261 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2023
    1. Each volume was bound andnumbered, and the set was titled whatwe had ended so many of our letters

      Really well written ending to this piece

    2. ow andagain, I had played with words becauselike to do so, perhaps writing somethingabout prose style in a style that exempli-fied it, or introducing a word like “numi-nous” because I liked the concept andfound something in her last letter that letme slip it in

      I love writing words for other people. Lately, whenever I have something serious to talk about, I began drafting an idea of what I want to say to them, as I am much better at writing then I am at speaking.

    3. had more good words, which themselvesare a gift

      Agreed, I love words of affirmation!

    4. a bundle of cards withwarm words as palpable as the straw-berry cream cake, for which I lusted

      Good wording

    5. OVIDstill had some fangs,

      Good wording

    6. The most memorable gifts, perhaps, areunexpected, sui generis, even profound

      For me, handmade gifts are more profound; someone put in the effort to think of and physically make me a gift, and it means a lot.

    7. Some have no idea that thewrong gift may be an insult—or a sourceof confusion.

      This is actually really interesting, because there are cultures where certain gifts are insults (like if you gift a knife/something similar it functions as an end for the friendship)

    8. They don’t saywhat they want back but may finagle toget it or hold a mean-spirited grudge ifthey don’t. Some give gifts to repay anobligation, or to create one.

      I don't like this reason to give gifts. It makes it a solely self-intersted thing to think this way, when it should instead be about the reciver of the gift.

    9. hope I never do itbecause I want something in return, beita compliment or something more tan-gible.

      I never give gifts for this reason. It is a tangible sign of my love for someone, and it means I was thinking about them and their preferences. I do it for nothing but to see them smile.

    10. Often, to break the unsaid requirementof buying a present for some specificoccasion, I have given a present simplybecause I felt like doing so—

      I do this all the time. Gifts are for any time, I will give a gift simply to make my friends smile. It means I'm thinking of them, and I like to show them that

    11. Receiving onecan for me be almost as difficult

      I totally understand this! I am such a big gift-giver, but not reciever. It is a giving love language of mine, not recieving

    12. ome friends have an uncanny flairfor gifts—choosing and giving them.

      I am such a big giver of gifts. I see things in stores all the time and immediatly think of one of my loved ones. I look to see if my friends ears are pierced and keep it in mind for later, just in case I want to get them jewlery. I make notes app lists for potential gifts for loved ones, months after their birthdays.

  2. May 2023
    1. From K–12 to university, a critically reflective and occupation-rich cultural edu-cation can help to establish conditions for personal flourishing, critical inquiry,and democratic participation.

      Yes, and education can do both! The main problem right now is that it's not; it is only focused on the vocational education

    2. It would be a tragedy that trivializes all of our successes if U.S. educationalpolitics and policy continues the national lockstep march down a path in which edu-cational institutions—or industries, for that matter—gain economic efficiency andincrease productivity by frustrating human growth, imagination, and fulfillment.

      Right, I agree. It is important that this is not the main purpose of education

    3. Meanwhile,as countless educators are patiently asserting, there are sound empirical reasonsto raise questions about a tendency to use an inflexible yardstick to standardizemeasures of educational progress uniformly across all individuals, schools, schooldistricts, and state borders

      Right, education is not "one size fits all." Common core is devoid of spirit in this way

    4. working toward a fundamental redirection of our culture

      Right, because it is a product of our culture, not the other way around (although now that it is ingrained in education, perhaps it is somewhat the other way around)

    5. ameliorate

      Ameliorate— to improve something, to make something bad or unsatifactory better

    6. A revolutionary culturalshift in the U.S. away from the industrial model and toward education-as-growthwould be salutary, but this does not mean we are doomed with anything short of thatshift.

      Yes, it would be absolutely great, but it is not like we are completely fucked if we do not do so.

    7. Absent qualitatively richimaginative engagement, a child’s education becomes a story of lost possibilities


    8. ach other chiefly as servants to the workaday world of adult business-as-usua

      Right, and this would also relate to "Luckily the Account Representative Knew CPR." When people only acknowledge one another in occupational context, some of themselves fundamentally is stripped away.

    9. Ubiquitous references to economic prosperity only weaken the case for theindustrial model.


    10. The moralmeaning of democracy, Dewey famously argued, “is found in resolving that thesupreme test of all political institutions and industrial arrangements shall be thecontribution they make to the all-around growth of every member of society.

      Right! All people should be valued, and have room for this all-around growth

    11. a very much larger class, of necessity,in every society, to forego the privileges of a liberal education and fit themselves toperform specific difficult manual tasks.”

      This is sad. All these people in the "larger class" deserve the same chance at being valued as well, aside from their work

    12. we split the head from the hands, or isolate humane studies from practicallife, we unfortunately tend to suppose that a liberal cultural education is the rightof only an elite few—the heads. Don’t we all—and not just the socially advantaged“heads”—deserve an education that prioritizes human growth?


    13. Whenpractical experience in a garden and kitchen are woven into the curriculum (notsimply added as gravy atop “real” curricular work), students may better understandthe loop of growth, maturity, decline, death, and decay.

      Right, and this also relates to the book Overworking. In overworking, the author discusses how there was more of a life-work balance pre-industrialism, and as such would include breaks for human necessity (here being gardening and cooking)

    14. kids learn better whenthey organically assimilate knowledge in an active, personal, imaginative, anddirect way. The industrial model of content delivery and retrieval, in contrast, lacksany sense of students or teachers as live creatures actively exploring, navigating,reaching, grasping, and making.

      Right. I always disliked when lessons were just about memorization and regurgitation. I wanted to understand and connect to what I was learning, not just blindly regurgitate it to pass a test.

    15. The dispiriting industrialization of Americaneducation betrays a willingness to overturn a hard-won Jeffersonian value that,despite its long history of antidemocratic detractors, penetrates the deeper soil ofAmerican yearnings and sympathies: everyone should have the ongoing oppor-tunity for an education that fronts growth, emotional development, imaginativeengagement, aesthetic vitality, social responsibility, and care.

      Right, and that is the hope for education. Yet in valuing only vocational preperation, this effectively gets lost in translation

    16. Have we madenarrower lives? Have we at times left each other embittered and disabled? Have weanesthetized moral and ecological sensitivity, imagination, and care?

      Right, and this is what Tolstoy was getting at with the Death of Ivan Illyich. Yes, the economy and industrial shit is importnat, but it is not what will make people happy. It does narrow their lives, and devalues the necessity of individualism

    17. Fractious politicsaside, it is not clear where growth, community, and quality of life come into thepicture when we see education through a narrowly utilitarian-industrial lens

      Right! It devalues the individualism of students. They are seen through this industrial lens rather than acknowledged as people

    18. none of this means we should turn students and teachers intofunctionaries or serfs for, in Dewey’s words in Democracy and Education, a “feudaldogma of social predestination.”


    19. Such an occupation-rich education in turn can energize and redirect ourever-evolving cultural practices through more informed and insightful publicdeliberation

      Right, it defenitly does not have to be fully divorced from it. It just does not need to be the primary reasoning driving education

    20. . The problem arises when institutions and policymakers assume,following the logic of the industrial model, that our primary and overriding edu-cational aim is thus to train students to fit the specifications of this existing infra-structure.


    21. Obviously many specific aims of education are set and defined by our eco-nomic infrastructure, such as the demand for great precision in STEM areas

      Yes! And this is very similar to what Deresiewcz has to say about the purpose of higher education; because certain market demands (STEM) are prioritized and seen as "better" areas of study, arts and creative interventions are seen as more motivated by naievete

    22. But neither party consistently sees studentsas cooperative participants in changing that regime

      Right. In seeing this only as preparation for vocational opportunity, students become the unwilling victims

    23. Let me highlight two areas of loss: the industrial model eggs onour problems, and it sacrifices personal enrichment.

      Two main losses of treating education industriall: exacterbates problems, and sacrifices personal enrichment

    24. the high-to-low grade differential isthe means for incentivizing competition

      Right. It is set up specifically to foster the need for competition that is prevalent within capatlistic buisness

    25. What is theindustrial model of education? On that model, educating whole persons for lifelonggrowth is replaced by education as just another industrial sector, on a par with anyother sector. Its job is to manufacture skilled labor, and it is expected to do so in away that is maximally efficient.

      Yes, and this is currently how education is modeled. It is operated not with the intention of expanding knowledge, but instead to improve industrialistic skill

    26. students may be trained and productively driven down preexistingvocational rows? Or is it, all things considered, to improve our lives? It’s the former,according to the industrial model implicit in much current U.S. educational poli-tics and policy

      Right, the way the system itself is set up pushes students to the former; they are only seen in realtion to the state's workforce and potential vocational skills

    27. It is typical of those who approach education primarily as a way to fuel industrywith skilled labor. This outlook is premised on an increasingly dominant educa-tional model that is both mis-educative and antidemocratic. It is fundamentally atodds with fitting students “for any and every relation” to which they “may be called.

      Right, and although not many revel in the idea when it's pointed out, it is true that it is a popular sentiment.

    28. The mission of K–12 and higher educationis, in Wisconsin Gov. Scott Walker’s infamous words last year, “to develop humanresources to meet the state’s workforce needs.”

      Ridiculous. But indicative of how much of the system is set up, in relaity

    29. “A being of infinitescope,” she wrote, “must not be treated with an exclusive view to any one relation. . . . Give the soul free course. . . and the being will be fit for any and every relationto which it may be called.”1

      Right, and that is particularly what is stripped away when people are only seen as employees. When the personage of workers is ignored, they are restricted in relation only to vocation.

    30. what, if any, is the chief mission of education?

      Right, and to many— particularly aligned with societal rhetoric— the purpose is to tailor to the state's workforce needs, rather than pursuit of knowledge.

    31. ypical of those who approach educa-tion primarily as a way to fuel industry with skilled labor. This outlookis premised on an increasingly dominant educational model that is mis-educative, antidemocratic, and incompatible with values of mutual respectand individual dignity

      Right, much of education is considered to be an investment towards learning occupational skills, rather than improvement of the self. As such, the actual model of our education is tailored to this ideal.

    32. todevelop human resources to meet the state’s workforce needs.”

      meaning, education is about meeting workforce needs— or was set up to do so— rather than the sole intention of improving students understandings and knowledge

    1. Food-service managers may use this knowledge of human intrinsic needs todevelop effective strategies in the areas of employee recruitment, selec-tion, and retention, as well as performance management.

      Right, and it can also help them better understand their employees and their own needs

    2. From a broad perspective, the findings of the study reported in the ar-ticle suggest that individuals evolve throughout their working lives.

      Main finding; individuals evovle throuought their working lives

    3. customize productivity enhancementincentives at the work unit level based on their awareness of needs pri-orities among specific staff members.

      Right, but they should also still be being considered as people, not just "staff members" to appease

    4. Human resources practitioners may choose to include the administra-tion of motivational profiles as part of the employee recruitment and se-lection processes. There are valid and reliable instruments that take littletime to complete and are self scoring available for purchase.

      This reminds me of some job applications I fill out, where they require you to fill out a questionarre about your personality and work habits. They are not even related to the job most of the time, but they are intended to gauge a potential employees personality and work ethic.

    5. preference for extrinsic rewards that satisfy safety/security needs; however, these same incentives might be intrinsicallyinterpreted as indicators of achievement in the minds of more matureworkers.

      yes; it seems they value more the fiscal needs that can be provided for, rather than team-bonding and motivational activities

    6. which seems to make sense inretrospect, in that this need is likely to be perceived as more importantfor older employees who may be considered to be more stable thanyounger workers in terms of job security.

      Okay.... meaning that they are sugggesting older employees emotional needs are better catered to?

    7. Under 21Years of Age (n = 80) and those Greater than 30 Years in Age (n= 57),statistically significant differences were found to exist among three ofthe scores across the items tested.

      Yes, but also statistically speaking, these sample pools are not equivalent. Whereas there were 80 people sampled under the age of 21, only 57 were sampled above 30 years of age. Any differences found could potentially be due to this disparity in sample sizes.

    8. his study employed a two-part questionnaire. The first section askedrespondents to report demographic information to include age, gender,workplace position level, industry sector and years of full-time equivalent(FTE) work experience. The second section consisted of an off-the-shelf instrument entitled the Managing by Motivation (MbM) Question-naire (Sashkin, 1991).

      The study took place via questionaries, where the classical motivation theories of Maslow and Herzberg were usd to measure motivational factors in service workers.

    9. The specific objectives of this study were to:1. Investigate motivational factors that were perceived to provide pri-oritized influence for current foodservice workers who were alsostudents at three universities located in various regions of theUnited States.2. Identify relationships of self-reported motivational priorities amongmembers of diverse groups (gender, age, graduate standing, workexperience, workplace positional status) over a five-year time-frame.

      The purposes of the study were to investigate motivational factors for food service workers, and how said factors were affected by the employees identity (gender, age, graduate standing, work experience, etc). Participants were studied over a five year time frame, during which they reported motivational priorities.

    10. Anecdotally, it seems as though the perceived need for social belong-ing declines with age, whereas self-esteem and self-actualization needs

      Meaning as we age we are less focused on belonging and fitting in, and more on self-esteem and self-actualization

    11. The entire body of the literature supports the notion that foun-dations of emotions, awareness, evolution and self-actualization existwithin the human mind. These all seem to be motivational factors thatinfluence the need for human achievement.

      Right absolutely. It is now undeniable that these efforts are taking place within the mind and brain.

    12. The recent findings from the neurosciences provide empirical evi-dence that human frontal cortex brain development continues into a per-son’s late twenties.

      Right. So even if someone were to legally be considered an adult, this does not mean they— or more importantly their brain— has stopped growing.

    13. social sciences researchmethods to establish findings. Recent advances in technology have fa-cilitated the capacity for researchers to observe brain functions duringvarious states of consciousness (Zohar & Marshall, 2000). Magneto-encephalography (MEG) machines are used to monitor brainwave ac-tivity, while functional magnetic resonance imaging (f-MRI) is used toview activated regions of the brain during responses to stimuli.

      This study, instead of being conducted as a research into social sciences, instead used technologies to measure actual brain function in response to stimuli. As such, they were able to logistically measure motivation, creating an experiment tailored to answer the main inquires of their study.

    14. The book advisedmanagers to treat workers as holistic human beings who possess variedemotional needs and levels of self-awareness.

      Right, so his book told managers to treat their employees as poeple. Its interesting how that must be pointed out for them to begin doing, rather than them already doing it. Why is it that they don't see their employees as people? Why does their power dynamic enforce the idea that one person is below another, and as such does not deserve basic common decency and consideration?

    15. It seems that all of these descriptions imply the intrinsic need forhumans to grow or evolve on personal levels.

      Right. And this suggests that even psycologically, we are always striving to grow and better ourselves

    16. Itsuggests that individuals possess an intrinsic propensity toward achiev-ing their potential and that “healthy” work environments might assist inunleashing this tendency among workers within organizations

      Right, people always want to be working towards improvement. A healthy work enviroment is defenitly a factor!! Good work cannot exist without it.

    17. Onemajor contribution of the emotional labor perspective is the acknowledg-ment that workers are emotive beings who are expected to display posi-tive emotional states as part of performing work related functions.

      Exactly! They are more than just workers; you can't require a human being to always be happy or in a good mood, hence the 'labor' aspect of emotional labor.

    18. Other attitudinal studies presented find-ings concerning positive and negative “affective responses” to emo-tional labor expectations within organization

      Right. Sometimes these expectations are too heavy or unrealistic. They do not consider that the employees are human too, and as such can be having a bad day, not feeling up to talking to customers, etc.

    19. some hospitality industry managers believe inhiring for “attitude” and training for knowledge and skills.

      This is very true! When I first got hired at Jamba juice, my boss told me "You can teach anyone to do the job. I hire based on people's personalities. You can teach anyone to make smoothies, but you can't teach genuine connection. That's something you just have to have."

    20. These employment scenarios led earlier scholars to en-gage in an area of research called “emotional labor” in order to investi-gate concepts related to the management of emotional displays throughnormative behavior in organizations

      EMOTIONAL LABOR– the emotional work and energy required for jobs (such as food service)

    21. ospitality industry requires rigorous levels ofpositive emotional behaviors from all workers, particularly those whointeract directly with visiting guests (Krebs, 2005). For this reason,emotional labor is an area of interest for foodservice managers.

      Food service, in general, requires for its employees to truly exude this "rigorous level of positive emotional behavior."

    22. hese customers have come to ex-pect employees to display certain hospitable behaviors that include pos-itive emotional expressions during service encounters (Ashforth &Humphrey, 1994).

      Right. There is an expectation for a certain type of behavior from service workers, that in which customers expect

    23. empirical study

      This paper originated as a report on a study

    24. he hypothesis ofthe study was that differences exist in perceived motivation needs be-tween younger and older workers.

      Hypothesis/aim of the original study

    1. Thoughthiswasknownamongstthehands,allwereafraidtospeak,andaworkmanthenwasafraidtocatryawatch,asitwasnouncommoneventtodismiss any onewhopresumedtoknowtoomuchaboutthescienceofhorology.

      Worker exploitation and the fear of standing up

    2. Inrealitytherewerenoreg!withusastheyliked.

      Overworking is spurred by a lack of control from employees and pressure from managment

    3. Thefactthatdailywa!hadditional hourworkedwasfree.

      It's interesting because this still does not even account for the fact that yes, it's free, but someone, a real person has to work that extra hour

    4. Thestruggleforsubsistencehadbecometheparamountfact oflifeformanypeople—andintheprocess,leisuretimebecameanunaffordable luxury.”


    5. “Tolosecontrol overone’sown(andone’s family’s)labourwastosurrenderone’sindependence,security,liberty,one’sbirthright.”

      Right; being able to fiscally support your family is now one of the most importnat concerns most people have, which incentivizes them to work

    6. They werenotdependentonthemarketfortheir“subsistence.”

      Right, people were able to have full independence overthemselves, adn not rely on teh outside (market) to sustain them

    7. arerapidlylosingouttotheircounter-partsinChina,wheredaily,weekly,andhourlyschedulesarefarmorearduous.

      Capatlism is so inherently competetive. There is never the satisfaction of reaching the top; the fight never ends

    8. slongasacriticalmassofemployerswasabletodemandlongerhours,theycouldsetthestandard.

      CONNECT: Wages in animation; how the one team of animators was underpaid, so now all animators are underpaid because they have that to compare it to

    9. orkersbecamevictimsinalarger-than-life struggleforfinancialdominance.

      And we still are.

    10. pitalistbusinesses,incontrasttomedieval manors,stroveformaximumprofits.Theylivedordiedbythebottomline.Timeoffwascostly,hencebitterlyresisted.

      Right. Capatlism is about squeezing out every ounce of productivity in order to compete, rather than actually regard the needs of employees and allow time off

    11. Neither peasantstreeweredependentonmarketsforbasicsubsistence

      Right. Now we can no longer be self-sustaning, and must rely on working and consuming to even live

    12. hereasIestimateaangeofhe“102,500hoursper yearforEnglishpeasants beforetheseven-conconteuy,&nicminetcenth-centuryworkerineitherEnglandond 3,690howeesmightputinanannuallevelofbetween3,15

      This is such a great increase— in fact, even the shortest part of the estimate (2,300 hours to 3,150 hours) is an increase of about 36%!!!

    13. second changewasthelossofnearlyalltheregularholidaysievalpeoplehad enjoyed.

      In changing our priorities, we lost a lot of our time off, which over time has exacterbated to the now almost no time off

    14. Eventually,whenartificiallightingcamei{touse, theworking“day” stretchedfarinto the night,and scheduled. hours climbed.

      Work is no longer based on the day. We are working later into the night (which I can definitely connect with; I am always doing work late at night and sacrificing my own sleep)

    15. eight,ten,ortwelve hoursadayforthosewhowerepoor

      Right; those who have lesser money are typically the ones the system intrinsically takes advantage of

    16. nordertoearnsufficientprofitstosurvive,employerstookadvantageofanintensificationoflabor.Theylearnedthat themarketsystemhasastructuralimperativetoexploitlabor:thosewhodo notsucceedinraisinghoursofworkoracceleratingthepaceofproduction mayvery wellbedrivenoutofbusinessbytheircompetitors.

      Right. That's exactly it; employers take advantage of the system to intensify labor; although it may fiscally benefit them, it remains detrimental to the employees to which the system has worked against

    17. ‘owners’time,thetimeofwork”;and“theirowntime,atime Gntheory)forleisure.”Eventually,workerscametoperceivetime, notasthemilieuinwhichtheylivedtheirlife,but“asanobjectiveforcewithinwhich[they]wereimprisoned

      Right, time is no longer our own. It is a means by which we operate based on the will of others

    18. timebecame“our-reficy:itisnotpassedbutspent.”


    19. Facedwiiofemployersandstate, thcefiled:antane‘»theworkers’resistancefailed;resigned themselvestotheJon;rpaceofwou;egerhours,thehighandtheregimentationofthe clocks.

      Right, I really like the word choice here. This was regimentation imposed by the state and employers

    20. ieeworken-Fineswereleviedagaiwhodisobeyedtheinjinalatetowanjunctionsofthebells,bycomiorleavingearly.

      Work was transitioning into something that was more stringent; not based on our own needs and timing, but instead timing determined by another

    21. mployerclockswouldbeunder

      With the introduction of the clock, the workweek was now able to be determined by the employer; of which was particularly notable as employers tend to value fiscal earnings over employee saftey and well being

    22. oteasteadilyerodedtheleisurethatpervadedmedievalsoci

      It absolutely has. We do not have much time for leisure and living our own lives now, as Seneca attests

    23. uchasemployers’desirestokeepmachineryoperating continuously,andthebeneficialeffectsoflonghoursonworkplacediscipline.

      Right, the length of our current workweek is out of a desire to pull all productivity out of us, not to tailor to our needs

    24. capitalism createdstrongincentivesforemployerstokeep hourslong.

      Right, because it causes one to work longer due to rhetoric and consumerism being the subcionsioiuly integrated into how they regard work

    25. Butwhereveronestandsonthecausesofmedievalleisure,onefactremains: steadyemployment,forfifty-twoweeksayearis amoderninvention. Beforethenine-teenth-—and,inmanycases,thetwentieth—century,laborpat-ternswereseasonal,intermittent,andirregular.

      The current workweek is a modern thing. The way that we work is not based on life, as it used to be in previous centuries.

    26. fmore workhadbeenavailable,itisnotobviousthatmanypeoplewouldhavetakenit.

      Connect: hiring crises? understaffed?

    27. aterial success wasnotyetinvested withtheve ndingsignificanceitwouldassume. Andconsumerismwas ‘imitedpouoythe unavailabilityofgoodsandby theabsenceofamiddlehoeww i"sapulsion toworkieeelines circumstances,theinderstandable

      Yes, there is no incentive to do so. Without the constant push for overworking and consumerism, we're left only doing and desiring what we need.

    28. he sh iort workyear reveals an important feature of precapitalistsociety: theabsenceofacultureofconsumptionandaccumulation

      Yes! It is rhetoric that motivates us to burn the candle at both ends the way we do, and by buying into the rhetoric, we set ourselves up to be overworked and unhappy

    29. anorialrecordsfrom fourteenth-centui"‘ryEnglandindicateashortworking year-—175daterevidenceys—forservile laborers.

      Is it possible, however, that this labor was being aided by help of others, such as those in indentured servitude or enslaved?

    30. ereisconsiderable evidenceofwh:iih*;what economistscalluebackwardbendingsupplycurveoflabor—theideathatwhen”rise,workerssupplylesslabor.Duringoneperiodofunusu-:lyeheee(thelatefourteenthcentury),manylaborersrefusedowork“‘bytheyearorthe halfyearorbyanyoftheusualbutonlybytheday

      Yet, would this not be going against her point? In my experience, people will still work even if there is no fiscal advantage to them doing so, as long as they are thorougly empassioned by it.

    31. told,holidayleisuretimeinmedieval EnglandtookupPreablyaboutone-thirdoftheyear.

      This would be a striking comparasin to that which our leasuire time allows us today. They were able to more live than just exist and go through the motions

    32. asignificant fractionofthose additionalcalorieshave been burnedupby anacceleratedpaceofwork.

      Perhaps then, they were unable to work longer hours because of the limited avalibility of resources that would allow them to do so; that which being food?

    33. Consciousnessoftimewasmuch looser—andtimehadmuchlesseconomicvalue.?

      connect: seneca Not only this, but they likely used their time more for living than for working. Now we live to work.

    34. TheFrenchhistorianJacques LeGoffhasdescribedprecapitalistlabor time‘‘asstillthetimeofaneconomydominatedbyagrarianrhythms,freeofhaste,carelessofexactitude,unconcernedby pro-ductivity—andofasocietycreatedintheimageofthateconomy,soberandmodest,withoutenormousappetites,undemanding,andincapableofquantitativeefforts.”

      I really like that they bring up "agrarian rythms" here. Things followed simplier rythms such as this; where the work day was decided by sunrise to sunset, and only what was needed was done.

    35. intermittent—calledtoahaltforbreakfast, lunch,thecustomaryafternoonnap,anddinner.

      Although work "days" were long, they had breaks that were tailored around truly living. Now our breaks are only by obligation, and are not actually breaks to maintain ourselves

    36. De-spitetheseshortcomings,theavailableevidenceindicatesthatworkinghours undercapitalism,attheirpeak, increasedbymorethan50percentoverwhattheyhad beeninmedievaltimes(seefigure3.1).

      Her main idea of this chapter; the amount of time we work has in fact increased with the emergence of capatlism as a dominant force, rather than decreased.

    37. theyarefalse.Beforecapitalism,most peopledidnotworkvery longhoursatall.

      I'm inclined to agree; it seemed that work was more tailored around life in the past, rather than vice versa

    38. hismythistypicallydefendedbyacomparisonofthemodernforty-hourweekwithitsseventy-oreighty-hour counter-partinthenineteenthcentury. The implicit—-butrarelyar-ticulated—assumptionisthat theeighty-hour standardhas pre-vailedforcenturies.

      Yet, this is no longer the case, and as such it is inapplicable to use it as a frame of reference

    39. thoughhehavenotearnedit,

      It's interesting how we see breakfast or meals as an "earned right"

    1. “This is a certification that’s also wrapped up inside of a lobbyist,” Mr. Martinez said. “It is weird that the tests that they require theworkers to pay for are being run by the same company that’s fighting to make sure those people don’t make more money.

      I agree completely. It truly is wrong.

    2. https://www.nytimes.com/2023/01/17/us/politics/restaurant-workers-wages-lobbying.html 4/4For restaurant workers, there is little clue that money paid to ServSafe supports lobbying — much less lobbying that tries to keep workers’pay low. The only hint is a line on ServSafe’s website, saying it “reinvests proceeds from programs back into the industry.

      Yes; as someone who has taken food handler's training courses before, you truly do not know where the money is going. It is completely obscured— likely intentionally— as to maintain credibility and ensure they continue getting paid.

    3. When managers take mandatory training, restaurant veterans say, the employer usually pays. But state websites say that restaurantemployees should expect to pay for these classes themselves, and restaurant workers interviewed by The New York Times said that wastheir experience

      Yes, it is always employees paying out of pocket. I personally paid out of pocket as well, and I was very frustrated that I had to needlessly spend money to make money.

    4. After the association’s takeover of ServSafe, lobbying records show, the state affiliates pushed for a broader and less-commontype of mandate, covering all food “handlers” like cooks, waiters, bartenders and those who bus tables

      Again, further showing that they care only about money, not actually about ensuring that food saftey is maintined. As aformentioned, the training is not even that composite of useful information, rather just is there as a roadblock that must be overcome before one can work.

    5. buying the ServSafe program,” said Burton “Skip” Sack, a former chairman of theassociation’s board. “Because it was profitable

      They do not actually really care about food saftey, rather how they can garner more funds without anyone knowing what they are lobbying for.

    6. arguing that labor-intensive operations like restaurants,which employ more workers at or near the minimum wage than any other industry, could be put out of business by any significant increasein employee costs

      Yet they refuse to consider their employees as people here. They see the situation quantitively rather than having empathy for those who are working for a non-livable wage day in and day out.

    7. limiting employer-provided health care benefits.

      The big companies truly do not care about the individuals employed that necessitate these benefits; they are seen only as workers, rather than as people

    8. it keeps workers employed, it finds pathways for worker opportunity, and itkeeps our communities healthy,”

      Yes, food handler's training is absolutely necessary, yet why does it need to be a paid service? Furthermore, why does it necessitate to be done through outside companies?

    9. But restaurant industry veterans say that ServSafe is the dominant force in the market — to thepoint that some restaurant owners said they did not realize there were alternatives.

      It has asserted itself as the dominant force, which has only worked to further exacterbate this issue.

    10. say the arrangement is hidden from the workers it relieson.

      It absolutely is hidden, and purposefully so. Even if it is legal it is morally corrupt

    11. That $25 million represented about 2 percent of the National Restaurant Association’s total revenues over that same period, but more thanhalf of the amount its members paid in due

      Employees unknowingly provided a significant percentage of funding towards blockages to increasing minimum wage

    12. the restaurant owners took control of a training business

      Well that truly was the impetus of the issue. Those who are fighting against minimum increase defentily should not be the ones at the head, at least not more than they already are

    13. where labor unwittingly helps to pay for management’s lobbying.

      Although this is horrible that employees are paying to restrict their own wage, it is hardly surprising. If anything, it truly exemplifies the true extent to which management and corporation does not care for their employees.

    14. , but still below what labor groups consider a living wage

      Far below! $2.13, even with tips, is an egregiously low amount to have as a minimum. Although states have their own individual wage, this is still notably low

    15. he association has spent decadesfighting increases to the minimum wage at the federal and state levels, as well as the subminimum wage paid to tipped workers likewaiters

      ServSafe works to lobby against increases to minimum wage

    16. That course is basic

      yes! I noticed this as well. Many— although not all— of the answers were common sense based, rather than something I actually need to learn.

    17. For many cooks, waiters and bartenders, it is an annoying entrance fee to the food-service business: Before starting anew job, they pay around $15 to a company called ServSafe for an online class in food safety

      When I started my first job at Jamba Juice, I was immediately surprised about how much money I had to pay right off the bat. I had to buy $20 non-slip shoes, as well as food safety training from my own pocket. It was really frustrating to me that I had to spend money to make money.

  3. Apr 2023
    1. Mo~t of whatyou come across in college will inevitably fade from memory. What's i.aleft over, precisely, is you.- 87 -

      Exactly! The specific things you learn are not as important in the long run as developing a self.

    2. if you find yourself to be thesame person at the end of college as you were at the beginning-thesame beliefs, the same values, the same desires, the same goals forthe same reasons-then you did it wrong.

      You were not truly challenged; you have not changed and truly developed a sense of self

    3. The idea that we shoulsl take the first four years of young adulthoodand devote them to career preparation alone, neglecting every otherpart ·of life, is nothing short of an obscenity


    4. Interesting is not accomplished. Interesting is not "impressive:' What

      This is why accolades are empty without soul attached. When one has both worked logistically and developed themselves, that is when they are truly able to be "interesting" in this sense.

    5. People who behave like that, E. M. Forster has a character remark,are incapable of saying I. They cannot even say I want, "because 'Iwant' must lead to the question 'Who am I?'" So they only say want,without the/: ''want money," "want mansion," "want Harvard."


      Learning in college that you're allowed to say "I" in essays; that it is not an egregious grammer rule, but instead a societal writing "superstition"

    6. it goes all the way downto the botto

      It's a development of the self as is, the final transition to adulthood

    7. what is the good life and how 'should I live it?


      Coming into college as an undeclared major

    8. ''.just what it is that's worth wanting:'To find out not just who you wish to be, but who you are already,underneath what everyone has wanted you to think about yourself

      It allows you to truly understand yourself.

      Connect: Sitting in a field, finally understanding I was meant to be a writer

    9. "An education," Lapham quotesan old professor, "is a self-inflicted wound:

      Yes! It's making mistakes over and over again, and as you make and adress mistakes you develop a self

    10. incitements, disruptions, violations.

      of which are copious in a college enviornment!

    11. College helps to furnishthe tools with which to undertake that work of self-discovery. It'svery hard, again, to do it on your own. The job of college is to assistyou, or force you, to start on your way through the vale of soul-making.

      The purpose of college; as to force you to work on yourself and develop your soul

    12. is bornwith a mind, but it is only through this act of introspection, of self-examination, of establishing communication between the mind andthe heart, the mind and experience, that you become an individual,a unique being-a soul. And that is what it means to develop a self.

      The development of a soul via introspection; to truly create and understand that of which that has value to oneself

    13. The heart feels, he says, and the intel-ligence is educated by reflecting on that feeling.

      Very true! We cannot disconnect our emotions and heart from our intelligence.

    14. Nec-essary pains and troubles-helicopter parents, and those who wishto play it safe in general, take note.)

      CONNECT: my 7th grade science teacher tells a story where when she was a kid, she really wanted to pick roses. Her mother told her not to pick roses, that they have thorns, but she would not listen. Instead of forcing her to not pick the roses, her mother allows her to do so, to which she eventually pricks her finger and bursts into tears. Although perhaps she had to suffer temporary pain, she learned a lesson, one that she did not easily forget (as exemplified by the fact she still tells it decades later)

      Our lessons can be learned by pain.

    15. "Do you not see how necessary a World of Pains and troublesis;' he wrote, "to school an Intelligence and make it a Soul?"

      By being challenged, going through pain, trials, and tribulations, one truly learns to understand themself.

    16. wrote about today's young people, "thata self is something you just have:' It isn't that you don't have oneat all, when you're a kid; there just is not a whole lot to it.

      I was thinking of this the other day in regards to my own personal life. I still like all that I did as a kid, yet that time seems so far away. But considering my preferences, I realized I still am that person, just now fully developed and compounded by adult personality

    17. You'rehere for very selfish reasons;' the legendary Columbia professor Ed-ward Tayler wo~ld say to his freshmen the first day of class. ''You'rehere to build ,a self'

      You're here to create your adult personality, to allow yourself to fully finish shaping your values and personality.

    18. easoneddebate, principled dissent, respectful mutual engagement

      Yes! This is especially exemplified in seminars. Personally, I have found it the prime location to practice this, as there are oft no other places where it is appropriate to similarly practice such discourse

    19. A real educationsends you into the world bearing questions, not resumes.

      very true! A real education would have taught you not just occupational skills, but how to think as a human being.

    20. College is not the only chance to learn to think. It is not the first;it is not the last; but it is the best.

      Prime conditions for this type of thought

    21. The classroom is the grain of sand;it's up to you to make the pearl.

      It's what you make of the lessons that truly puts into practice their value

    22. . But the classroom and the dorm room are two ends of thesame stick. The first puts ideas into your head; the second makesthem part of your soul. The first requires stringency; the second of-fers freedom. The first is normative; the second is subversive.

      By having the natural dichotomy and time to reflect, college allows for in depth intellectual practice.

    23. College also gives you peers with whom to question and debatethe ideas you encounter in the classroom.

      Peers are such an important aspect of college. They allow one to find likeminded people, others who are perhaps passionate about similar academic things. They can add nuance and layers often unthought of, which only further strengthens ones arguments

    24. You :want some people in your life whose job it is to tell you when you're ·'-Tong.

      It is important that they are unafraid to challenge you. Without challenge and the necessitation of defending your arguments, they lack strength.

    25. Professors can let in some air, show you approaches that wouldn'thave occurred to you and put you on to things you wouldn't haveencountered by yourself

      A good professor can challenge you, make you defend your opinions to the point where they are strong and independent

    26. s this a privilege that most young people in theworld can only dream of? Absolutely. But you won't absolve yourselfby throwing it away.

      It should not be dismissed of its importance, particularly as a means of facilitating this aforementioned transitionary period between childhood and adulthood.

    27. "the preciouschance," as Andrew Delbanco has put it, "to think and reflect beforelife engulfs them:'

      The ability to transition, rather than be thrown into it unprepared

    28. "not the real world." But that is precisely its strength. Col-lege is an opportunity to stand outside the world for a few years, be-tween the orthodoxy of your family and the exigencies of career, andcontemplate things from a distance.

      It functions as a much-needed transitionary period; it teaches one to think and to understand being a functioning member of society before they are thrown into it.

    29. He was teaching themnot what to think but how

      He was also teaching them to ask themselves the same questions, to truly strengthen and solidify their opinion

    1. despite all his efforts to struggle, hewas coming closer and closer to what terrified him.

      the pain in the inevitability and understanding of the closeness of death

    2. Not right. All that you've lived and liveby is a lie, a deception, concealing life and death from you."

      he remembered the truth of what he came to understand that night, consequently ruining his mood after communion

    3. ll that he had lived by, and sawclearly that it was all not right, that it was all a terrible, vast d�ceptionconcealing both life and death.

      Conception of life; performing for others and not living for yourself conception in death; not acknoledging the inevitability of an end or the value of time

    4. And what if my whole life, my conscious life, hasindeed been "not right"?

      he had lived only by what was expected of him, not to which was most virtuous and enjoyable, especially in regards to longevity

    5. in the rece�t time of that dreadful solitude,Ivan 11yich had lived only on imaginings of the pas

      Nobody can truly understand where his mind is at as he passes away, therefore he can only live through imagining the past

    6. ust so, for no reason.Beyond and besides that there was nothing.


      Diane Nguyen, Bojack Horseman. "Because if I don't [write about my trauma], that means that all the damage I got isn't good damage, it's just damage. I have gotten nothing out of it, and all those years I was miserable was for nothing.

    7. nd the further, the deadlier. Asif I was going steadily downhill, while imagining I was going up.

      Filling one's life with amusment rather than longevity hapiness; seneca/aristotle

    8. And the further from childhood, the closer to the present, the moreworthless and dubious were those joys.

      The more one is forced to adhere to expectation. They are no longer enjoying their joy for themsevles, but instead adhering to what is expected of them

    9. But the man who hadexperienced that pleasure was no more: it was as if the memory wasabout someone else

      When I was thinking the other day, I was thinking about how we always think of our childhood as disconnected from our adult selves. Yet, it truly was the same person; much of what I liked back then I like now. Just some of it has been repressed or altered, but it's still me.

    10. And hestarted to go over in his imagination the best moments of his pleasant life.But-strange thing-all those best moments of his pleasant life seemednow not at all as they had seemed then

      In looking back at his "pleasent moments," he understands the performance, the lies in which he deciphered what is "pleasant." It truly wasn't leasiurly for him, not as much as the following example

    11. "What do you want?" was th� first clear idea, expressible iri words,that he heard. "What do you want? What do you want?" he repeated tohimself. "What? Not to suffer. To live," he replied.

      He is speaking and responding to himself at the end now. It seems that he is spiraling— likely as a result of the opium use— but he is going out with a fight

    12. " Why have You done all this? Why have You brought me here?Why, why do You torment me so terribly? . . . "

      CONNECT: (at the tip of my tounge, i cant think of anything specific!)

      losing religion, questioning how god can make one go through hardship

    13. "Are you suffering very much?""It makes no difference."

      He is now living with the reality, which is why he says it makes no difference. It makes no difference if he is suffering in the foreground, as he had been suffering in the background the whole time

    14. lancing at her watch, agift from her father,

      When people are dying or planning to die, they often gift things to others, as they are ever-aware of their limited longevity

    15. At first Ivan Ilyich did not understand what he was being asked

      A continual deterioration by the end (instance 3)

    16. No help for it, these. sick people sometimes think up such foolishness; but it's forgivable.

      They are speaking as if he is not in the room.

    17. But now there 's a ringing in thefront hall. Could be the doctor. Right, it's the doctor, fresh, brisk, fat,cheerful, with an expression that says:

      There seems to be a deterioration in his mental state; he is not acknoledging things with the same speed that he used to.

      CONNECT (again): "burning memory" alblum

    18. especially frightening was how hishair lay flat on his pale forehead

      Parallel to beginning where Pyoter is looking at his dead body in the coffin; he says the same thing

    19. This lie around and within him poisoned most of all the last days of IvanIlyich's lif

      he did not "allow himself to die" in his last days, instead still performing and putting it off

    20. Gerasimalone did not lie, everything showed · that he alone understood what ifwas all about, and did not find it necessary to concealit, and simply pitiedhis emaciated; weakened master.

      He does not perform as the others do; others push away the inevitability of his death, whereas Gerasim is open about it

    21. The main torment for Ivan Ilyich was the lie, that lie for some reasonacknowledged by everyone, that he was merely ill and not dying, andthat he needed only to keep calm and be treated, and then somethingvery good would come of it.

      They do not know how to adress death. They have not "learned how to die," and as such cannot fully comprehend his position

    22. "Let the servants do it, you'll do harm to yourself again," and suddenly itwould flash from behind the screen, he would see it. It flashes, he stillhopes it will disappear, but he involuntarily senses his side-there sitsthe saine thing, gnawing in the same way, and he can no longer forget it,and it clearly stares at him from behind the flowers. What is it all for?

      A reminder to his fragility

    23. ut all was well, because hedid not remember about it� it was not seen.

      a distraction from the terminalness of dying

    24. his colleagues and subordinates wouldbe surprised and upset to see that he, such a brilliant and subtle judge,was confused, was making mist�es


      "Just a burning memory" alblum— a deterioration of the mind/dementia

    25. Ivan Ilyich sensed it, drovethe thought of it away, but it would go on, and it would come and standdirectly in front of him and look at him, and he would be durilbstruck,the light would go ?ut in his eyes, and he would again begin asking himself: - "Can it alone be true?"


    26. I used to live


    27. But-strange thing-all that had formerly screened, hidden, wiped outthe consciousness of death now could no longer produce that effect.

      it had become to profound an all-encompssing worry that he cannot ignore

    28. I sn't it obvious to everybody except me that I'm dyingand it is only a question of the number of weeks, days-right now,maybe

      He finally came to terms with his being on the brink of death; of which he has no "learned how to die" (Seneca)

    29. In the depths of his soul I van Ilyich knew that he was dying, but notonly was he not accustomed to it, he simply did not� he could not possibly understand it

      he never learned how to die (seneca)

    30. They're playing

      he acknowledges their performance of pity

    31. even now I feel. a little better, a lot better." He bega� to touch his side-it did not hurt."Yes, I don't feel it, truly, it's already much better."

      Placebo effect

    32. In his imagination the desired mending of the appendix wastaking place. Absorption, ejection, restoration of the correct functioning.

      Connect (weak); manifestation

    33. is wife asked with an especially sadand unusually kind expression.This unusual kindness angered him

      She is preparing for his death in being overly kind to him; treating him as if he is already gone (earlier described "dead man walking")

    34. He remembered all that the dootorshad told him, how it had detached itself, and how it floats. By an effort ofimagination he tried to catch this kidney and stop it, fasten it down; so little was needed, it seemed to him

      Connect to chronic illness; understanding and coming to terms with it, wishing for it to be some other way

    35. every one of which was torture.

      He is not living, but instead just existing (seneca)

    36. van I1yich is left alone with the consciousness that his life is poisoned for him and poisons life for others, andthat this poison is not weakening but is permeating his whole being moreand more

      Connect (weird): The Owl House, Eda's curse being an allegory for chronic illness, that which spreads its poisin to others

    37. van I1yich feelsthat it is he who has cast this gloom over them, and he cannot disperse i

      Connect (weird):

      Dance moms dance; "Living with the Ribbon," cancer affects not only the person who haves it but those around them

    38. he was being ' eyedlike someone who would soon have to vacate his post

      he was right!

    39. therefore he should not pay attention to unpleasant occasions;but hi_s reasoning was quite the opposite: he said that he needed peace,looked out for anything that might disturb that peace, and at the slightestdisturbance became irritated.

      In working so hard to attain peace, he only further exacterbated his predisposed issues

    40. he immediately felt the whole forceof his illness; he used to endure these setbacks, expecting to quickly rightthe wrong, to overcome it, to achieve success, a grand slam.


      Repression. Often one will push away their sadness, only for it to come back stronger. In repressing pain, the times where it pokes its head through are horrid

    41. Ivan Ilyich tried to make himself thinkthat he was better.

      Placebo effect

    42. The cabbies were sad, the houseswere sad, the passersby and the shops were sad. And that pain, theobscure, gnawing pain, which did not cease for a moment, seemed tohave acquired, in connection with the doctor's vague words, a different,more serious meaning. With a new, heavy feeling Ivan Ilyich now paidheed to it.

      When one is in debilitating or chronic pain, it is often hard to set aside physical condition from emotion. Everything appears bad; one is depressed by their situation

    43. calling up in him a feeling of great pity forhimself and great anger at this doctor, who �as indifferent to such animportant question

      a reversal of roles; likely how the accused felt when he trifled with their fates, amusing himself with debating weather or not they should be persecuted

    44. It was all exacdy the same asin court.

      The professional enviorment; the way we perform there is very different than in other enviorments

    45. she became irritated, concealed it, and this concealed irrita-tion of hers increased his irritation

      Pushing something away only for it to come back stronger

    46. Her restraint Praskovya Fyodorovna set downto her own great credit

      His behavior had become so egregious due to his pain that even she had to unwillingly set aside her pride to deal with him

    47. but into the consciousness of a constant heavinessin his side and into ill humor. This ' ill humor, growing stronger andstronger, began to spoil the pleasantness of the easy and decent lifethat had just been established in the Golovin family.

      CONNECT: Thyroid ailments causing depression, although they only truly physically (and endocrinatically) effect one.

      Yet, being physically sick can depress one.