69 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2016
    1. Baltimore

      Oh my goodness. This is so important! To have just read an article about the bias within the criminal justice system in Baltimore in particular. She alludes to that fact that there were some things that were happening within the municipal system that made so many people feel uncomfortable, and actually targeted.

    1. "I found him in a small cardboard box but I'm not even sure if it's our child or a piece of sponge. It looks like charcoal,"

      I am absolutely speechless.

    2. Islamic State group sparked fires in shopping arcades on either side of the street that accounted for a significant proportion of the casualties.

      We Americans need to be empathetic to the fact that countries within Southwest Asia are experiencing what seems like more than they can handle for the most part. I appreciate that the author included these facts.

    3. the effects of the fire made it very difficult to identify the bodies.

      Once again the description is heart-wrenching. For parents to be unable to identify their children must be the absolute worst feeling in the world. It attests to the fact that their identity had not even had the chance to be developed yet. Also, the way he is including these facts in their entirety almost makes the audience even more upset at Iraq's health minister as she was the one who claimed responsibility in her resignation.

    4. Charred incubators could be seen outside one of the entrances to the hospital

      Though this is fact, it was important for the author to include this. It appeals to pathos because the imagery within the description is triggering. "Charred incubators" sends a dagger to the soul because the children were absolutely innocent and didn't get a chance at life. The way he described it was absolutely unbiased and fact as it should have been.

    5. prompting Iraq's health minister to announce her resignation.

      I am particularly curious as to why when something terrible happens, many leaders in place resign rather than provide a new solution. I would be more interested to read about why she resigned and whether she was fit for the job or just resigned on account of this horrific incident.

    6. Baghdad

      It is important to read news from around the world because it is so easy to be consumed by the new happening within the country that there is a lack of compassion and an abundance of ignorance (and misinformation) towards other countries. We are a world system and need to be actively apart of the system.

    1. “Mere words by officials mean little when it’s people on the ground who are living with these material conditions every day

      In this article, it is the most, THE MOST important to include resident testimony and emotion. It appeals to pathos as it should because this is a social justice mega-issue. Where a population feels invalidated, they need validation after being correct.

    2. data-rich indictment of how Baltimore police officers have for years violated the Constitution and federal law by systematically stopping, searching (in some cases strip-searching) and harassing black residents

      I am unsure as to why it took so long to have an investigation. Was there not enough probable cause? I think it is important that they opened an investigation because it puts so many frustrations for people of color in Baltimore to rest, but almost instills more fears as to what the system that was established to protect and serve is doing to purposely counter that.

    3. had always expected that a federal investigation would uncover a pattern of racial discrimination.

      This quite disheartening to have the expectation. For audiences that are not people of color, I would be interested to hear their reaction. For myself as a black woman, I feel that same as Ray Kelly with the expectation. For others, that may not be the same.


      Sheryl Gay Stolberg is a pulitzer prize winning journalist for the New York Times, an award winning newspaper. Her focus is primarily on social justice and civil rights.


    1. "in the worst hell of his life"

      Since this was an accident, I personally feel for the officer. I appreciate that the author included this in the article because it makes the officer involved human rather than a destructive careless monster. This also adds to the authors ethos and the audiences pathos.

    2. She just drew you to want to be a part of whatever she was doing because you knew if she was doing it, it was worthwhile,

      This definitely attests to her caring personality. This article is appropriate for the people who are mourning and respecting Knowlton's legacy. This article was well written to address the facts but of course there will probably need to be more investigation so the family can get closure.

    3. The city called in the chaplain to counsel those participants and has arranged free counseling services for anyone else in the community who might need it.

      This shows compassion from the department to take care of the people there since this was an unfortunate accident. People were there because they wanted to be and that shows compassion from the community, so reciprocating that is important.

    4. Police have conducted the program for two years without incident,

      This gives them some defense. I like that he includes this fact. Without stating their successes, the article would focus on this particular mistake and be perceived as biased by readers.

    5. everyone was provided "blank guns,"

      They were "blank guns", but they were real guns which is another issue. When simulating, the use of real guns may not be necessary.

    6. the department was unaware there was any live ammo for the revolver.

      I understand that these people are human just like any other person who is doing a job and they are bound to make mistakes. However, there is a sense of carelessness in this part because a person could have checked for live ammo.

    7. show her support for local law enforcement,

      This quite ironic in a tragic way. Here, McLaughlin is appealing to pathos by including the reason she went and further on, having someone else speak on her behalf.

    8. Eliott C. McLaughlin, CNN

      Elliot McLaughlin has been a reporter with CNN for over 10 years. CNN is a revered news outlet.

    1. They were supposedly such good friends. Hae’s friend Aisha said that she was paging her like crazy.

      I don't agree with this argument completely. In this day and age of social media, I rarely connect with some of my closest friends when I am busy or just not in the mood. Not a substantial enough argument to me based off of personal experience but definitely something to think about.

    2. At, I mean, at the time, the only thing I really associated with that call was

      Here is somewhat of an explanation of him not thinking significant things about the day. He admitted to being high and not in his sober state of mind. He didn't associate anything significant with the day because the day was not significant yet.

    3. The normalness of the day

      I appreciate that Koenig shares her thoughts as well. She is a journalist and gives a good amount of her opinion but does her best to keep it informative without bias. She expressed a thought that the audience may have and she is connecting with them--this is her appealing to pathos. However, the logic is somewhat sketchy to me. Though she feels like he would go throughout the day with a fine tooth comb after being accused and convicted, she advocated in the first episode that it was difficult for people to remember things that happened 6 weeks ago let alone 14 years. Seems kind of inconsistent in my opinion. If she feels this way, wouldn't this challenge to the entire case be in jeopardy with his lack of accurate or adequate memory? Wouldn't he incriminate himself? Shouldn't she be worried about that?

    4. reasonably add to the ‘Adnan is guilty’ side of the scale.

      Reasonably is a keyword for me as the prosecution has to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that Adnan is guilty. Right away, she is adding to her credibility because she is explicitly saying that she is going to give information. She isn't holding anything back and she recognizes that there IS possible evidence against him. (Because I haven't read further), if she decides to "debunk" this evidence, she will appeal to the audience that believes that Adnan is innocent, and appeal to the skeptical audience.

    1. Probably track practice would have ended like, I'd say, 4:30.

      This part is particularly questionable because if he was as innocent as he is projecting, he would have gone through every detail of that day with certainty to ensure that there was no detail was missed, not just "probably there.

    2. When he first heard Jay's story of the crime, Adnan didn't say, well, it didn't happen like that, or, I didn't mean for it to happen like that. He said, it didn't happen.

      Her Sarah is alluding to the fact of his conviction as convincing and she is convinced.

    3.  When did you do that?

      To use actual evidence contributes to her credibility as an author and investigator.

    4. The state used this against him in two ways.

      As stated before, the prosecution attempted to challenge his "good" image because they are aware they sometimes teens lives away from their parents knowledge.

    5.      He was like the community's golden child.

      This is important. For the people who believe that he is innocent, this is part of their reasonable doubt that he would commit the crime. However, good reputations are often the easiest to break down and so they should be careful about stating how "good" he was.

    6. He's been in prison ever since.

      Why after this amount of time is she going to reinvestigate this crime? She doesn't personally know him or have anything vested in it so far.

    7. And that is, it's really hard to account for your time, in a detailed way, I mean.

      Before she even states her entire claim, she makes a point about how difficult it is to account for time in insignificant periods of someone's life. Further into the podcast, she uses her nephew as an example/as evidence for this supporting claim. She is using real life examples to establish some credibility and pathos for the audience because they can relate.

    8. Episode 1: The Alibi

      The Alibi give foresight to what some of this particular episode will be about.

    1. Admitting that white privilege helps you is really just congratulating yourself

      deBoer, Frederik. "Admitting that White Privilege Helps You is Really Just Congratulating Yourself." The Washington Post 28 Jan. 2016. Web. 8 Aug 2016.

    2. Just as in the fight against heart disease or drunk driving, awareness only has value if it actually leads to a change in behavior,

      A solution is being alluded to here, but a solution that may not be enacted.

    3. The unspoken but unmistakable logic is that by declaring themselves a part of the problem, they are defining themselves as part of the solution.

      Perfect way to articulate this. Here he is addressing his audience, those who are interested in the topic and those who fall under the category of boasting privileged people.

    4. If anything, they have always struck me as supremely self-satisfied.

      Very much so agree. Here, deBoer is addressing the hypocrisy and stagnancy of self-recognition within white privilege that retains white supremacy. When the oppressed are heard when they voice their dissatisfaction with oppression, it is deemed as their duty to do such: it is their job to fight for their rights. However, if a privileged person recognizes their role in oppression, they are praised for doing such just as they were unconsciously praised for not to anything...because that's the way that privilege works.

    5. the ritualistic practice of white self-indictment.

      Well articulated. As he further states within his article, the form of "self-indictment" places the "guilty" on a pedestal of approval and "self-regard".

    6. Strange that self-criticism seems so similar to self-improvement, and is expressed in such terms of self-congratulation.

      Liberation for the liberated and oppression for the oppressed it seems like. In other words, the self-awareness made him feel liberated in such a redundant way that it wouldn't make a difference if he proudly boasted as someone who does not have privilege and equality is attainable by all. Either way, nothing really changes.

    7. I mean that if genuine contrition and meaningful apology are the purpose of self-criticism — for complicity in white supremacy or anything else — then the practice is a paradox because the very performance of self-indictment, in this context, functions as a form of self-congratulation.

      I agree. The question there here would be what can the privileged to acknowledge, yet not boast in self awareness, about their privilege.

    8. That’s fine as far as it goes, but there’s a trap within his request: public self-indictment is impossible.

      Acknowledging the side that he is going to criticize for its legitimacy gives him some credibility.

    9. But like so much else in our society, the practice has ultimately worked not to undermine structural racism — the putative aim — but merely to deepen the self-regard of the educated white elite.

      This is his claim. I am using this perspective because it differs so much from any other perspective. There is the audience that altogether does not acknowledge that white-privilege exists. There is the audience like myself that pushes for white privilege recognition. And there is his perspective that disapproves of both so far.

    10. Fredrik deBoer is an academic and writer. He lives in Indiana.

      Fredrik deBoer is "writer and a researcher who works at the intersection of writing assessment, applied linguistics and literacy education." He receives his authority from an institution of learning to write his opinion for public consumption. http://purdue.academia.edu/FredrikdeBoer

  2. content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu:2048 content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu:2048
    1. question of how one should understand the normal restrictions, rules and burdens above which the privileged are placed.

      Here he is providing clarity about why privilege is so significant and how it interconnects with societal norms that are comfortable and accessible "to an exclusive subset of a given population" i.e. heterosexuals or white people.

    2. White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack’,

      I am glad that he referenced Peggy Mcintosh because I referenced this particular work of hers as well for my essay. She does a great job of making it a point to speak from personal experience.

    3. The understanding of privilege that is the focus of this essay is thus like the classical definition in that it posits privileges as tied to birth, but appeals to the modern/liberal notion in claiming that such unearned privileges are illegitimate.

      Here he establishes his claim in that privilege is something that a person is typically born into, in other words, something that was earned. I am still unsure of what he means by unearned privileges that are illegitimate. Perhaps he means that they are not legally recognized.

    4. Kruks 2012: p. 94

      Much of his evidence comes from the research of others on the same topic and they are all credible sources. He uses many of them to get his point across.

    5. Rather, the problem with privilege was that it attached to birth status, rather than to individual merit.

      True of all privileges, they are not earned but something that we are merely born into.

    6. partly constitutive of what it meant to be patrician.

      This brings up a good point about privilege and identity being interconnected.

    7. he Latin etymology of the term privilege points toward the concept of a ‘private law’ that situates one outside of the laws that bind others (Bailey 1998: p. 111; Gordon 2004: p. 174; Kruks 2005: p. 180). In this original sense, a privilege is a benefit or advantage that accrues to an exclusive (usually hereditary) elite, such that the benefits and advantages are part and parcel of their status as elites.

      This is the beginning of Monahan establishing credibility for himself. He wants readers to understand the full scope of privilege by starting from the origins of the word as it pertains to modern conceptualization. I also find this interesting myself and would not have thought to look up the origins of the word as supportive evidence as language had evolved so heavily.

    8. There is male privilege, white privilege, class privilege, heterosexual privilege and ability privilege, all of which are understood in relation to some corresponding form of oppression in the form of sexism, racism, heterosexism, ableism, ageism and so forth

      This is important to note that privilege is not confined to a single identity and can be applied to each individual in a different form.

    9. South African Journal of Philosophy 2014, 33(1): 73–83Printed in South Africa — All rights reservedCopyright © South African Journal of PhilosophySOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHYISSN 0258-0136 EISSN 2073-4867http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02580136.2014.892681South African Journal of Philosophy is co-published by Taylor & Francis and NISC (Pty) LtdThe concept of privilege: a critical appraisal

      Monahan, Michael J. "The Concept of Privilege: A Critical Appraisal." South African Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 73-83. 2014. Web. 8 Aug 2016. Michael Monahan has received his degree in Philosophy and works for the department of philosophy for Marquette University.

    1. CBRI Is the Dominant Racial Ideology

      Yes! They are addressing where this ideology in itself is an issue.

    2. HelenNeville and her colleagues interviewed over 30 raciallydiverse college students about their beliefs about raceand racism

      Neville conducted research in order to prove her ideas. This is important because without such research, her ideas could be considered subjective. Without evidence, there would be no valid argument.

    3. evading power, including the denial,minimization, and/or distortion of (a) blatant forms ofracism (e.g., “Racism is a thing of the past and is no longera problem today”), (b) institutional racism (e.g., “Certainpolicies and practices unfairly benefit racial and ethnicminorities”), and (c) racial privilege (e.g., “White peopledo not have certain advantages because of the color of theirskin”).

      This supports that claim that CBRI perpetuate racism because, though it may not be intended in all instances, they minimize the harmful effects of racial ideologies that have been instilled within different societies by completely ignoring them. Within the United States and outside of the United States, slavery existed. Slavery promoted the idea of white superiority by taking claim and owning members of perceived inferior races and treating them poorly to say the least on the basis of skin color alone (despite "biological evidence" which was later to be found as false). Members of the perceived inferior races experienced prejudice for decades after. The effects of slavery and those ideologies did not fade but simply redirected themselves into different systems such as the criminal justice system. The unfortunate truth is that race is a social construct based on subjective ideas and when analyzing a topic such as this, some may consider these to be subjective as well with subjective correlations.

    4. Elements of CBRI inpeople of color

      I appreciate that this was included. As a person of color, sometimes the idea that one who identifies with the marginalized group is not affected by CBRI is a false notion.

    5. The harmful effects of a color-evasion approach arealso evident among young children.Apfelbaum and col-leagues (2010)exposed elementary school children

      STAKEHOLDER. Though other stakeholders have been introduce, this one in particular uses pathos. Children are innocent and we as adults have the duty to teach them correctly and correct any teachings that are harmful. By showing that children can be harmfully affected by CBRI, it creates more stakeholders including teachers and parents since they are responsible for them no matter whether they identify a part of the marginalized group.

    6. e argue that it is unrealistic and even harmful todisregard another’s race or to not see color in a society thatis as racially stratified as the United States.

      Here they expand on their claim and are firm in their views.

    7. of potential racial differencesby emphasizing sameness

      Definitions are important. It creates clarity for the reader and (surprise) MORE credibility for the authors.

    8. In this article, we propose a CBRI framework to helpsynthesize the divergent perspectives in the literature. Indefining CBRI, we argue that racial color-blindness isunattainable, reinforces racial prejudices and/or inequality,and is actually an expression of ultramodern notions ofracism among White Americans and of internalized racismor the adoption of negative racial stereotypes among peopleof color

      This is their claim. Color-Blind Racial Ideologies perpetuate racism and inequality by not acknowledging the "elephant in the room" of race. To be completely oblivious to race is impossible with European colonialism across the world.

    9. In the 1990s, the American Psychological As-sociation (APA; 1997) published a pamphlet answering thequestion:Can— or Should—America Be Color-Blind?Us-ing research from social psychology, APA uncovered fal-lacies in individual and collective color-blind approaches toracism and thus concluded in the pamphlet, “Despite soci-ety’s best attempts to ignore race, the research indicatesthat race does matter” (p. 7).

      Once again, further adding to the credibility and this time to the publication of the essay by citing it. However, this is a place to be very careful as not to suggest bias and lack of well roundedness of sources and perspectives from multiple publications which they have an abundance of.

    10. Helen A. NevilleUniversity of Illinois at Urbana–ChampaignGermine H. AwadUniversity of Texas at AustinJames E. Brooks and Michelle P. FloresUniversity of Illinois at Urbana–ChampaignJamie BluemelChicago School of Professional Psycholog

      Each of the authors have their PhD in psychology. They are well-versed and studied in the areas and have the authority to teach on this topic. It is important to note the significance of these professors from different universities collaborating on this essay. In addition, it is important to note the publication and its national recognition.

    11. Psychology has a rich history of research designed tounderstand and describe the changing expressions of racialbeliefs,

      Great. Here they are establishing ethos/credibility to themselves by acknowledging the significance of psychology, which they all received their degrees in, as it pertains to this particular topic.

    12. Color-Blind Racial Ideology

      Neville, Helen et. al. "Color-Blind Racial Ideology: Theory, Training, and Measurement Implications in Psychology." American Psychological Association, Vol. 68, No. 6, Sept. 2013, pp. 455-466. Web. 8 Aug 2016.

    1. Megan Burnett

      Burnett, Megan. "On the Topic of White Privilege." Collegian. 7 Oct 2015. Web. 8 Aug 2016. Megan Burnett wrote for the CSU collegian in the Opinion section. There was much controversy after this article was published.

    1. The pressure to avoid it is great, for in facing it I mustgive up the myth of meritocracy. I

      Here again we see meritocracy as we saw in the other article by Michael Monahan. As with the other two articles, she explains race-relation evasion.

    2. After I realized the extent to which men work from a base of unacknowledged privilege, I understoodthat much of their oppressiveness was unconscious. Then I remembered the frequent charges fromwomen of color that white women whom they encounter are oppressive. I began to understand why weare just seen as oppressive, even when we don't see ourselves that way

      This gives her the most credibility because she is taking personal experience to shed light on an issue that she does not directly experience herself. She is able to criticize her own identity and apply understanding and empathy to other identities.

    3. I think whites are carefully taught not to recognize white privilege, as males are taught not to recognizemale privilege.

      She is comparing white privilege to male privilege. This is justifying her identity and authority to write this essay. Though she may not identify as holding a marginalized ethnicity, she does identify with a marginalized gender. She is attempting to make this topic more accessible to herself and to many of the readers who could be women.

    4. I realized that, since hierarchies in oursociety are interlocking, there was most likely a phenomenon of while privilege that was similarlydenied and protected.

      Once again like the other articles there is recognition on interconnectedness between privilege and identity. The reason I chose this article is because of the personal testimony of white privilege. She is not denying or evading the fact that she holds a very prominent privilege.

    5. Peggy McIntosh is associate director of the Wellesley Collage Center for Research on Women. This essay is excerpted from WorkingPaper 189. "White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming To See Correspondences through Work in Women'sStudies" (1988), by Peggy McIntosh; available for $4.00 from the Wellesley College Center for Research on Women, Wellesley MA 02181The working paper contains a longer list of privileges. This excerpted essay is reprinted from the Winter 1990 issue of IndependentSchool.White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible KnapsackPeggy McIntosh

      Mcintosh, Peggy. "White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack." White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences Through Work in Women Studies. 1988. Web. 8 Aug 2016.