346 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2023
  2. moodle.lynchburg.edu moodle.lynchburg.edu
    1. he Negro plaintiffs had, after all, won the case.”

      Recognition that the African Americans won

    2. Prince Edward saw themselves as Davids to the Goliath NAACP and the federalgovernment.

      David vs Goliath in the bible David is the underdog and the weaker of the two

    3. he schools that had closed started integrating. And, in May, the FourthCircuit overturned the district judge’s ruling and ordered Prince Edward to integrate itsschools by that fall

      Finally the federal courts step in

    4. hich gave the governor the power to close any school that integrated andstipulated that school districts that integrated would lose state funding.

      Governer of VA given the power to close schools, always finding loopholes

    5. close the public schools should they be ordered to desegregate.

      Close schools to avoid integration

    6. No matter who starts it, thewhites will be blamed. We must not have it.

      I think this is saying white people are acting as the victim in this case, while in reality they've been the villain

    7. We submit thatVirginia has not abandoned public education; the Supreme Court has abolished it

      It's the supreme courts fault that VA is abandoning public education

    8. is the most seriousblow that has yet been struck against the rights of the states in a matter vitally affectingtheir authority and welfare. .. . In Virginia now we are facing a crisis of the firstmagnitude.”

      Racist statement saying that integration is a blow to Virginia and it is the cause of a crisis

    9. but it gave nodeadlines

      I expect this means that schools waited as long as possible to integrate

    10. However, supplies such as books and scienceequipment were still scarce.

      Black schools still didn't have the same materials as white schools

    11. litigating

      being a part of a lawsuit

    12. The NAACP expected this ruling and continued preparation for an appeal tothe Supreme Court.

      They already knew what the ruling of the court in VA would be

    13. A few acts of intimidation went beyond the “civilized” code. On Sunday, May 6, someoneburned a cross in the Moton schoolyard. The Ku Klux Klan was not active in the area,however, and most people—black and white—agreed it was the action of a few. Griffinreceived death threats, and a crude homemade bomb fizzled on the steps of his house.The Johns family began to fear for Barbara’s safety after receiving several threats againsther. They sent her to live with her uncle Vernon in Montgomery, Alabama, and finish highschool there.

      Violent acts are now being prformed

    14. therblack families began to have problems with their credit too.

      Another way to affect the lives of African Americans.

    15. So white leaders asserted their power through “official” channels. The school board firedMoton’s principal and a teacher who was aunt to a student and whose husband was anNAACP member. They also fired Moton teacher Vera Allen, whose daughter Edwilda wasinvolved in the strike. Eventually, the county abolished John Lancaster’s job as Negrocounty farm agent, ostensibly because of his support of the strike and his efforts as theMoton PTA president to build a new school.

      Firing everyone that supported the strike was the reaction of whites

    16. White elites wholeheartedly supported segregationand disfranchisement but shunned vigilante violence as a threat to social stability.”

      Was it just elite whites or all whites

    17. ld Dominion,


    18. White residents’ reactions were mixed.

      I'm surprised by this

    19. Anybody who won’t fight against racial prejudice is not a man.”

      Definitely used to motivate people to join the fight.

    20. But | should have realized the white authorities would know about it.

      I can only assume how upset the white people were

    21. f the NAACP was to take their case, the lawyers said, thegoal would have to be desegregation.

      I think that the goal should have been to build a new school, not desegregation

    22. NAACP

      National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

    23. e were thinking that the school would be improved, or atbest, that we would get a new school.

      Honestly that's what I would think too

    24. To strike until they got what they wanted. Moststudents were on board immediately. That afternoon they stayed on the school grounds,carrying placards with demands such as “We are tired of tar paper shacks—we want anew school.”

      A great way to get what they deserve

    25. “Why don’tyou do something about it?’

      I think this goes to a lot of things in life. A lot of people say this and say that, but none of them ever do anything

    26. This frustrated Barbara Johns,

      It would frustrate me too

    27. Classes also met in several tar-paper shacks,which county officials had constructed instead of a new school.

      No help to these all-black schools

    28. Despite all this, it was a tight-knit school community, and the teachers had highexpectations for their students and their futures.

      What Du Bois was talking about in his texts

    29. School supplies were secondhand and spread thin, and more than 450students were packed into a facility originally built for 180.

      Differences between the white and black schools

    30. ard has tried hard to challenge the idea that a civil rights museum is inevitably a blackhistory museum.

      It focuses on black history, but everyone should know the history of our country, no matter how bad it is

    31. Since it opened in 2001, it has hosted events and discussions about the civil rights era.

      Helping people understand History and the Civil Rights Movement.

    32. he Prince Edward story is not so well known because it doesn’t have “the essentialingredients of a standard civil rights story,”

      A reason for that is because Alabama might have been worse than Virginia, as hard as that is to believe.

    33. During that time, most white children attended the new private schoolcreated by segregationist leaders and funded by state tuition grants and privatedonations.

      Sad to see what our country was like in the civil rights era

    34. Prince Edward County refused to integrate andlocked its doors.

      The length Virginia would go to not integrate schools

    35. Moton High School

      I'm assuming this eventually became the Rober Russa Moton Museum.

    36. constructed in 1939 to house an all-black highschool, reminds them of an era they’d rather forget.

      Seems like a community where each race respects each other if they want to forget the era of all0black high schools

    37. Near thecenter of town stands a bronze Confederate soldier, a monument to Civil War veterans.Up the hill on the edge of town, past historic storefronts and churches, past LongwoodCollege, sits the Robert Russa Moton Museum, Virginia’s only National Historic Landmarkof the civil rights movement.

      Crazy how they have a confederate soldier and a landmark of the civil rights movement in the same place

    1. A mixed school withpoor and unsympathetic teachers,with hostile public opinion, and noteaching of truth concerning blackfolk, is bad

      No use in having mixed schools if the education is poor

    2. I came toAtlanta University to teach history in1897, without the slightest idea frommy Harvard tuition, that Negroesever had any history!

      A Harvard graduate doesn't even know about African American history.

    3. but there isno doubt but what the tremendouspsychic history of the American andWest Indian groups has made it possi-ble for the present generation to ac-cumulate a wealth of material which,with encouragement and training,could find expression in the drama, incolor and form, and in music. Andno where could this training betterbe pursued than in separate Negroschools under competent and intelli-gent teachers?

      Another example of protecting and understanding the African American Culture

    4. congenital

      A disease or physical abnormality present from birth. Unbelievable that they think of their race as a disease.

    5. Beyond this, Negro colleges oughtto be studying anthropology, psychol-ogy, and the social sciences, from thepoint of view of the colored races.

      Focusing on their race

    6. They ought to studyintelligently and from their own pointof view, the slave trade, slavery,emancipation, Reconstruction, andpresent economic development.

      African American History

    7. Negroesmust know the history of the Negrorace in America, and this they willseldom get in white institutions

      African Americans should learn the history of generations before them

    8. merican Negroes have, be-cause of their history, group experi-ences and memories, a distinct entity,whose spirit and reactions demand acertain type of education for its de-velopment

      Basing what type of education they deserve based on their past.

    9. I have be-come curiously convinced that untilAmerican Negroes believe in their ownpower and ability, they are going tobe helpless before the white world

      Restating the same claim about how American Negroes need to believe in their abilities.

    10. Conceive a Negro teachingin a Southern school the econhicswhich he learned at the Harvard Busi-ness School! Conceive a Negro teacherof history retailing to his black stu-dents the sort of history that is taughtat the University of Chicago!

      Highly educated teachers means high development for their children

    11. Howard, Fisk, and Atlanta arenaturally unable to do the type andgrade of graduate work which is doneat Columbia, Chicago, and Harvard

      HBCUs vs IVY leagues and Chicago, another highly respected college.

    12. There can be nodoubt that if the Supreme Court wereoverwhelmed with cases where theblatant and impudent discriminationagainst Negro education is openlyacknowledged, it would be compelledto hand down decisions which wouldmake this discrimination impossibl&

      Supreme court needs to have cases for them to change a law.

    13. Today, when the rJegro publicschool system gets from half to one-tenth of the amount of money spenton white schools, and is often conse-quently poorly run and poorly taught

      Less money means worse education in this case

    14. bygiving Negro teachers decent wages,decent schoolhouses and equipment,and reasonable chances for advance-ment

      Teachers need to have the same support as the students. Students can't learn if the teacher isn't there or doesn't want to be there.

    15. just so longthe main problem of Negro educationwill not be segregation but self-knowl-edge and self-respect

      They need to believe in themselves, because that is the main problem

    16. If the American Negro reallybelieved in himself; if he believed thatNegro teachers can educate childrenaccording to the best standards ofmodern training; if he believed thatNegro colleges transmit and add toscience, as well as or better than othercolleges, then he would bend his ener-gies, not to escaping inescapable as-sociation with his own group, but toseeing that his group had every op-portunity for its best and highest de-velopment

      Motivation for African Americans everywhere

    17. We shall get a finer, better bal-ance of spirit; an infinitely more ca-pable and rounded personality by put-ting children in schools where theyare wanted, and where they are happyand inspired, than in thrusting therhinto hells where they are ridiculed andhated.

      Segregation of schools might actually be beneficial.

    18. I nother cases, the result of the experi-ment may be complete ruin of char-acter, gift, and ability and ingrainedhatred of schools and men

      Child going to a white school can help a cause, abut it could also hurt the child and the black community

    19. t is difficult to think of any-thing more important for the develop-ment of a people than proper trainingfor their children

      I'm not a parent and I don't have kids, but i know my parents wanted me to have the best education possible.

    20. priori

      Latin phrase used in philosophy to distinguish types of knowledge, justification, or argument by their reliance on experience.

    21. but as long asAmerican Negroes believe that theirrace is constitutionally and perma-nently inferior to white people, theynecessarily disbelieve in every possi-ble Negro Institution

      Way to motivate African Americans to promote change.

    22. The otherreason is at bottom an utter lack offaith on the part of Negroes that theirrace can do anything really well

      Kind of shocked that Du Bois would say that, unless he is trying to make the African Americans upset.

    23. they refuse to work for their adequatesupport; and they refuse to join pub-lic movements to increase their effi-ciency

      The teachers are not trying to be effective in teaching the kids either

    24. laudatory

      I wonder why he is using this adjective after saying that Harlem is dumb and complacent.

    25. To endure bad schools and wrongeducation because the schools are"mixed" is a costly if not fatal mis-take.

      Huge mistake to not have a good education because they go to a mixed school

    26. In that case, a firmand intelligent appeal to public opin-ion would eventually settle the mat-ter. But the futile attempt to compeleven by law a group to do what it isdetermined not to do, is a silly wasteof money, time, and temper

      Counter argument

    27. We have got to accept Negroschools. Any agitation and actionaimed at compelling a rich and power-ful majority of the citizens to do whatthey will not do, is useless. On theother hand, we have a right and aduty to assure ourselves of the truthconcerning this attitude; by carefulconferences, by public meetings andby petitions, we should convince our-selves whether this demand for sepa-rate schools is merely the agitation ofa prejudiced minority, or the con-sidered and final judgment of thetown

      His argument "I say"

    28. There can be argument asto what our attitude toward furtherseparation should be

      They say in our reading

    29. Under such circumstances, there isno room for argument as to whetherthe Negro needs separate school$ ornot. The plain fact faces us, thateither he will have separate schoolsor he will not be educated.

      The only way for African Americans to receive an education is to enroll in only black schools.

    30. And in the same way, there aremany public school systems in theNorth where Negroes are admittedand tolerated, but they are not edu-cated; they are crucified

      Even if African Americans can be in the white schools, they are not educated and are punished for it.

    31. I am no fool; and Iknow that race prejudice in the Uni-ted States today is such that mostNegroes cannot receive proper edu

      The last word is education. Du Bois obviously notices this problem in the US

    32. just solong we shall lack in America thatsort of public education which willcreate the intelligent basis of a realdemocracy

      The lack of public schools creates an unfair democracy

    33. to try to deceive ourselves into think-ing that race prejudice in the UnitedStates across the Color Line is gradu-ally softening and that slowly butsurely we are coming to the timewhen racial animosities and classlines will be so obliterated that sepa-rate schools will be anachronisms

      People are believing that racism is getting better per say, but it's a fallacy

    34. Theyare needed just so far as they arenecessary for the proper education ofthe Negro race.

      I wonder what the he means by the proper education of the negro race. Does that mean the same education as the white people.

    35. Less than a halfmillion are in mixed schools in theNorth, where they are taught almostexclusively by white teachers.

      I infer that this is around the 1950s and 60s because of the separated schools

    1. For the truth isthat there are many very good reasons for giving up meat.

      The truth is the main word that stands out to me. Everyone wants the truth, but there are more than one side that decides the truth

    2. Exercises

      Ways to improve

    3. his ability to enter complex, many-sided conversations has taken on aspecial urgency in today’s polarized red state / blue state America,

      Politics in the United States

    4. ltimately, this book invites you to become a criticalthinker who can enter the types of conversations described eloquently by thephilosopher Kenneth Burke in the following widely cited passage.

      Goal, but needs to be taken in small increments in my opinion.

    5. “They say that kids suing fast-foodcompanies for making them fat is a joke; but J say such lawsuits arejustified.”

      Always multiple sides to an argument

    6. but only suggest a way offormatting how you Say it.

      It's supposed to be helpful, but does not have to be used.

    7. Ultimately, then, creativity and originality lie not in the avoidance ofestablished forms but in the imaginative use of them.

      Completely agree

    8. n our view, the templates in this book will actually help your writingbecome more original and creative, not less.

      I think it all depends on how much work is put into your writing

    9. At first, many of our students complain thatusing templates will take away their originality and creativity and makethem all sound the same.

      I disagree with this. I think a template is just used to organize your writing, and you can still add your own creativity.

    10. In sum, then, while it is not plagiarism to recycleconventionally used formulas, it is a serious academic offense to take thesubstantive content from others’ texts without citing the authors and givingthem proper credit.

      Must cite sources and give the authors credit to avoid plagiarism.

    11. Again, none of us is born knowing these moves, especially when itcomes to academic writing—hence the need for this book.

      It is a skill, it takes time to develop.

    12. in which you summarize and then answer a likelyobjection to your own central claim

      In my opinion this is the most important part. Making sure they understand what your claim is

    13. Even the most sympathetic audiences, after all, tend to feel manipulatedby arguments that scapegoat and caricature the other side.

      Everyone can be swayed by writing and understand the other points of view.

    14. ou need to play it safeand avoid controversy in your writing, making statements that nobody canpossibly disagree with. Though this view of writing may appear logical, it isactually a recipe for flat, lifeless writing and for writing that fails to answerwhat we call the “so what?” and “who cares?” questions.

      I agree with this point that it is boring if there is no other argument

    15. many writers use the “they say / Isay” format to challenge standard ways of thinking and thus to stir upcontroversy.

      Allows the readers to get involved with the article or novel

    16. represent some wider group withwhich readers might identify

      Needs to represent a group with a large population that side with the opposing argument

    17. In a waywe're both right

      Seeing both sides of the story

    18. ho uses her own daughter’scomment to represent the patriotic national fervor after the terrorist attacksof September 11, 2001.

      Writing about another persons comment, example of a they say.

    19. Clearly, King would not have written his famous letter were it not for hiscritics,

      Critics can sometimes be fuel for writing. In this case this is true.

    20. Letter from Birmingham Jail,

      Learned in AP Gov, and important document in the Civil Rights Movement

    21. heanswers these questions, helping us see his point that the film presentscomplex characters rather than simple sexist stereotypes.

      Better work if you are answering questions people might ask about a topic

    22. he answer is that if you don’t identify the “they say” you’re respondingto, your own argument probably won’t have a point.

      You don't have an argument if you cant see another side to the argument

    23. To make an impact as a writer, then, you need to do more than makestatements that are logical, well supported, and consistent. You must alsofind a way of entering into conversation with the views of others, withsomething “they say.”

      You have to look at other people's point of view to make an impact

    24. f you have been taught to write atraditional five-paragraph essay, for example, you have learned how todevelop a thesis and support it with evidence.

      What I was taught throughout my high school years

    25. summarizing their views in a way thatthey will recognize, and responding with our own ideas in kind.

      It seems like a conversation

    26. critical thinking and writing go deeper than any setof linguistic formulas,

      It has to for it to be critical thinking

    27. Less experiencedwriters, by contrast, are often unfamiliar with these basic moves and unsurehow to make them in their own writing.

      More reading done means more experience, and better writing.


      I think this is a good way for essays to be written, and it seems like I write a lot of essays that require this format.

    29. templates that you can use right away to structureand even generate your own writing.

      In my life, templates are needed to organize my own writing, and even come up with ideas.

    30. Often without consciously realizing it,accomplished writers routinely rely on a stock of established moves that arecrucial for communicating sophisticated ideas.

      Learned from reading, using the same ideas over and over again.

    31. once you mastered it you no longerhad to give much conscious thought to the various moves that go into doingit.

      This is very true in my life, a lot of things come as second nature such as brushing my teeth and driving.

  3. moodle.lynchburg.edu moodle.lynchburg.edu
    1. I rode to Nashville in the Jim Crow car

      Jim Crow- Main sign of racism in the south

    2. It was empty, and theywere grown into fat, lazy farm-hands. I saw the home of the Hickmans, but Albert, with hisstooping shoulders, had passed from the world. Then I came to the Burkes’ gate and peeredthrough; the enclosure looked rough and untrimmed, and yet there were the same fences aroundthe old farm save to the left, where lay twenty-five other acres. And lo! the cabin in the hollow hadclimbed the hill and swollen to a half-finished six-room cottage.

      It seems like the entire area just isn't the same as it once was. I wonder if it was because of a change in the culture.

    3. Doc Burke saved a murder anda lynching that day

      Shows the state the south was in at this time

    4. The Lawrences have gone,—father andson forever,—and the other son lazily digs in the earth to live

      People are gone, jobs are terrible, I wonder how him leaving made so much of an impact.

    5. Josie was dead, and the gray-haired mother said simply, “We’ve had a heap of trouble sinceyou’ve been away.” I had feared for Jim

      The town was struggling since he left.

    6. lexandria was “town,”—astraggling, lazy village of houses, churches, and shops, and an aristocracy of Toms, Dicks, andCaptains

      White people ran the town of Alexandria.

    7. On Friday nights I often went home with some of the children,—sometimes to Doc Burke’sfarm.

      He would stay the night at some of the student houses

    8. He was a great, loud, thin Black, ever working, and trying to buy the seventy-five acres ofhill and dale where he lived; but people said that he would surely fail, and the “white folks wouldget it all.”

      As hard as he worked, it seems white people just got it a lot easier.

    9. There was an entrance where adoor once was, and within, a massive rickety fireplace; great chinks between the logs served aswindows. Furniture was scarce. A pale blackboard crouched in the corner. My desk was made ofthree boards, reinforced at critical points, and my chair, borrowed from the landlady, had to bereturned every night. Seats for the children—these puzzled me much

      Definitely not the nicest school, probably an only African American school, and the whites definitely had a different school with nicer materials.

    10. for their knowledge of theirown ignorance.

      Rare ability to be aware of being ignorant, and we all struggle with it.

    11. The father was a quiet, simple soul, calmly ignorant, with no touch of vulgarity. The mother wasdifferent,—strong, bustling, and energetic, with a quick, restless tongue, and an ambition to live“like folks.”

      This is a very similar way to my household, but I know this is not the norm in most.

    12. gaunt

      Frail because of suffering, hunger, or age

    13. I feel my heart sink heavily as Ihear again and again, “Got a teacher? Yes.”

      No job opportunities, and I assume it had something to do with his race.

    14. white teachers inthe morning, Negroes at night

      Obvious sign of segregation in schools at the time

    15. I was a Fisk student then, and allFisk men thought that Tennessee—beyond the Veil—was theirs alone,

      He was a student at an HBCU, and meaning it was mainly black people

    1. “We hold these truthsto be self-evident: That all men are created equal; that they are endowedby their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these arelife, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”EBSCOhost - printed on 8/6/2021 2:28 PM via UNIVERSITY OF LYNCHBURG. All use subject to https://www.ebsco.com/terms-of-use

      Declaration of Independence

    2. not rightly value the privilege and duty of voting

      Many whites did not want black people to vote, and this caused blacks to think that they did not value the right to vote.

    3. Negro must strive and strive mightily to help him-self

      Black people must help themselves to succeed.

    4. he has spoken against lynching, and in otherways has openly or silently set his influence against sinister schemesand unfortunate happenings.

      Washington was a speaker that spoke for the rights, and had a strong influence as a speaker.

    5. We have no right tosit silently by while theinevitable seeds are sownfor a harvest of disasterto our children, black andwhite.

      I assume this was a quote to motivate other black people to fight for the rights of education for all children.

    6. Negroes mustinsist continually, in season and out of season, that voting is necessaryto modern manhood, that color discrimination is barbarism, and thatblack boys need education as well as white boys

      They need to be persistent and not stop until their goals are met.

    7. Theydo not expect that the free right to vote, to enjoy civic rights, and to beeducated, will come in a moment

      It is a process and will take a long time to achieve these goals.

    8. The education of youth according to ability.

      African Americans have a lower education based on ability, and it will be tough for them to catch up to the white people.

    9. 1. The right to vote.2. Civic equality.3. The education of youth according to ability.

      Most African men are asking for these three things.

    10. He advocates common-school and industrial training, anddepreciates institutions of higher learning; but neither theNegro common-schools, nor Tuskegee itself, could remainopen a day were it not for teachers trained in Negro col-leges, or trained by their graduates.

      Black schools can't stay open because they don't have teachers in the schools.

    11. First, political power,Second, insistence on civil rights,Third, higher education of Negro youth,—

      Sacrifice these things now to have success in the long term and start by learning industrial education.

    12. But Booker T.Washington arose as essentially the leader not of one race but of two,—acompromiser between the South, the North, and the Negro.

      Compromiser between the south, north, and African Americans was essential.

    13. Self-assertion,especially in political lines, was the main programme, and behindDouglass came Elliot, Bruce, and Langston, and the ReconstructionEBSCOhost - printed on 8/6/2021 2:28 PM via UNIVERSITY OF LYNCHBURG. All use subject to https://www.ebsco.com/terms-of-use

      Leaders that influenced politicians had the most success.

    14. By 1830 slaveryseemed hopelessly fastened on the South, and the slaves thoroughlycowed into submission

      There was no escaping slavery in the south by 1830.

    15. Nat Turner

      Revolted against many slave owners, and was eventually hung.

    16. Stern financial and social stress after the war cooled much of theprevious humanitarian ardor

      The war and financial problems caused less humanitarian enthusiasm

    17. The influenceof all of these attitudes at various times can be traced in the history of theAmerican Negro, and in the evolution of his successive leaders.

      The influence of different attitudes of past leaders led to the success off later African American leaders

    18. real progress may be negative and actual advance be relative retro-gression.

      I agree with this statement, but I think it doesn't happen often.

    19. If the best of the AmericanNegroes receive by outer pressurea leader whom they had not recog-nized before, manifestly there is herea certain palpable gain.

      It is best if the leader for black people is someone they have never heard of.

    20. there is among educated and thoughtful colored men in allparts of the land a feeling of deep regret, sorrow, and apprehension atthe wide currency and ascendancy which some of Mr. Washington’stheories have gained

      Many educated black men because they had the same opportunities to change the world like Washington did, but they didn't..

    21. demagogues

      Political leader who seeks support from the ordinary people.

    22. it is easier to do ill than well in the world

      I think this relates to everyone's life. It's a lot harder to do the right that can help the world than it is to the easy thing that hurts the world thing sometimes.

    23. that the picture of a lone black boyporing over a French grammar amid the weeds and dirt of a neglectedhome soon seemed to him the acme of absurdities

      It's crazy that a man that can speak French and is highly educated but has been neglected because of his skin color.

    24. Mr. Washington first indissolubly linked these things; he put enthusiasm,unlimited energy, and perfect faith into his programme, and changed itfrom a by-path into a veritable Way of Life

      Indissolubly- Impossible to break apart.

      Linked learning with energy and faith in his program and made it so that education could be a direct path for life.

    25. The South interpreted it in different ways: theradicals received it as a complete surrender of the demand for civil andpolitical equality; the conservatives, as a generously conceived workingbasis for mutual understanding.

      Different viewpoints from radical southerners compared to conservatives..

    26. In all things purely social we can be as separate as the five fin-gers, and yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual progress

      Separate in education, but both are making the similar progress.

    27. the nation was a little ashamed of havingbestowed so much sentiment on Negroes, and was concentrating its en-ergies on Dollars.

      Americans were guilty of putting slaves through so much just to make money

    28. the Free Negroes from 1830 up to war-time hadstriven to build industrial schools

      Free African Americans were trying to get an education before the Civil War by building industrial schools