346 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2023
    1. are historic homes that are crumblingas FDOT finalizes its plans

      Historic homes being destroyed because of FDOT

    2. little knowledge of the geo-graphic locations of East Tampa neighborhoods and dismissedquestions about environmental and social impacts

      No care for minor communities

    3. costly, inefficient, and irre-sponsible use of taxpayer dollars.

      reasons for arguing the TBX

    4. displacement oflow and moderate-income residents, particularly those livingin historically Black neighborhoods near downtown

      Forced them to move and adapt

    5. decimating low-incomeand minority communities while providing access from citiesto White suburban areas

      providing access to wealthy communities, and destroying poor communities

    6. Indeed, highway construction dislocated more familiesand destroyed more buildings than any other redevelopmentproject

      destroyed communities by creating highways

    7. poor Black people in urban America

      cost of housing too high for black people, led to a housing crisis

    8. Housing Actof 1949, which provided unprecedented capital for urbanredevelopment projects, loans to energize the housing indus-try, and construction of public housing projects.

      Started urban redevelopment projects

    9. While Black urban enclaves within cities of-fered opportunities for work, education, and possibly a “senseof security from hostile whites

      Urban communities are mad because they are close to employment and a sense of security from whites. This happens now but is more common in history.

    10. those struggles are informed byresidents’ experiences with and memories of spatial practicesthat have marginalized or destroyed communities that weremeaningful to Black resident

      Infrastructure has destroyed things meaningful to the black culture

    11. urban change

      urban change causes black neighborhoods to migrate

    12. JimCrow laws forced Black residents to live in certain sections

      History, led to separation of communities

    13. race and space are characterized by inequal-ity and difference

      inequality in communities

    14. ontinuously invented and reinvented through relation-ships and interactions between individuals and groups

      Relationships cause changes between groups of people

    15. race and space is that bothare historical and fluid

      always changing

    16. esidents of Black and low-income communitiesare more likely to suffer from environmental degradation

      Low income communities are more likely to have depletion of resources because of highways

    17. TampaHeights and East Tampa also explores racialized and contestedstruggles over federal and state plans that will drastically af-fect residents’ relationships to community spaces.

      Study between the 2 studies shows how different communities are effected.

    18. both race and space are characterized by manyforms of conflict and struggle over the natural and builtenvironment.


    19. oncepts of race andspace share very similar characteristics

      Race and space have similar characteristics

    20. engage-ment with racial studies by critical geographers has fosteredan understanding of the ways that “space works to conditionthe operation of power and the constitution of relationalidentities.

      Studies about race have contributed to understanding the ways of other cultures and races

    21. nthropology of space and place contributes to criticalspatial studies with a wealth of ethnographic scholarship onthe cultural production of space

      Focus on cultural production of space, is that what they mean?

    22. racialized social hierarchies, thus facilitating dominationand exploitation.

      We also talked about that in Traditions and Revolutions

    23. racialization

      a political process of ascribing ethnic or racial identities to a relationship, social practice, or group

    24. lived experience of racehas a spatial dimension, and the lived experience of space hasa racial dimension

      2 dimensions to the living experience, but what do they mean

    25. lack women at the center ofstruggles for spatial justice

      More specific in the fact that black women are struggling

    26. mobilization in Black communities

      Black communities seem to be moving, possible because of urban development

    27. community histories.

      Research of the history is a part of the protests

    28. Black Ninth Ward

      organization in New Orleans

    29. anthropologists

      a person who studies of human societies and cultures and their development.

    30. urban residents are engagedin similar struggles against highway expansion projects

      Not just in Tampa

    31. Many families who havelived in East Tampa for several generations moved there dueto urban renewal, which demolished housing in other Blackneighborhood

      People moved there because of new housing in other communities that destroyed the housing of the black neighborhoods

    32. predominantly Black, multi-neighborhoodEast Tampa area

      East Tampa- Minority communities

    33. this had occurred in Tampafrom the 1950s through the 1970

      History of the same thing happening

    34. highway expansion initiativeshave disproportionately affected areas of the city that houselarge numbers of ethnic minority residents,

      Highway expansion effects ethnic minority residents by tearing down important cultural institutions.

    35. Young-Green was not only asserting her placeas a community leader but also as someone who could speakto the racialized history of highway expansion.

      African American speaker who lives in Tampa Heights and speaks about race and the history of highway expansion

    36. destroy cherished public and privatespaces without regard for the significance of these placesand spaces to people in the community.

      reason for protesting the TBX project

    37. White audience wereresidents of Tampa Heights

      Tampa Heights=predominantly white

    38. impactof the plan on the economy and residents of the surroundingneighborhoods

      Impacts the economy and residents in surrounding neighborhood, but how?

    39. Speakers addressed issues related tothe history and impact of previous highway construction,

      Obviously there was an effect on communities in previous instances, but what are the effects?

    40. Disruption and displacement are just two of the crucialissues facing residents

      Disruption- pulling everything apart Displacement- adapting our people, resources, values and processes

    41. communitiesmay suffer from other effects because of past, current, andproposed urban projects

      May seem like a good idea to implement the TPX project, past projects have effected communities in the past

    42. They had even or-ganized and participated in public protests against the projectcalled Tampa Bay Express

      Residents of Tampa Heights already protested against other highway expansion plans

    43. from other communities who would also be affectedby the expansion plans

      More than one community effected

    44. FDOT

      Florida Department of Transportation- had plans to have the expressway expansion to improve the infrastructure.

    45. community pushbackto proposals for infrastructural improvements

      Do the black communities not want infrastructural improvements in their communities?

    46. Key words:

      Most important words, should highlight these points with the following words.

    47. intersection of race, space, and resistance as we revisit the legacies and contemporary implicationsof urban development policies in historically Black communitie

      Shows what the article is about, which is the urban development and history of the black communities

    1. Key words

      Important words to recognize in the article

    2. community pushback to proposals for infrastructural improvements

      Does the community not want improvements to their community?

    3. intersection of race, space, and resistance as we revisit the legacies and contemporary implications of urban development policies in historically Black communities.

      Talks about the history of development in black communities


      Tons of sources

    2. Effective trauma-informed services are services notjust designed to treat symptoms or syndromes related tosignificant sexual, physical, or emotional abuse; they areservices where staff are aware of, and sensitive to, doingno further harm to survivors

      conclusion paragraph, topic sentence sounds like a thesis

    3. Trauma symptoms arising from past violence, and theabsence of perceived safe and supportive inpatient envi-ronments, creates obstacles to effective treatment andcare for consumers of mental health services

      restatement of intro

    4. The most effective staff orientation and ongoingstaff development programmes included active learningopportunities of topics, such as substance abuse andtrauma, therapeutic safety and boundaries, establishing,maintaining and terminating therapeutic relationships,de-escalation, strengths-focused care planning, andconsumer participation and empowerment

      Best solution stated

    5. gazetted

      To announce something

    6. TABLE 1:

      Results of a study

    7. active leadershipsupport, role modelling, and engagement in trauma-informed principles; (ii) data collection (e.g. seclusionand restraint incidents); (iii) rigorous debriefing andprevention-focused analysis of events that do occur; (iv)trauma-informed education and skill development ofstaff; (v) use of a range of assessments (e.g. trauma, risk,and strengths identification) and tools to teach self-management of illness and emotional regulation; and (vi)involvement and inclusion of consumers at all levels ofcare

      Every solution, going to be elaborated in later paragraphs

    8. positive correlation

      same idea as a positive relationship

    9. identified six pivotal ingredients in eliminat-ing seclusion and restraint

      number of solutions

    10. RESULTS

      Results are bolded and the header, making the reader interested to know them

    11. pecifically identifiedpractices that could be utilized by mental health nurses inyouth and adult inpatient settings to promote trauma-informed care

      shows what people are able to use these practices

    12. literature search

      from scholars

    13. ey principlesof trauma-informed care

      Multiple answers

    14. paradigm

      Paradigm: a typical example or pattern of something; a model.

    15. counteracted

      Starting to make a solution

    16. 92% of adults experiencing a major traumatic event willnot go on to develop post-traumatic stress disorder as aconsequen

      Statistic from other sources

    17. reinforces the link between childhood trauma and long-term negative health outcomes

      Another reason to prove something

    18. positive relationship

      As one goes up, the other goes up as well

    19. study inthe USA established an irrefutable link between the child-hood exposure to harsh experiences, such as physical andsexual abuse, and neglect, and exposure to domestic vio-lence and adverse health outcomes in adulthood

      Statistics proven by a study

    20. Well-connected neural pathways, neces-sary for the development of healthy, adaptive responsesto experiences and emotions, are diminished in childrenexposed to adverse environments compared to thoseexposed to more positive environments. The resultingimpairment in mood and behaviour regulation leads tosubsequent maturational difficulties, such as an inabilityto establish effective interpersonal relationships, regulateemotions, and learn from own and others’ experiences(Schore 2003)

      Problem and result of the problem

    21. (Bremner2002; Heim & Nemeroff 2002)

      KP: In text citations

    22. Is trauma-informed care solely about eliminatingseclusion and restraint, or are there other tangible practices nurses could utilize to effect better healthoutcomes for mental health clients, especially those with significant abuse histories?

      KP: What the article answers, and it is a yes or no question, but there is more than one answer.

  2. Sep 2023
    1. Others worry that their ambivalencewill end up confusing readers who require decisive, clear-cut conclusions.

      Being indecisive often confuses the reader

    2. Byadmitting that the opposing argument has a point, Ungar bolsters hiscredibility,

      Using the other argument increases credibility

    3. us get beyond the kind of “is too” / “is not” exchanges that oftencharacterize the disputes of young children and the more polarized shoutingmatches of talk radio and TV.

      More of a medium between completely agreeing and completely disagreeing

    4. whenever you agree with one person’s view, youare likely disagreeing with someone else’s.

      If you agree with someone, you disagree with others

    5. as long as you can support a positiontaken by someone else without merely restating what was said, there is noreason to worry about being “unoriginal.”

      Basically as long as you add something to the conversation, no reason to say your unoriginal.

    6. your textcan usefully contribute to the conversation simply by pointing out unnoticedimplications or explaining something that needs to be better understood.

      Add to the reasonings to help the reader understand more.

    7. ou also needto do more than simply echo views you agree with.

      Needs be more than restating what others already said

    8. disagreements do not need to take the form of personal put-downs.

      No need to insult when disagreeing.

    9. ot wanting to be unpleasant, to hurt someone’s feelings, or tomake yourself vulnerable to being disagreed with in return

      Reasons to not want to express disagreement

    10. ou can also disagree by making what we call the “twist it” move, inwhich you agree with the evidence that someone else has presented butshow through a twist of logic that this evidence actually supports your own,contrary position.

      Is this like using someone's own words against them?

    11. disagree not with the position itself but with the assumption thatit is a new or stunning revelation.

      I've never heard of that way, seems a lot more difficult than arguing the other side.

    12. you also have to offer persuasive reasons why you disagree.

      Explanation on why you disagree

    13. Disagreeingcan also be the easiest way to generate an essay:

      I think this is also the easiest way to write an essay

    14. ost interesting interpretations tendto be those that agree, disagree, or both

      What other ways are they talking about in the paragraph before?

    15. readers cometo any text needing to learn fairly quickly where the writer stands,

      The readers need to know your argument. What other ways to argue are there besides agree, disagree, or both

    16. Still, you may object that these three basic ways of responding don’tcover all the options

      I don't really know what they mean by this.

    17. stating clearly whether you agree,disagree, or both,

      Make sure your argument is clear.

    18. he more complex and subtle yourargument is, and the more it departs from the conventional ways peoplethink,

      The more complex, the more readers have to think

    19. hen writers take too long to declare their position relative to viewsthey’ve summarized or quoted, readers get frustrated,

      Get to the point so the reader doesn't have to wonder what you are arguing.

    20. agreeing,disagreeing, or some combination of both.

      Ways to respond

    21. What these students come to realize is that goodarguments are based not on knowledge that only a special class of expertshas access to but on everyday habits of mind that can be isolated, identified,and used by almost anyone.

      Arguments are not just based on research

    22. they do not know enough about the topic at hand or because, they say, theysimply are not “smart enough.”

      I find myself saying this sometimes too

    23. “I say” stage,

      Response stage

    24. “Aquote by Shakespeare says.” Introductory phrases like these are bothredundant and misleading.

      What not to do to introduce a quotation

    25. readers need to see how you interpret the quotation,

      Seeing what you think the meaning of the quote is

    26. not all quotationsrequire the same amount of explanatory framing,

      Different explanations for different quotes

    27. framing creates a kind of hybridmix of Tannen’s words and those of the writer.

      Balance between writer's quote and your words


      Important to use a quotation for the essay we have to write

    29. studentexplains the quotation while restating it in his own words, thereby making itclear that the quotation is being used purposefully instead of having beenstuck in simply to pad the essay or the works-cited list

      Restating the quote in his own words makes it clear that there is a purpose for the quotation

    30. academic communicationtends to be a competition for supremacy in which loftier values liketruth and consensus get lost.

      Communication tends to be an argument for who is right, not what the truth is.

    31. with the statement introducing it serving asthe top slice of bread and the explanation following it serving as the bottomslice.

      How to adequately frame a quotation

    32. Since this student fails to introduce the quotation adequately or explain whyhe finds it worth quoting, readers will have a hard time reconstructing whatTannen argued.

      Failing to introduce a quotation means that readers will have a hard time understanding it.

    33. “dangling” quotations

      Quotations without an explanation

    34. you need to build a framearound them in which you do that speaking for them.

      Makes the quotes clear and their relevance known.

    35. When you're deeply engaged inthe writing and revising process, there is usually a great deal of back-and-forth between your argument and any quotations you select.

      Choosing the right quotations are difficult and will change throughout the writing process.

    36. you need to have a sense ofwhat you want to do with them—that is, how they will support your text atthe particular point where you insert them.

      The quote being used should have a specific place in the essay that supports your text.

    37. what the quotation means,and how the quotation relates to your own text.

      How to use a quotation in your academic writing

    38. quotations are orphans: wordsthat have been taken from their original contexts and that need to beintegrated into their new textual surroundings.

      They need an explanation around them.

    39. Because the meaning of a quotation isobvious to them, many writers assume that this meaning will also be obvious

      This shows that they should explain the meaning of the quote is so that the readers understand what the quote means too.

    40. because theydon’t fully understand what they’ve quoted and therefore have troubleexplaining what the quotations mean.

      Reasons for not quoting too much, because that could mean a lack of understanding of the quote.

    41. Quoting someone else’s words gives atremendous amount of credibility to your summary and helps ensure that itis fair and accurate.

      Using direct quotes gives more credibility because of its accuracy

    42. Do you think the list format is appropriate for this argument? Why orwhy not?

      Yes, because it is organized and it comes back to the same main idea


      This will be very useful for writing my essays

    44. To introduce a summary, use one of the signal verbs

      Use signal words to introduce a summary

    45. Though “he says” or “she believes” willsometimes be the most appropriate language for the occasion,

      Use "he says" or "she believes" occasionally, but not too much

    46. urge,” “emphasize,” and “complain about”

      examples of better words to use rather than say

    47. that writing is aboutplaying it safe and not making waves,

      Not true

    48. In some cases,“the says” may even drain the passion out of the ideas you’re summarizing.

      Loses passion by using boring words/templates

    49. avoid bland formulas like “she says” or“they believe.”

      Boring and don't use them often

    50. But in taking their position to itslogical conclusion,

      Must have a logical conclusion

    51. the satiric summary,

      I don't think I'm ever going to use a satiric summary

    52. eflecting not justthe source you are summarizing but your own perspective or take on it aswell.

      Have your own view of the source your summarizing

    53. riting a good summary means not just representing anauthor’s view accurately but doing so in a way that fits what you want to say,the larger point you want to make.

      Summary needs to fit the large point you need to make

    54. it has a clear,overarching goal:

      Make sure your reasonings have a clear goal

    55. Not all lists are bad, however. A list can be an excellent way to organizematerial

      Beneficial for organizing or an outline

    56. ist summaries,

      Fail to focus the summaries to a claim

    57. But writers often summarize a given author on oneissue even though their text actually focuses on another.

      Focus on the same text

    58. th toward Zinczenko’s own text and toward the secondparagraph, where the writer begins to establish her own argument.

      First paragraph has own text and leads to her argument

    59. If you want your essay to encompass all threetopics, you'll need to subordinate these three issues to one of Zinczenko’sgeneral claims and then make sure this general claim directly sets up yourown argument.

      Similar to a five paragraph essay

    60. you to temporarily adopt theworldview of another person, it does not mean ignoring your own viewaltogether.

      Do not ignore your own views


      Have some structure

    62. t is extremely important that you go back to what those others have said,

      Use what other people said, and repeat it in the essay

    63. the closest cliché syndrome,

      Summarized the wrong view the author actually expressed

    64. ou are likely to produce summaries that are so obviously biased thatthey undermine your credibility with readers.

      being too biased makes the article not as credible.

    65. readers should not be able to tell whetheryou agree or disagree with the ideas you are summarizing.

      Important to know for essays

    66. To write a really good summary, you must be able to suspend your ownbeliefs for a time and put yourself in the shoes of someone else.

      Way of trying to understand the other arguments

    67. a summarymust at once be true

      Cannot make false claims about the other argument

    68. Lackingconfidence, perhaps, in their own ideas, these writers so overload their textswith summaries of others’ ideas that their own voice gets lost.

      Find a balance between summarizing and your own ideas.

    69. because they fear that devoting too much time to otherpeople’s ideas will take away from their own.

      I thought Freire was doing the same thing in Pedagogy of the Oppresed

    70. it is important to knowhow to summarize effectively what those other people say.

      Important to understand what others are saying and summarize it

    71. By reminding readers of the ideas you’re responding to, return sentencesensure that your text maintains a sense of mission and urgency from start tofinish.

      Sense of meeting when repeating claims. Also gets stuck in the reader's head.

    72. In other words, even when presenting your own claims, you should keepreturning to the motivating “they say.”

      Keep the they say in mind and return that

    73. it’s very important to continue to keep thoseideas in view. Readers won’t be able to follow your unfolding response,much less any complications you may offer, unless you keep remindingthem what claims you are responding to.

      Just like Freire in Pedagogy of the Opressed

    74. nother way to open with a debate involves starting with a propositionmany people agree with in order to highlight the point(s) on which theyultimately disagree:

      Way to start a debate is to go against the norm

    75. Furthermore, opening with a summary of a debate can help you explore theissue you are writing about before declaring your own view.

      Way of exploring an issue and giving more details before stating your view


      How to make your own argument


      Ways to start with a they say argument

    78. Instead ofOpening with someone else’s views, you could start with an illustrativequotation, a revealing fact or statistic, or—as we do in this chapter—a

      Ways to begin an essay

    79. Modern English . . . is full of badhabits

      I agree with this and I am probably one of those people who have these bad habits

    80. Although we agree that you shouldn’t keep readers in suspense too longabout your central argument, we also believe that you need to present thatargument as part of some larger conversation,

      Find a balance between taking to long to talk about your central argument and presenting your argument as part of a conversation.

    81. The point is to give your readers a quick preview ofwhat is motivating your argument, not to drown them in details right away.

      Details come later.

    82. What we suggest, then, is that as soon as possible youstate your own position and the one it’s responding to together, and that youthink of the two as a unit.

      Your position and the one it responds to should be in the same paragraph.

    83. remember that you areentering a conversation and therefore need to start with “what others aresaying,” as the title of this chapter recommends, and then introduce yourown ideas as a response.

      Topic paragraph should include what others say first, then your ideas

    84. to keep an audience engaged, writers need to explain whatthey are responding to—either before offering that response or, at least, veryearly in the discussion.

      The readers need to know what they are responding to early in the writing.

    85. only what their thesis is but also what larger conversation that thesis isresponding to.

      The thesis should have a thesis that relates to a broader conversation

    1. It is forthis reason that when our schools areseparate, the control of the teachingforce, the expenditure of money, thechoice of textbooks, the discipline andother administrative matters of thissort ought, also, to come into ourhands, and be incessantly demandedand guarded.

      Does this mean that schools are separate so they can control who gets what.

  3. moodle.lynchburg.edu moodle.lynchburg.edu
    1. Students will be allowed to have guest speakers toclub meetings. The only regulation should be to informthe club sponsor.

      Completely agree, and I wonder why this isn't a normal thing.

    2. Library facilities will be expanded in all East LosAngeles high schools.

      I think libraries are an important part of education that isn't talked about enough.

    3. New high schools in the area must be immediatelybuilt.

      They are asking for a lot in this article.

    4. No teacher will be dismissed or transferred because ofhis political views and/or philosophical disagreementswith administrators.

      I don't know how well this is going to work, but this should be the case no matter what.

    5. chool facilities should be made available forcommunity activities under the supervision of Parents'Councils (not PTA). Recreation programs for childrenwill be developed.

      I agree with this statement

    6. Any teacher having a particularlyhigh percentage of the total school dropouts in hisclasses shall be rated by the Citizens Review Boardcomposed of the Educational Issues Committee.

      I disagree because it is also on the students to give their best.

    7. Dress and grooming standards will be determined bya group of a) students and b) parents.

      I assume this is talking about a dress code

    8. Entrances to all buildings and restrooms should beaccessible to all students during schools hours.

      I wonder what the point of this statement is?

    9. Only area superintendents can suspend students

      Completely disagree with this statement. Superintendents aren't in the schools with the students every day like the teachers are.

    10. tudent menus should be Mexican oriented. WhenMexican food is served, mother from the barriosshould come to the school and help supervise thepreparation of the food.

      Mexican culture everywhere, even in the school lunches

    11. All administrators where schools have majority ofMexican-American descent shall be of Mexican-American descent.

      Is it bad that I think this is now being unfair to white people or other races?

    12. to show the injustices that Mexicanshave suffered as a culture of that society.

      Similar to what the African Americans want

    13. dministrators and teachers who show any form ofprejudice toward Mexican or Mexican-Americanstudents,

      Punishment for prejudice towards Mexican Americans will be fired. I don't know if I agree with this, I think it should be a warning the first time.

    14. Bilingual-Bi-cultural education will be compulsory forMexican-Americansdmthe;Los Angeles City SchoolSystem where there is a majority of Mexican-Americanstudents.

      I'm assuming this is used so that people that are not Mexican Americans can learn about their culture.

    15. No student or teacher will be reprimanded orsuspended for participating in any efforts which areexecuted for the purpose of improving or furtheringthe educational quality in our schools.

      No punishment for trying to improve the quality of schools

    16. see how theyfit in with contemporary educationalneeds:

      Solutions to each problem on education.

    17. If the walkouts weren't entirely successful,they certainly empowered and unified theEast LA. community under a just cause,while awakening the politicalconsciousness of Chicano youth.

      The walkout didn't entirely succeed, but they did get attention from the Chicano youth.

    18. agree with 99% ofstudent demands, yet not follow throughciting lack of funding.

      Agreed with the students, and didn't do anything to help them.

    19. improvements to school buildings,facilities and the Industrial Arts Program --designed seemingly to funnel MexicanAmericans to low-paying jobs, whichrequired less critical thinking andcommunication skills.

      Used Mexican Americans to build schools that didn't require that much intelligence

    20. academic changes to theLAUSD curricula and source material inorder to reflect Mexican American historyand culture.

      Another similarity to Massive Resistance in a Small Town

    21. Educational IssuesCoordinating Committee (EICC),

      Seems similar to the NAACP

    22. From March 1 to March 8 1968,approximately 15,000 students walked outof classes from Woodrow Wilson, Garfield,Abraham Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt,Belmont, Venice and Jefferson HighSchools,

      Similar to the strike in Massive Resistance in a Small Town

    23. Meanwhile, adeveloping iconography of cultural prideand beauty was empowering Chicanoswith art and murals throughout East LosAngeles communities.

      Their culture was giving them a power

    24. Mexican Americanstudents continued to trail behind in theclassroom.

      Similar scenario to black people at this time

    25. Chicanos

      An American of Mexican origin or descent, especially a man or boy

    26. Prejudice from teachers andadministrators, both liberally-minded andoutright bigoted, instigated stereotypes ofMexican Americans that discouraged thestudents from higher learning.

      Reasoning for the statistic above

    27. 1967 Mexican American studentsthroughout the Southwest held a 60%high school dropout rate.

      That's an unbelievable statistic that shows how poor the education system was for minors.

  4. moodle.lynchburg.edu moodle.lynchburg.edu
    1. hat museum has been the healing ground for me,” Carrington says. She’s learned forthe first time how white families were impacted, befriended a former academy teacher,and done a lot of praying to help get over her anxieties and anger. “I have come so far,”she says. “I’ve surprised myself.

      Not just an African Museum, but it shows how everyone was effected because of these times

    2. nd the common attitude was “never talk about it again,” Ward says. Many who wereinvolved in the strike and subsequent activism never told their children about it. Foryears, there was a pervasive lack of trust between black and white residents, as well astension between white families who sent their children to the academy and those whosent their kids to public schools

      Trying to forget everything about this era.

    3. two Negroes on the six-memberschool board.

      Signs of diversity in the town

    4. But she found herself hating school, shesays, probably because she was out of practice being a student

      Effects of being out of school for so long

    5. early all the students were black, and the private academycontinued to operate.

      Balance of public and private schools

    6. the schools opened in the fall of 1963 in leased public school buildings,with abundant supplies and teachers from across the country.

      Resources for all students, no matter the race

    7. Some were arrested for demonstrating without a permit, somefor singing on the steps of the white Farmville Baptist Church. But several businessesbegan hiring black workers

      Starting to see a change

    8. When the Foundationtried to buy the empty public school buildings for the private school, all but one of theschool board members resigned and released a statement in favor of public education.

      In favor of public education, but still weren't a fan of integrating schools

    9. “Blackpeople suffered much more, and because they were lower on the economic scale, theydidn’t have the ability that we did to recover from that. And that still shows in thiscommunity.”

      Completely agree

    10. $250 tuition and bus fee foreach student, there was no way her parents could afford it

      Ways to avoid blacks from attending school

    11. The General Assembly also passed a bill that allowed countyresidents to deduct up to 25 percent of their property taxes if they contributed to aprivate school.

      Helping the whites out

    12. “Going to school in churchbasements wasn’t fun,”

      Lack of resources

    13. We didn’t have schoolbooks to read. Mymother was not very educated but she was very intelligent. She taught us the best shecould.

      Lack of resources Even if the mother was smart, she can't give you the same education as an actual teacher can.

    14. The Virginia Teachers Association also sponsorededucational programs, and volunteers from as far away as New England came to tutorand work with the students

      Finding ways to succeed

    15. The school closings didn’t just affect children’s education—they changed families.

      Effect of the school closings in the area