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  1. Jan 2023
    1. Preface

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    1. Fugitive Pedagog

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    1. Preface: A New Grammar for Black Education

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  4. Nov 2022
    1. ose and Content•Purpose for Learning and Criteria for Success •Specific Expectations•Explanations of Content •Use of Academic L


  5. Sep 2016
  6. Jul 2016
    1. The principal of the Textile Industrial Institute was keenly aware of the speech which marked town and mill people as distinct from each other. When he moved among the millworkers, he shifted his talk to their ways.

      Did the difference in speech create this distinction, or what it created by it?

    2. Gradually, millowners' zeal for reform of the "mill problem" enabled them to support child labor laws and compulsory schooling. North Carolina passed its first compulsory attendance law in I907; South Carolina followed in I 9 I 5.

      Compulsory education was driven by disrespect and fear of the poor workers and their children, in many ways. As seen below, this even drove the "surge of enthusiasm" for adult education.


    1. Though T rackton residents acknowledge the benefits of "the great improvement," they do not rhemselves take part in any aspect of the political process which town blacks proclaim as a major result of "changin' times."

      What does improvement look like with and without political involvement. Makes me think about the book "How the Irish became White"

    2. oes not speak of the cooperation of earlier days when the extended family lived on the farm or in the condemned housing on the edge of Gateway

      cooperation vs. individualism

    3. She sees schooling and success in school as the way to make these hopes and dreams come to reality

      schooling is the way to "move up"

    4. But, in general, Trackton residents, even the respectables, view their stay in Trackton as temporary and choose not to spend money and effort on their present homes.

      This view of "temporary stay" as you "move up" shows how the "american dream" is embedded within the cultural resistance to the conditions.

    5. Parents fear early boy-girl involvement will deny their children an opportunity to benefit from schooling. Beyond the toddler stage, play and social activities are strictly sex-segregated (and age-graded when possible).

      An interesting way to look at why parents fear mixed-gender play and participation... it could turn into a pregnancy, which would effectively end both the boy and the girls possibility to finish school.

    6. The way ahead Roadville folks have very definite notions of how to get ahead:

      Interesting... ahead of whom, or what? The colloquial phrase Heath implies economic and social "aheadedness"

    7. They also link the ability to do for oneself -to garden, sew, can, do woodworking, and maintain their homes -to moral qualities: thriftiness, industry, independ-ence, and a proper use of God-given talents.

      This is important here. I'm interested in how "moral qualities" is fleshed out past this list.

    8. They like to talk about old times but do not spend their days lamenting their passing. Instead they keep busy using the talents and enthusiasm for hard work and family recreation those days fostered in them.

      An interesting distinction made here: between "lamenting" and talking. But how true is this for all oldtimers? Or does this passage tell us that Heath is defining oldtimers as those who talk about old times, but also keep busy?

    9. Map 2. Readville I Mrs. Dee and daughter 2 Sue Dobbs and children 3 Mrs. Dee's son and his wife 4 Smith family 5 Macken family Mull Road "Gettin' in two communities 6 Mrs. Dee's daughter and h

      This map is a great companion to the text here. It really helps me see, and make sense of, the community Heath is describing.


    1. hus, the question of how "scientific" this work is will have to depend on each reader's conceptions of science and valuation of long-term participation and observation in accounting for the ways of life of particular groups of people in their communities and schools.

      as is always true

    2. Because ethnographic research, especially in education, is cur-rently undertaken by a variety of scholars from a range of disciplines, there is some general sense of a search for a model.

      trying to make sense of what "model" means here. I guess its just saying as a model for how to do a similar ethnography, so Heath can directly address the idea that this is not that.

    3. Prologue

      is this working?


  7. Jan 2016
    1. Food Stamp recipients didn’t cause the financial crisis; recklessness on Wall Street did.


    2. Of course, a great education isn’t all we need in this new economy.

      why can't we frame this as a society, not economy?

    3. we should recruit and support more great teachers for our kids


    4. The bipartisan reform of No Child Left Behind was an important start, and together, we’ve increased early childhood education, lifted high school graduation rates to new highs, and boosted graduates in fields like engineering.

      I completely disagree with this. NCLB did much more harm than good.

    5. It’s made it harder for a hardworking family to pull itself out of poverty,

      "pull itself" reinforcing the "bootstrap" metaphor of climbing out of poverty individually instead of working together.

    6. As a result, workers have less leverage for a raise. Companies have less loyalty to their communities. And more and more wealth and income is concentrated at the very top.

      Should lead to a revitalization of Union workforce, not its decline

    7. private-sector job creation in history

      "private sector" is key here.

    8. And finally, how can we make our politics reflect what’s best in us, and not what’s worst?

      By reversing Citizen's United, to start

    9. It is the result of choices we make together. And we face such choices right now.

      really interested in who he means by "we" throughout.

    10. We did not, in the words of Lincoln, adhere to the “dogmas of the quiet past.”

      This is a phenomenal quote. If only we could actually live up to it...

  8. Nov 2015
    1. This results in changes to learning that often confound adults who relish the environments with which they are familiar and in which they had opportunities to learn. When teens engage with networked media, they’re trying to take control of their lives and their relationship to society. In doing so, they begin to understand how people relate to one another and how information flows between people. They learn about the social world, and as Bianca points out, they develop social skills.

      Therefore, it is important for us as educators to better understand these new and different ways of learning.

    2. n many communities, parenting norms focus on limiting chil-dren’s access to public places, keeping an eye on their activities, and providing extensive structure.

      How does this contribute to the construction of public spaces?

    3. After a teen girl in North Carolina used Facebook to complain about her father, her father responded by posting an irate video on YouTube in which he reads a letter he wrote to his daughter and then fires a gun at his daughter’s laptop.1

      that's not a rational response

    4. But instead of prompting a productive conversation, addic-tion rhetoric positions new technologies as devilish and teenagers as constitutionally incapable of having agency in response to the temp-tations that surround them.

      I really like this framing in thinking about teens; they are not inssatiable monsters who cannot control themselves.

    1. Yet in practice, both privacy and pub-licity are blurred.
    2. hen parents choose to hover, lurk, and track, they implicitly try to regulate teens’ practices. Parents often engage in these acts out of love but fail to realize how surveillance is a form of oppression that limits teens’ ability to make independent choices

      This is an important theoretical point. In some ways, I would argue that Foucault's sense of power works more to describe the inter-teen disciplining that happens around what is write and what is wrong to do online.

    3. Instead, she believes that she can achieve privacy by choosing what not to share.

      What informs that choice?

    4. Controlling a social situation in an effort to achieve privacy is nei-ther easy nor obvious. Doing so requires power, knowledge, and skills.

      This is an important point. We need to recognize this set of power, knowledge and skill in order to understand how teens think about privacy and the internet. Then we can work on their terms to find a safety that many seek.

    1. In the new generation of virtual worlds such as Whyville.net andTeen Second Life, the shift to player-generated content has resulted in a fundamentalshift of power, responsibility, and opportunity (Jenkins, 2006

      This becomes more of a "networked public sphere" as Benkler describes. See his free pdfed book here:


    2. Since this time, Whyville has provided morediversity in avatar looks for first-time newbies

      In this instance, the community fostered change through democratic discourse. Thinking through that in an LPP framework shows that the community of practice continues to evolve and norm, and question parts of its practice.

    3. Taken together, these four articles paint a picture of the kind of experimen-tation with avatar race that can go on in Whyville and the community reaction topostings about them.

      Is there any point in there where cultural/racial appropriation plays a part? should this experimentation, i.e. a "white person in real life" switching their avatar to black, be encouraged or frowned upon?

    4. Gee suggeststhat we need to distinguish between real, virtual, and projective identities when dis-cussing the role of online worlds in identity construction. Gee describes the ‘‘real’’identity as who you are as a person off-line and the ‘‘virtual’’ identity as the avatarfigure that you select or create online. The ‘‘projective’’ identity is produced in theinteraction between your ‘‘real’’ and ‘‘virtual’’ identities and reflects what youbecome in your avatar interactions

      Why is this distinction necessary? Above, Kolko describes virtual identity as a form of autoethnography, which is a representation of ones intersecting identities. Can we truly pull out the "real" and the "virtual" parts of identity here?

    1. What we did observe and have described in this chapter is a different kind of “transfer”between what we call in-game and in-world. It’s a kind of transfer that the players arequite active in constructing themselves.

      Interesting to think about transfer this way. The connections and narratives that games bring out in relation to other parts of our lives is important. How can we study this transfer more?

    2. young people across our study are presenting us with their implicit theory of learning ingame play—their theory being that games are learnable and we (i.e., they) need only figureout how to learn them.

      Why do they see this distinction between games being "learnable" and math being "unlearnable" in a similar setting? What about the two learning objectives makes this true?

    3. t seems that Tyler’s use of cheats had become associated with hisoverall style of play.

      His identity as a gamer...

    4. The first segment of this vignette begins with Andrew’s initial enthusiastic bid to show Tylerhow to do the move, punctuated with rhythmic sound effects accompanying an embodieddisplay with the unconnected controller

      Connecting to my comment above, why don't the authors interrogate the connected controllers embodiment in the same way?

    5. n this vignette we see that interaction in-room directly shapes in-game action.

      I wonder why this analysis does not investigate the perceived connections the physical controller creates for participants. it seems that, as the mediation between the two sites, it is very important. Here we see it highlighted as a visual connection between the two.

    6. An alternative approach to studying transfer is rooted in an ethnographic tradition thatis sometimes called situated, everyday, or distributed cognition.1

      As seen in FoK (Moll Tapia and Witmore 1993) and FW research read earlier in semester. But are these "psychology" research?

    1. Yet, there is no denying thatbeing on Whyville was for us like being in a different world, whereas our afterschoolclub participants seamlessly joined the virtual community.

      Why is there a feeling of different access to participation? In what ways did they not have the ecology of action or the resources to participate (Heath, et al. 2002)? Because, unlike the case with Nasir and Cooks, there is not specific arbiter giviing the students more resources for participation in the community of practice.

    2. Socializing is the driving force of these virtual worlds—contrary to popularmedia that have often pictured online play as an isolating experience

      Interesting here, the distinction between "socializing" and what the media determines as "isolating." In some ways, isn't participation in online social space both a physically "isolating" experience while also a "socializing" experience?

    1. With the theoretical goa l of focusi ng on t he dy na m ica l ly evolv i ng scopes of possibi l it y or lea r ni ng i n l ig ht of diversities of structures for social practices, we focus on contextual dimensions of places, positions, and actions occurring in relation to the interests, forms of partici-pation, social relationships and varied identities tied to multiple social practices that make up the learning inf luences and outcomes.

      Utilizing the theoreitical underpinning of later Latour, the Bell, et al., are arguing for a theoretical framework that aims to interpret the reproduction of larger structures of inequity and heirarchy by examining the "social and material conditions" that surround interactions in everyday life. The focus on social-material is somewhat similar to the "multisited" theoretical lens described in the other piece. There they clamor for frames and tools to help with: "Understanding the ways material/intellectual borders function to shape and constrain young people’s experiences and developmental trajectories is also essential to recognizing the spaces available for generative transgression and remediation (Cole & Griffin, 1983; Gutiérrez, 2008)." (p.625 Vossoughi, S., & Gutiérrez, K. D., 2014)

      Both theoretical lens focus on how social-material contexts "shape and constrain" student identity and identity formation. However, Vossoughi and Gutierrez believe that this can be better understood by seeing similar groups in different contexts, and contrasting the phenomena that occur. While Bell, et al., and their cultural pathways, theorize stretching the specific phenomena across different spaces and time scales in order to get a better understanding of the different ways learner identity is shapes, can be shaped, and can shape contexts.

  9. doc-0g-ag-prod-03-apps-viewer.googleusercontent.com doc-0g-ag-prod-03-apps-viewer.googleusercontent.com
    1. As we have written elsewhere, “the researcher as a collaborative, reflective ‘observant participant’ may help make visible the practices, meanings, and contradictions that often become invisible to those closest to the action

      This advice would have served Nasir and Cooks a little better. It is important to own and understand your particpation as observer to see patterns and contradictions in social phenomena. Taylor and Hall really heed this advice in their "counter mapping" study.

    2. (a) meaningfully engaging with students’ lives and experiences, with researchers position-ing themselves as learners, willing to reflect on their assumptions, and (b) questioning normative definitions of “Science” (with a capital S) as more academic or valuable.

      This is soooo important.

    3. when we fail to move beyond nar-row or normative definitions of what counts as learning

      The point of this class is to push us out of this, and give us the theoretical lens to academically investigate it.

    4. Both problematize the analytic “snapshot” as the endpoint of inquiry, seeking instead to craft a moving picture of social practice and human development as it unfolds, geneti-cally, in real-time

      This seems a lot like Pickeing's need for temporal senses of agency in "the mangle." --- Opps sorry wrong class

      As Sarah spoke about it above, Kelton's dissertation (chapters 5, 6 and 7) spoke to this quite a bit, as she investigated salience (and dis-junction) between schooling and the exhibit, over multiple spaces (in "real time").

    1. lanning on informally interviewing advisors and student

      This is a great idea. I don't think you can fully address what you want to without knowing what they are thinking about these different identities and resources. Use interviews with observations to get a more rounded body of data to analyze if you can!

    2. Research Questions:

      These seem like wonderful questions; they fit as starting points for the investigation you describe above. Also, I think Nassir and Cooks are a strong choice for an analytic lens to help parse through these questions.

    3. how to NYU must do

      Please reword this.

    4. The English conversationgroup seemed to be constructed through the lens of being a student.

      Interesting! Above you mention this might be beacause of the "language;" Please explain that a little more. I think you might be onto something.

    5. Asa piece of document issued by schools and required by the U.S. government, this paper represents the material resources students are given delegatingthem to an international student identityamong first entrance to the U.S. English conversationgroups have no required documents

      I'm not quite sure what you are saying in this sentence. I think you are missing "that" in front of "have no but I am not sure.

      On another note, I think this material connection to identity is interesting. Explore that more; how does this specific form shape the student's identity? Maybe talk to them about it.

    6. My independent project will

      I might word this a little differently: "My analysis draws heavily on..."

    7. Is there anaspect of mandatory versus optional participationthat impacts identityformulationand resource availabilitytofacilitatelearningand participation?

      This is an interesting question. Is this what you will be focusing your further inquiry on?

  10. Oct 2015
    1. nstead, I propose that the desettling pedagogyof Math Moves!is provocative rather than authoritative, destabilizing rather than corrective, questioning rather than answering

      This series of binary judgements about the "desettling pedagogy" strikes me as very important and very salient to the activity. Where/how can we continue to make different embodied activites that do this kind of desettling with teachers and students (and everyone?) Does it have to be in a setting like this?

    2. what the HECK?”indexes the pedagogical potential of the exhibit and worksheet to desettle the mathematics of measurement.

      This works. It shows how "settled" his understanding of what math and measurement are before encountering the exhibit.

    3. n a way, the chairs are much less chairs than they are, in Heideggerian language, present at hand (Heidegger, 1962/1927). Meanwhile, embodied activity and experience work fluently in the background, positioned largely in service of performing the practical work of measuring, writing, and communicating.

      I'm having a hard time parsing out what this means. Is it that: the chairs are present for the students, but embodied activity (and cognition) works to make sense of what the chairs are for the students?

    4. process they call desettling.

      This is super interesting. It ties into what I am interested in as well: finding ways to expand students understanding of what science is, so they can better participate in science knowledge creation. I am inspired to read this and use it for my own work!

    5. here is something about this language that doesn’t quite capture the interactional-experiential moment
    6. Together, Claire’s talk and gesture identify and bring the exhibit to quasi-presence by evoking the aspects of it that involve listening as well as moving and feeling with the hands.

      The combination of gesture and talk bring the exhibit into "quasi-presence." Meaning, learning happened with the mind and the body together, not separated, and at this point in time, Claire is utilizing both to access that learning, to bring the exhibit into the room (quasi-presence)

    7. As Claire says “the noise one?,” she curls her right-hand fingers in towards her palm and moves her hand back and forth in front of her, depicting the manipulation of the exhibit’s handles

      Here, Claire's bodily motions are part of her remembering the exhibit. This shows that the involvement of her body, in manipulating the exhibits handles, was part of the engaged learning process.

    8. At the museum, she and Tilly had developed the sense that walking faster along the tracks would produce “smoother lines” instead of curves that were “squiggly.” In other words, the two experienced a perceptuomotor blending (Nemirovsky, Kelton, & Rhodehamel, 2013; see also Section 2.4) of enacting swift movements with seeing smooth lines.

      The "perceptuomotor blending" mentioned here is an example of how Kelton links body motion with learning. In this case, the students are immediately perceiving how their bodily motion changes the graph; this perception provides immediate feedback, enhancing their understanding of how the line worked; however, as this vignette indicates, we cannot assume the learning will fit directly into the boundaries of "school math learning"

    9. After a long pause, during which Barbara-lee continued to trace the line on the picture while she searched for the word she wanted, Maria proffered, incorrectly, “radius

      Interesting that she traces the line with her finger repeatedly, possibly calling for her embodied knowledge to assist in remembering the vocabulary

    1. Communication is embodied in dance-engaging the kinesthetic, visual, musical, and spatial, as well as the narrative. The power of dance to give itself over to improvisation, shifts in numbers involved, and movement from one performance arena to another permit creativity from youngsters in environments of support and encour­agement

      Communication is the basis for learning. Therefore, to Ball and Heath, learning is embodied (as communication, and its support and encouragement), engaging physical aspects in conjunction with metal aspects of learning (kinesthetic, visual, spatial with musical, narrative, etc). Learning is mediated through bodied motion here.

    1. RebekahThornhill

      Awesome work. Hope these comments are helpful. I am really interested in your project!

    2. Itmighthelpuspreparestudentsbetterfortheircollegeexperience,enhancingtheironcampusexperienceandthenpreparingthemadequatelyforOrthodoxadultlife

      This is a strong goal! What will you be observing to work towards this? Will you be observing and taking notes on meetings? Prayer services?

    3. Nordoweseethemassuch,forthatmatter.Butinfact,theyare.Justbecausethey’vegrownuppracticingacertainway,doesn’tmeanthatthey’vedonesointhisparticularcontext,thisparticularcommunityofpractice.

      This sounds like it could be questioned through the lens of identity. Macro-identity vs.contextual identity here.

    4. Whatdoesitmeanwhenoldtimers(particularlyseniors)becomedisinterestedinthecommunityofpracticetheywereenthusiasticaboutasnewcomersandthenhelpedtobuildwhentheytransitionedintooldtimers?Andhowarecommunityandculturalnorms,valuesandideaspasseddownfromoldtimerstonewcomers?Whathappenswhentheseareinterpreteddifferentlybynewcomers?

      These are GREAT questions. How does your status help gather data to answer these? What sorts of data do you hope to collect to analyze through these questions and the LPP lens?

    5. Iamhopingthatusingthelensoflegitimateperipheralparticipation,IcananalyzethisandcomeupwithsomeconcretedataasopposedtojusttheanecdotalevidencethatIcurrentlyhave

      From your initial observations, what are some of the ways you think this will work out? Who is the community of practice? Are women engaged or displaced from it?

    6. UsingLPP,I’llbeabletonotonlyanalyzehownewcomersbecomeoldtimersofthisspecificcommunityofpractice(prayerservice)butalsohowthismanifestsinthelargercommunityofpracticewhichistheOrthodoxJewishstudentcommunityatNYU

      I'm really interested in this! Well put.

    1. Educationalreformisasmuchaproblemofarticulatingtheschoolwiththepublicsphereasofchangingwhatgoesonwithinitswalls.

      I wonder how redefining schools are public places, open to the community after school hours with things to do, as a meeting place, etc., would also work within this conception. Shouldn't schools start by allowing their physical boundaries to transcend just the limits of schooling, but become community spaces? Isn't that the idea of a "community school model?"

    2. Simplyrequiringteacherstoalign®eldtripsmorecloselytoschooltasks(Confar1995,GriÅnandSymington1997)doesnothelpkidstowardsricherparticipatoryrolesinpublicspace,andindeedcouldeasilyworkagainstthisend

      This is an important key point. We must consider the roles schools play in developing constructions of public spaces by giving participatory roles when designing and performing field trips. To that end, I think this will also make connections to school tasks more salient.

    3. Rather,its`languageofart’producedaboundaryaroundthedowntownandtheobjectsitcontainedandde®nedthemaseÂlitespaces

      This school sponsored activity institutionally created a sense of a boundary around a public space for students. It influenced them in seeing any sort of opportunity for their own learning or play there, and therefore ceased to be a public space for them.

    4. Asidefromthisexhibit,however,theroomwasnoisy,raucous,asiteofplayratherthaninstruction.

      How do we define the difference?

    5. disinterested`artappreciation’

      Why do we find the need to generalize reaction and appreciation of art? How does that play into the construction of public spaces?

    6. Thismeanttransformingpeopleaswellascommoditiesintoaestheticexperienc

      Important to highlight the term "transforming people." In other words, transforming the people who engage in that space, displacing others.

    7. Themediumforpositioningkidsinthisperformanceofspacewastheprocessofaestheticization:theframingofpeopleandsettingsasobjectstobeappreciatedvisually,intermsoftheirformal,abstractfeaturesandstylisticelements

      This directly influences how students engage with and help create public spaces.

    8. Otherschoolseschewed®eldtripsbecauseteachersandadministratorsfearedstudentswouldmisbehaveundertheirrelaxedsurveillanceregimes.

      It seems this is disenfranchising specific students from being a part and co-producing public space.

    9. Intheprocess,theyhelpproducewhatpeoplethinkofas`public’spaces–indeed,theyareofsingularimportanceintheperformanceofpublicspacetothedegreethattheyserveasthemeansbywhichchildrenareintroducedtothedowntowns,museums,nationalparks,monumentsandhistoricalsitesthatsymbolizethepublicsphere

      Schools are the institutional medium where public spaces are dialectically constructed by students and the structures of the school. They specifically produce this public space performance for children now.

    10. onceproducedinstreets,squares,parks,businessdistricts,civiccentres,neighbourhoodstoresandcommunityinstitutionslikethe`Y’,thatallowedforunexpectedsightsandencounters,socialandaestheticdiversity,publicsolitude,people-watching,publicsociabilityandunprogrammedspacesofplay

      A space, is produced when/where people come together in informal, unstructured encounters of social diversity. This lens would see the skateparks of Ma and Minter as places where such spaces can be constructed

    11. embodiedroutinesandmoreaproductofthewaysinstitutionssuchasschoolsincorporateplacesfarfromhomeintooÅcialnarrativesofregionalorgroupidentit

      Here, for Nespor, the "public" sphere is physically shared space that is not owned by anyone but mean for public communal engagement.

    12. nonetheless,itidenti®esprocessesthathavefundamentallychangedthelivesofyoungchildren,isolatingtheminhousesandneighbourhoodsemptiedofstreetlife,socialdiÄerenceandopportunitiesforcommunalactivity

      I understand the sentiment here that there is no longer the same type of public spaces for children to interact with. But are these new places "spaceless" places?

    1. While the diffusion of ourwork (and that of many others) into the community required interest and deliberate effortfrom many different stakeholders, we feel it is reasonable to argue that substantial learningoccurred also at a collective or social level of analysis.

      These outcomes fit with many "social justice" research methodologies, which focus on the research providing improvements for those being studied.

    2. youth participants were consistent with Harvey’s (2008) observation that in making orimagining the city, we are also making and imagining ourselves

      This is the connection to the identity discussion in other comments here, and what we have been talking about all semester.

    3. As they came tounderstand technologies for mapping more fully, they also began to question what wasshown (and not shown) on maps.

      being critical consumers of technology is important for students. This is an important learning opportunity.

    4. As we expected, the safety ride led to a critical reflection onthe extent to which maps supported riding, but also to a discussion of whether the city, itsroads, and cultural amenities were arranged in space to support mobility and access foryouth on bicycles

      Reflection here is an important part of the learning process conceptualized.

    5. We were guided in the study by Soja’s (2010) concept of ‘‘spatial justice’’ as a way tointervene in the spatial relationship youth had with their neighborhoods, so that they mightimagine new, more equitable possibilities for that geography

      "Spatial justice" seems like a theory for learning here.

    6. hese residents learned totalk over the surface of maps in ways that closely matched the spatial thinking andrelevancies of professional planners

      In order to participate, there is a barrier to entry: your spatial reasoning must match those of the professional planners.

    7. For residents without cars,Woodbridge was also seen as a ‘‘mobility desert’’ (a term first used by Cecil, the director ofthe Workshop with whom we collaborated on this project) that lacked a comprehensiveinfrastructure for independent mobility (e.g., bicycle lanes, bus routes, and accessiblecultural/educational assets)

      Interesting term

    8. Potentially, youth counter-mapping could have conse-quences both for ‘‘on the move’’ experience and for official versions of city neighborhoods

      Is this saying that counter-mapping influences the professional vision of urban space, but also the experiential setting for those who live there?

    9. Hart demonstrated that children’s mobility was self-directed in a rural com-munity, and they learned about their environment by traveling through and negotiating howthey would use it together.

      Interesting connection. Students learn through and for self mobility through co-construction.

    10. We hoped that combining anolder technology (bicycles and the urban street grid) with newer geospatial and mobile tools,would lead to changes in personal mobility and participation in new forms of spatial literacy

      Hope is that students learn in a way that augments their personal mobility and participation

    11. Second, spatial literacy is an important component of civic engagementsince many democratic processes of urban development rely on representations of spaceand residents’ sustained reflection on experiences within lived spaces.

      Civic engagement requires spatial literacy. I'm interested in how this continues!

    12. Different forms of transportation (e.g., riding in a car, walking, or riding a bicycle)mediate personal mobility differently, and resulting patterns of mobility structure activitiesthat involve co-participants, technology, and mutually accountable forms of engagement

      I really like this idea of mobility affecting opportunities to learn.

  11. doc-0s-bk-prod-01-apps-viewer.googleusercontent.com doc-0s-bk-prod-01-apps-viewer.googleusercontent.com
    1. Positioning was not just interactional but embodied as well; skaters’ locations and movementthrough the setting, the orientations of their bodies, and their engagements with material featuresof the setting edited the space (Leander,2002
    2. Laura created a particular kind of learning opportunity for herself by inviting Austin, a moreexperienced skater, to come with her and then soliciting his help regarding a trick that she waseager to learn. From their talk it was clear that he was going to help her learn something; togetherthey produced the mini-ramp room as a setting for private tutoring, rather than just a low-riskpractice area.

      This is the type of analysis this theoretical lens can give! "together they produced a setting..."

    3. Flatland was a setting where Karl and Hal caught their breath and commented on theirown and each other’s performance

      A space socially constructed

    4. Hot spots included episodes that seemed representative of activity that we had observed as well asunexpected or unaccountable events.

      Embracing contradiction and convergence of patterns.

    5. In particular, we looked for learning eventsthat were treated by the skaters as learning, by attending to how they oriented to ongoing activityand positioned themselves and each other as teachers or learners (Stevens,2010).

      Focusing on the events that skaters define as learning through identification and positioning (social and embodied).

    6. We say that these learning opportunities emerged from editing and the social production ofspace

      This is important. Opportunities emerge from the the social production of space and the way that space is edited or disciplined.

    7. settings, or socially produced space, is not uniformly experienced

      Interesting. So Ma and Munter are pointing out that it is important to study the difference in produced setting from individuals and embrace the conflict/congruence.

    8. we consider how skateparks are producedin socially negotiated activity

      Therefore, this article interrogates the social/interaction data obtained by different means.

    9. Teachers and studentsare dis/placed when these official practices exclude and discount them, forcing them to existin marginal spaces, devalued and suppressed. This work illuminates how the interrogation ofsocial spaces provides insight into the boundaries drawn around material places and practiceslike schools and schooling, and what happens within these spaces and at their intersections

      This is a very important part, and is the driving "why" to study spaces like skateparks and other non-school places to better understand how learning can take place in school.

    1. Lainey Manos

      Nice work. I really thought your observations were compelling, and pushed me to think about your case. I suggest a few things below; I also want to suggest pushing a little more play with the concepts of Heath, et al. (Ecology of action, shared experiences, etc.). Hope this is helpful!

    2. ecology of action

      for practice, make sure to cite (Heath, et al.) here

    3. AND learning from strangers observing the black canvas before you.

      How did people learn from others? What does Heath, et al. call this?

    4. ecology of action became people’s

      Are you calling this another ecology of action or redefining it from before?

    5. an individual is able to see the difference in brush strokes that made this piece not just a black canvas

      This is an interesting example. I completely see what you are describing here! Could you move the description to above, before you provide any observation of people interacting with it?

    6. r c

      missing students

    7. one could consider her an expert

      I might put this part of the sentence a little differently, OR put it in brackets like below:

      (we can consider her an expert here)

    8. Here, in this room, observers shared the experience of interpreting and understanding that piece of artwork

      Awesome observation. This really fits with what you are describing.

    9. This room was the most silent of all; it was so quiet that I even observed a person sleeping in there for 20 minutes

      Nice Example. Was the room silent because of the silent film or the "self-explanatory" art?

    10. rooms with more abstract art, where the meaning of the piece was unclear,

      Very interesting observation. This could go along way in your analysis! Could you explain what more abstract art is? I'm thinking different kinds of sculptures, impressionistic painting... mostly anything that isn't realist painting or sculpture. Is that how you classified this?

    11. regardless of if it was clear to understand or not

      What do you mean by "clear to understand?" Clear for you, or clear in your observation of others?

    12. Call me stereotypical, but the museums I have gone have been quie

      I have had the same experience! (even a few museums, someone would come over the intercom and tell everyone to quiet down if it got too loud!)

    1. thin the season, the boys participated intensely in apprenticeship with an expert (

      Would Becker be a good citation here? Would Becker agree with this statement?

    2. he weakest outfielder of the early season could move to catcher by mid-season; the smallest player who lagged behind all the other players in running time and batting power could become the team's strategist. The coach and players called attention to these differences often, both during practices and in interviews

      Here, the coach is shaping identity of the players by providing them resources (see Nasir, et al. 2003). These resources vary depending on the perceived strengths and abilities of players. Valuing difference legitimizes this difference in participation.

    3. Like in school, you're quiet all the time. In baseball you can talk all you want

      why do we accept this?

    4. Baseball, sometimes disparagingly characterized as a game in which sixteen people stand around and wait for two people to do something, provides abundant occasions for players to put their problem solving and creating of possible worlds into words—usually in the form of "what-if," "if-then," or "did-you-see" narratives

      I can see how this argument can resonate with the figured worlds theoretical lens. Players must construct figured worlds of action dependent on what happens next.

    5. Baseball, sometimes disparagingly characterized as a game in which sixteen people stand around and wait for two people to do something, provides abundant occasions for players to put their problem solving and creating of possible worlds into words—usually in the form of "what-if," "if-then," or "did-you-see" narratives

      I can see how this argument can resonate with the figured worlds theoretical lens. Players must construct figured worlds of action dependent on what happens next.

    6. ge- and gender-related habits, institutional values, and situated meanings that are at once spontaneous, adaptive, and historically established.

      Moments are mediated through identity, and its shared/divergence from norms and values. This is an interesting characterization of anthro and does give a sense that identity will play a part in this analysis.

    1. Their interaction and the quantitative analyses are consistent with our original claim that much of a child's early domain-specific expertise may be forged from relatively mundane moments where parents and children label, link, and learn througlLcollaborative activity and conversation.

      The claim here is that parents have a large role in developing islands of expertise for younger children. What about as they grow up? Are the levels and layers of mediation too much to warrant investigation? Or does all of our subsequent islands of expertise build off of the first?

    2. Their interaction and the quantitative analyses are consistent with our original claim that much of a child's early domain-specific expertise may be forged from relatively mundane moments where parents and children label, link, and learn througlLcollaborative activity and conversation.

      The claim here is that parents have a large role in developing islands of expertise for younger children. What about as they grow up? Are the levels and layers of mediation too much to warrant investigation?

    3. Their interaction and the quantitative analyses are consistent with our original claim that much of a child's early domain-specific expertise may be forged from relatively mundane moments where parents and children label, link, and learn througlLcollaborative activity and conversation.

      The claim here is that parents have a large role in developing islands of expertise for younger children. What about as they grow up? Are the levels and layers of mediation too much to warrant investigation?

    4. Finally, and most importantly with respect to the idea of islands of exper-tise, the mother makes an explicit connection between the exhibit and the boy's prior learning experience with his computer game which is appar-ently about different dinosaurs and their eggs.

      Developing one island of expertise by using analogies from other islands of expertise. This relational form of learning and participation has been undertheorized in our study of Figured Worlds, Funds of Knowledge and LPP.

    5. By the time the boy turns 3 years old, he has developed an island of ex-pertise around trains. His vocabulary, declarative knowledge, conceptual knowledge, schemas, and personal memories related to trains are numer-ous, well-organized, and flexible.

      Can I then assume that this is all that constitutes someone's "island of expertise?" Because in that case, this seems like a similar frame as figured worlds, with a relational piece that incorporates funds of knowledge.

    6. Trains were platforms for other concepts as well, in science and in other domains.

      Islands of expertise can be used as tools of analogy to learn and discuss other things/knowledge/topics outside of its sphere. Interesting

    7. Thus, islands of expertise become platforms for families to practice learning habits and to develop, often for the first time, conversations about , L abstract and general ideas, concepts, or mechanisms.

      This sounds a lot like Bourdieu's "habitus."

    1. t might extend much beyond the immediatecurricular targets

      Why not involve the students perspective?

    2. Specifically,when interest-based pursuits are framed in terms of the simultaneous satisfactionof a person’s various practicepreferencesacross time, then the girls’ transformingthe activity indicates that they did not have a general interest in fashion/graphicdesign. Instead, whateverpreferencesthey might have had that intersected withthe domains of fashion and design, suchpreferencesdid not find expressionin the activity proposed by the researchers.

      this is a huge point and should inform education research and practice. We need to include the student perspective in our planning, analyzing, and creating learning tasks for them.

    3. It follows that becausepeople learn (e.g.,observational skills) along theirlines of practice,intersectionsbetweenlinesshow knowledge and learning that cross line boundaries

      Learning is defined by lines of practice. This sounds a lot like LPP. Although, in some ways it provides nuance because it conceptualizes a possibility of boundary crossing and embraces difference in LPP for different contexts and different people in the same CoP.

    4. Moststrongly, Mitchell’sobservational lines of practicewere primarily defined by hisidentityas a serious astronomer and its many entailments—including cultivatinga broad variety ofobservational targets, projects,andgoals;occasionally get-tingcertificates; sketching;developing a broadaesthetics;and so on

      Obervational lines of practice are defined by ones identity... How then can I develop new observational lines of identity?

    5. Finally and centrally,preferencesandconditions of practiceclustered into whatI calllines of practice

      Definition term

    6. preferenceemerging in Mitchell’s narrative regarded hisdevelopingidentityin amateur astronomy

      Interesting that "preference" or "long term goal" of developing the identity of amatuer astronomer dialectically influences his other goals and preferences, which influence his practice, which help him achieve that goal.

    7. Collaborationwas thus an important dimension of Mitchell’s, Sally’s, and many others’ prac-tices, an inference further strengthened by the ethnographic observations thatinformal and more systematic collaborations were endemic

      The community/other hobbyists are important resources for learning. Collaboration is key in driving cohesive learning and keeping these groups together.

    8. As is commonly the case, initial coding of the data yielded a very largenumber of categories

      The coding categories, in this specific instance, name the resources that support learning and engagement (including telescopes above). These are the physical tools, the objects/concepts being looked at and the participants goals. They support the LPP and eventual participation in the community of practice of astronomers (amateur)

    9. The point was to follownotthe individual observationaltargets—there were just too many of them—but rather how they functioned (i.e.,the purposes they served) in each astronomer’s practice

      This is an important analytic move because it allows Azevedo to analyze the functioning of these targets, not the targets themselves (which can be seen as the resources for learning...)

    10. ectures, planets(Saturn, Jupiter, Mars,andVenus), theMoon,asteroids, deep sky objects, Messier objects, star clusters, variable stars, dou-ble stars, galaxies, comets, globular clusters, periodical events(e.g.,eclipsesand planetalignments),nebula, Cassiopeia, atlasandcharts, goals

      In this specific instance, all of these are resources that support learning and engagement (including telescopes, books above). These are the physical tools, the objects/concepts being looked at and the participants goals. They support the LPP and eventual participation in the community of practice of astronomers (amateur)

    11. I broaden the descriptiveand explanatory range of these conceptual categories by capturing commonaltiesand idiosyncrasies in practice participation that are the hallmark of interest-basedpursuits.

      Practice participation caught my eye here. What are the contradictions and patterns that emerge from a focus on practice participation?

    12. As she explained,observing M103 followed from her goal of looking at as many “pretty objects”as possible, and she included star clusters as such. As we will see, the themeof observing pretty objects appeared quite frequently in her narratives of thehobby

      Again, goals as a specific resource for learning. I wonder why Azevedo chose the word "goal" instead of "motivation" or something similar.

    13. (Blumenfeld et al.,1992)

      Key Paper in project based learning literature

    14. My aim is to revisit the verynatureofinterests, short and long term, and to develop a new theoretical lens for capturingand understanding interest-based participation in social practices
    15. Pragmatically speaking, Iseek to contribute to the design ofinterest-basedinstruction, with an empha-sis on science learning in and out of schools

      Interesting term.

    1. Edras D. De Jesus Jimenez

      Nice work. I really liked your conception of difference in interaction with the exhibit. Also, your choice of quotations from the article supported your report well. I would like you to expand some more on some of these statements, and weave your great observations with Heath's "co-participation" and interaction theories (as well as the ecology of action which you discuss). Thanks for letting me learn from reading your report.


    2. With this in mind, we are more readily able to shape our conception of how interaction with art or exhibits will enhance our methods for learning

      What are your thoughts on this? Did you learn anything from what you observed and then theorized (here)?

    3. A group of two women exclaimed: “ How clever!” This is the musical score for the song that is playing!” The other agreed with a nod of her head. “No wonder I felt like it lacked melo

      nice that you were able to record such clear dialogic interactions!

    4. Interestingly, the group of students did not take into account artifacts for learning that were made readily available to them to help them understand, such as the brochures provided at the receptionist desk, nor the description of the piece of art located some feet away, though the woman in the first example did glance at the words describing what the installation was about before moving on.

      Very interesting observation. What are your thoughts on why they didn't? Does this fit in with Heath's ecology of action or co-particiation?

    5. As noted by the examples above, the students and the visitors all seemed to be taking different approaches to comprehend to this particular installation, and shaped their learnings from the observations and internalizations of what the exhibit might mean or expressed.

      Very interesting point. Different ways of co-participating in learning with the exhibit emerged in your observations!

    6. These ecologies of action

      What are these ecologies of action composed of?

    7. Understanding that human participatory roles is inherently changing and adapting to the experiences that are presented, makes this a question of what the first person will do in order to create the framework for the rest of the group to follow

      This is a great entry to investigation! I took me a minute to see exactly what you are saying though. I would flip the sentence to make it more clear:

      "It is important to investigate what the first person will do subsequently creating a framework for the rest of the group to follow because human participatory roles are inherently changing and adapting to the experiences presented."

    8. persons

      Why did you choose to use persons instead of people?

    1. The effort to bridge school-based and community-based learningwill be helped by future studies that examine how variations across nonschool learn-ing environments influence youths’ learning and development
    2. A common finding in studies of out-of-school learning is that children gain ac-cess to mature expert practices; unlike the design of many schools, they are notsegregated from adult activities (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Rogoff, 2003)

      concise common thread to what we have been reading about this semester.

    3. Monique’s comments reflect a strong sense of identification with the work

      The move from student who organizes to organizer, as I spoke of in a comment above

    4. The termsyouthandadultstook on similar symbolic meanings across the threegroups.

      Terms that represent a specific difference in identity within these figured worlds, within these groups.

    5. how participants made sense of what they were doing

      This could be seen as asking students to describe their view of the figured world of the group.

    6. how participants made sense of what they were doing

      This could be seen as asking students to describe their view of the figured world of the group.

    7. Nevertheless, I focus on adult roles in this ar-ticle in order to gain an in-depth understanding of one piece of a complex acti

      nice insight into this particular choice of looking at adult roles.

    8. Although some adult sup-port may be necessary for youth to achieve political goals, too much involvementmight undermine their initiative or lead to a slippery slope where adults end upco-opting youths’ roles

      Hence, not allowing youth to be fully engage in the type of identity construction they need in order to take leadership of the organization. Reading this through Nasir, et al.: too many ideational resources can lead to less impact in cases like this.

    9. Unlike accounts of out-of-school learning where-by newcomers begin by participating in a peripheral manner, in activism groupsyouth are often expected to lead the way.

      Earlier he states that the adults still give structures, and release them as students become larger leaders.

    10. Noguera & Cannella, 2006

      looks at youth resistance to this normalized response.

    11. outh organizations represent animportant venue for minors to gain access to adult domains, whether through infor-mal relationships with adults or project-based activities that link youth to profes-sional or artistic communities (Eccles & Gootman, 2002; Heath, 1999; Jarrett,Sullivan, & Watkins, 2005).

      this is an interesting point. These organization provide other spaces for links between youth and other, possibly supportive, communities.

    12. It emphasizes how adults help to structure children’s developmental tra-jectories and also the active participation by children in these processes.

      Thinking through this with a Holland et al lens, Kirshner might say: Those trajectories become embedded within a figured world which develops new identities.

    1. In intent participation, assessment occurs integrally throughout shared endeav-ors to further learning—not just as an “outcome.”

      No such thing as a final "outcome"

    2. Words are an important aspect of communication in learning by intent participation,accompanying other forms of communication and joint action. However, wordshave different functions than in assembly-line instruction, where they are usedextensively to describe information out of the context of shared endeavors, andknown-answer questions are employed to quiz learners

      Here is another key difference in simply observing in traditional schooling, and observing in intent participation. Words, language is within coexisting forms of communication that drive towards a place for participation.

    3. Children of schooled parents may learn the participation structure of assembly-line schooling at home and use it in their relations with others

      School is a site of cultural (re)production. From the Marxist tradition, Althusser calls school an "ideological state apparatus." (1970)

    4. There is also no separation of learning into anisolated assembly phase, with exercises for the immature, out of the context of theintended activity

      Here, Rogoff et al, are furthering their description of intent participation. It is not enough for the learner to perceive possible collaboration and participation during an observation process. This must be embedded within an active context which gives meaning to what is to be learned in a greater social context. It cannot be done within traditional understanding of a school.

    5. For example, children are able to learn new vocabulary wordsafter exposure to television stories that contained those words (Huston & Wright1998). Watching violent television in early childhood predicts later aggressivebehavior (Huston & Wright 1998, Bushman & Anderson 2001). Similarly, evenshort-term exposure to video game violence is associated with higher aggression(Anderson & Bushman 2001).

      I want to problematize the conviction with which Rogoff is citing this evidence. Is there any other literature or theories that nuance this causal inference between observing and learning?

      I wouldn't dispute the fact that media and TV play a role in cultural production, reproducing hegemonic structures, etc. But does that mean observing in this way produces "highly effective" learning?

    6. bservation in ongoing activityor lessons

      interesting categorization of learning sources

    7. young children learning theirfirst language and continues in importance throughout life. However, it has re-ceived relatively little research attention

      How much can this be intentional? How much does this fit into an understanding as "accidental learning?"

    8. young children learning theirfirst language and continues in importance throughout life. However, it has re-ceived relatively little research attention

      How much can this be intentional? How much does this fit into an understanding as "accidental learning?"

    1. Note that I've moved our readings to NYUClasses so we don't have to keep doing that highlight-reload business for hypothes.is to work

      GREAT! Works well

    1. Although Oppenheimer’s educational model was complex andnonprescriptive, the basis of his approach to exhibits was compatible with that of Dewey,giving central importance to the role of direct experience of phenomena, and trying to presentthe learner with a problematic experience from which he/she could conduct genuine inquiry.It is also compatible with the Piagetian notion of disequilibration as a driver for learningthrough change of existing knowledge schemas

      I wonder was this a consequence of his design or did these learning theories underpin what he put together?

  12. Sep 2015
    1. It is surprising that the substantial body of research concerned withhow people discern and discover the functionality and affordances of objectsremains principally concerned with the cognitive abilities they bring to bearin perception rather than with the social circumstances in which objects andartefacts are seen and discovered.

      Similar from before. They are stressing here that we need to focus on the social interactions in conjunction with artifacts and objects to get a better picture of learning.

    2. The moment of an action almost embodiesthe principle concerns of those interested in ‘peripheral participation’ andrelated matters

      LPP connection in the text.

    3. It should be added thatthis commitment to encouraging co-participation and collaboration inmuseums and galleries derives in part from developments in education, withits growing emphasis on situated cognition and informal learning

      Connections here to other literature we have read: Moll et al., Lave and Wegner, and more

    4. We can begin to see therefore how the qualities and functionality ofobjects may be discovered through social interaction
    5. This achievement is produced in thecollaboration of the participants. They shape their own and each other’sexperience in and through the installation.

      Sounds very much like FW and LPP here.

    6. It renders the referent, the object, at which Susie is laughingproblematic; it poses a puzzle for Julia and encourages her to figure out whathas happened.

      Is the underlying premise for crafting participation about creating a space for curiosity?

    7. In a way, we are concerned with the ways in which visitors and viewersare, and can be seen to be, active and engaged spectators.

      Looking to both study and define what being an "active and engaged spectator." The participation across time of the artist/curator and spectators in interesting. It is a different way of seeing learning from an LPP perspective; the community of practice is shaped by the creator and the spectators across different times.

    8. research has increasingly focused on cognition and on theways in which particular forms of exhibit, exhibition, and displays ofaccompanying information may enhance educational opportunities

      Again, addressing a lack of research in museums that emphasize materiality and interaction with physical objects in analyzing. Seems interesting and needed.

    9. The active spectator becomesengaged with a sequence of moments portrayed in asingle image.

      Important point. However, I wonder what denotes someone as an "active" spectator...

    1. Our studies on physical interactivity have shown that it is not a simple and universalprescription for effective learning

      Overall finding here. Effective learning can be a loaded term. What other pieces of the FoK are missing here?

    2. On the exhibitfloor there is no accountability, no curriculum, no teachersto enforce concentration, no experienced guide to interpret and give significance to the vastamounts of stimulus and information presented

      Why are all these needed? What makes us think learners must be "held accountable" to learn?

    1. It is a matter of how personsand their social and cultural worlds are inseparable, thoroughly

      Continued on next page. This is the definition of distributed cognition. "their thinking is irreducible to individual properties, intelligence, or traits."