16 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2015
    1. In traditionalanimal learning theory, the process that forms associations by the first mechanism(temporal pairing of activation) is called the classical or Pavlovian conditioning process,while the process that forms associations through the agency of error-correcting feedbackis called the instrumental or operant conditioning process

      That's funny. Eyelid conditioning is a well-known example of classical conditioning which is supposed to rely on the cerebellum. But the cerebellum isn't an associative learning machine-- it is an error learning machine! And yet classical conditioning is supposedly associative. This is confusing.

    2. The position-specifying values inthe nervous system are in no sense associative bonds: they were not created by temporalpairing and they do not function as conducting links in the circuitry that links sensoryinput to behavioral output, nor in circuitry that links the memory of one sensory input tothe memory of a different sensory input.

      Ants moving by stepping a given number of times, each step in a given direction. An accumulator neuron could keep track of the number of steps taken and estimate the displacement of the ant. Perhaps this same line of thinking could also account for direction but I can't see how at the moment. Accumulator neurons have a memory of events, but are not necessarily associative.

  2. Oct 2015
  3. Sep 2015
    1. In summary, Bouret and Richmond (2015) proposed that the role of the LC is related to the behavioral energy required to perform goal-directed actions

      If purkinje cells project directly to the LC, then they could signal errors to the LC. Perhaps these PN error signals oppose reward signals in the LC.

    1. ATP accounting

      This would be one way to sort cell types by metabolic cost, if a balance sheet of ATP made and spent were available. The cell that spends the most ATP is the most metabolically costly.

    1. dumb process of error correction

      If ChR2 learning is a process of dumb error correction, what kind of error is it correcting? Naively, it would be a movement in the direction opposite of the ChR2-evoked movement. So that the learned movement would counteract the cued, ChR2-evoked destabilization.

    1. Following surgery and lesions, animals recovered in normal rodent cages for 5 (for the two aspirated rats) or 10 (for the ibotenic acid-lesioned rats) days before resuming behavioral training.

      Could motor cortex remap over this time?

    2. motor cortex “tutors” subcortical motor circuits

      Where is the motor cortex?

    1. genomes in our mitochondria — the small, energy-generating organelles in most of our cells.

      Since purkinje cells use so much ATP, they could be particularly sensitive to the health of their mitochondria. So Purkinje Neurons might be particularly susceptible to mitochondrial disease.

    1. Behavioral audiograms were determined for four species of Glires: one lagomorph (domestic rabbit, O r y c t o l a g u s c u n i c u l u s) and three feral rodents (cotton rat, S i g m o d o n h i s p i d u s; house mouse, M u s m u s c u l u s; and kangaroo rat, D i p o d o m y s m e r r i a m i).

      The behavioral measure for mice and rabbits was a conditioned suppression task where a tone of a given frequency was paired with a shock that was incompatible with water-drinking. Once the animal associated shock with a given frequency, the loudness threshold for that frequency was determined through trial and error.

    1. gravitoinertial ambiguity

      I had to find other references for this phenomenon. The wikipedia page on Einstein's equivalency principle was helpful. As was this pdf with merfeld and zupan Until there is information from other sensory systems, fluid movement in otolith organs cannot disambiguate between a head tilt or a head acceleration.

    1. Involuntary movements such as spontaneous eye blinks can be successfully inhibited at will

      Do rates for spontaneous blinking change with classical eyelid conditioning? For example, Mauk's studies of rabbit eyeblink require a 250 msec blink-free period before a conditioned stimulus presentation. Are these blink-free periods more abundant with training, less abundant, or about the same? As noted by Chettih, studies using airpuff as the unconditioned stimulus involve a mixture of classical/operant conditioning. Both spontaneous blinking and eyelid closure prevents the airpuff from impinging the cornea, albeit at different time scales. Given that the animal learns to use the CS to block the airpuff, it may also learn to increase its rate of spontaneous blinking to prevent trial onset.

    1. Finally, bilaterally stimulating ventral tegmental area GABA neurons dramatically reduces anticipatory licking to conditioned odours, consistent with an important role for these neurons in reinforcement learning. Together, our results uncover the arithmetic and local circuitry underlying dopamine prediction errors.

      This is similar to a proposed mechanism for extinction of classically conditioned eyelid responses: inhibitory inputs to the inferior olive encode an expectation of the unconditioned stimulus.

  4. Aug 2015
    1. suggesting that Purkinje cells contribute input to an LC-NE population that do not project axons extensively to any of the output sites we examined.

      This LC sub-population could project downward to spinal cord.

    2. non-specific viral labelling

      Could this non-specific labeling account for the putative Purkinje neuron inputs?