It is unknown whether mice show similar behavioral and neural signatures as primates. The present study suggests that mice show different segmentation behavior than primates, lacking texture-invariant segmentation of figures and corresponding neural correlates. This reveals a fundamental difference between primates and mice important for researchers working on these species and researchers studying scene segmentation. The findings are further interpreted in terms of neural network architectures (feedforward networks) and are relevant for this field too.

    1. eLife assessment

      This study modeled monkeys' behavior in a stimulus-response rule-learning task to show that animals can adopt mixed strategies involving inference for learning latent states and incremental updating for learning action-outcome associations. The task is cleverly designed, the modeling is rigorous, and importantly there are clear distinctions in the behavior generated by different models, which makes the authors' conclusions convincing. The study makes a strong contribution overall, however, there were aspects of the design that were unclear and some alternative accounts that were not considered.

    1. eLife assessment

      It's been widely known that the amino acid Glycine can work as a cytoprotectant and inhibit pyroptosis-associated plasma membrane rupture. However, a long-standing question has been: how does Glycine cytoprotection work? The authors observed that Glycine treatment phenocopied deficiency of NINJ1 (a recently reported cell surface molecule critical for plasma membrane rupture), and can inhibit aggregation of NINJ1. Understanding the intrinsic mechanism by which Glycine affects NINJ1 could provide a significant advance in the cell death field.

    1. eLife assessment

      The study by Kim et al. combines extracellular recordings from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in locusts with computational modelling approaches to investigate the dynamics of odour responses. The authors demonstrate that OSN responses can be grouped into four distinct response motifs, with OSNs showing different motifs in an odour-dependent manner. Using computational modelling the authors provide some evidence that these diverse response motifs expand the coding space and could facilitate odour discrimination and navigation. This study can be of high relevance to both experimental and theoretical neuroscientists investigating odour coding and odour-driven behaviours such as navigation. In its present form, while the experimental data and analysis are of the highest quality, the modelling part needs to be expanded to fully support the experimental measurements.