73 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2022
    1. In general, counties with higher poverty segregation (no matter thecomparison groups) have higher densities of industrial facilities. A clearer stepwiserelationship is seen when comparing those counties with greater spatial segregationbetween wealthy White neighborhoods and impoverished African American neighbor-hoods, with those counties in the highest decile of segregation having an average o

      Counties with higher poverty segregation have higher densities of industrial facilities. The most segregated counties have higher densities of industrial facilities as well compared to the least segregated.

    2. Additionally, those tracts which have a higherpercentage of their population employed are less likely to have a higher density of indus-trial facilities located in their tract

      Counties that have a high percent of their population employed means they are less likely to have a high density of industrial facilities.

    3. but these highly segregatedcounties tend to have facilities located disproportionately in census tracts with moreAfrican Americans and Hispanics.

      in highly segregated counties the facilities locations are disproportionate leaving the African American and Hispanic communities with more in their areas.

    4. Overall, they found that the share of pollu-tion experienced by ethnic or racial minority groups typically exceeds the share ofemployment a facility provides to those groups

      Pollution experienced by minority groups > share of employment the facilities provide

    5. Thus, fence-line communities are exposed to the environmental harms of industrial facilities butreap little or none of the economic benefits

      With increasing use of machinery in these industrial facilities, people that live near the facility and rely on it for work are losing their jobs. This leaving people within a close proximity of the site impoverished and are being exposed to the environmental harms, but aren't reaping any of the benefits.

    6. they foundhouseholds located nearer to a facility were significantly poorer 10 and 20 years aftera facility moved in.

      Areas around a facility were significantly poorer 10 to 20 years after the industrial facility was built

    7. aha and Mohai (2005) found areas within one mile of a

      Saha and Mohai (2005) found that areas within a mile of an industrial facility suffered from economic decline

    8. Bullard et al. (2007) demonstrated that populationswithin 3 kms of polluting facilities have 1.5 times higher poverty rates and 15% lowermean annual household incomes than communities without facilities.

      Populations within a short distance of an industrial facility have a 1.5 times higher poverty rates and 15% lower mean annual household incomes than communities without facilities.

    9. residents living in more racially segre-gated metro areas have higher health risks from air toxics than those in less segregatedmetro areas.

      There is a direct relationship between residents living in a racially segregated area and health problems from air toxins



    1. In the South,where the nation’s nonmetropolitan African American population isprimarily located, the out-migration of nonpoor African Americans inthe late 1980s to the metropolitan South, coupled with reduced out-migration of poor African Americans to the North, appears to havereinforced existing African American poverty concentrations in the ruralSouth (Fuguitt and Fulton 2001).

      The combination of nonpoor African Americans migrating to the metropolitan south and reduced out migration of the poor African Americans to the North has created poverty concentration in the South.

    2. Rather, residential relocation among householdscharacterized by persistent economic insecurity tends to occur acrosspoor places and is largely motivated by mobility pushes to (re)securehousing after unexpected social or economic shocks, rather than bymobility pulls toward economic opportunity.

      Residential relocation of poor people often occurs due push factors like social or economic problems rather than a opportunity pulling them and causing them to move.

    3. Because these opportunitiesare typically concentrated in other poor counties, the poor tend to movedisproportionately to these places instead of moving toward economicopportunities in nonpoor places (as neoclassical theories wouldpredict), or remaining largely immobile (as human capital theorieswould predict)

      Nord (1998) argued the migration of the poor was explained by differential opportunities, the poor tended to move to places dominated by low skill jobs and affordable housing. These opportunities are typically in other concentrated poor counties instead of towards economic opportunities.

    4. Yet the poor disproportionatelymoved to other poor places rather than places of economic growth, aspredicted by neoclassical theory.

      Nord (1998) study found that the poor still moved as much as the non poor, but the tended to migrate disproportionately, moving to other poor places rather than places of economic growth.

    5. Coupled with the strong out-migration rates of the nonpoor from the poorest counties, these migra-tion patterns served to cumulatively reinforce existing concentrations ofpoverty

      Nord (1995) study argues that poor and non poor people were migrating just as much, however the out migration was offset by the migration of the poor into the poorest countries reinforcing existing concentrations of poverty.

    6. poverty concentrations are largelyexplained away as temporary phenomena created by a lag in the naturaladjustment of migration flows to higher wages elsewhere

      Poverty concentrations are explained as a temporary lag in the natural adjustment of migration flows to higher wages elsewhere. Neoclassical economic theory

    7. Thus, the human capitalperspective assumes that migration may deepen poverty concentrationsbecause the poor are more likely to remain immobile in poor placeswhile the nonpoor are more likely to move away

      Human capital theory observes that economic returns for migrating or moving are higher for those who have more money, higher skill, and better education. People only move if the long term benefits outweigh the costs, therefore migration deepens poverty concentrations because the poor are less likely to move and the non poor are likely to move away.

    8. Because many areasof concentrated poverty found in nonmetropolitan areas are composedof high percentages of African Americans or Latinos, we also investigatehow the migration flows of both minority groups affect the spatial dis-tribution of race- and ethnic-specific poverty.

      The article will explore the migration patterns of people, especially minorities, and how those have contributed to concentrations of poverty throughout nonmetropolitan areas.

    9. Spatial concentrations of poverty were not eliminated as a resultof these trends, but declines in various poverty populations reducedoverall the number of poor living in extremely poor counties (Jargowsky2003; Lichter and Johnson 2007)

      Even though poverty was decreasing overall, the concentration of impoverished people was increasing.

  2. Sep 2022
  3. moodle.lynchburg.edu moodle.lynchburg.edu
    1. How hard a thing is life to the lowly, and yet how human and real!And all this life and love and strife and failure,—is it the twilight of nightfall or the flush of somefaint-dawning day?

      I find it so sad that these people lived their entire lives not even being able to see or act on their full potential because of the color of their skin and the circumstances they were born into that they had no control over.

    2. Thehill became steep

      The hill was a barrier and symbolized the hump that black people had to get them self over to be successful but few were able to climb the hill and get to the other side.

    3. “We’ve had a heap of trouble sinceyou’ve been away.” I had feared for Jim

      The author was lucky to make it out of her little world, but many were not so lucky, they were constantly discriminated against and stuck in a cycle.

    4. from a common hardship in poverty, poor land, and low wages; and,above all, from the sight of the Veil that hung between us and Opportunit

      Their small community was trying their hardest but they seemed stuck because of the color of their skin that they would never make it out and be truly successful.

    5. w Josie had bought the sewing-machine; how Josie worked at service in winter, but that four dollars a month was “mighty little”

      Josie, a young black girl, worked very hard and put a lot of effort into everything she did but her circumstances never allowed her to become educated the way she wanted to be.

    6. ut people said that he would surely fail, and the “white folks wouldget it all.”

      Not much hope for blacks at the point this was written

    7. fine faith the children had in the wisdom of their teacher was truly marvellou

      The children were so eager to learn as the teacher was just as eager to teach these kids that didnt have access to education before.

    8. There was an entrance where adoor once was, and within, a massive rickety fireplace; great chinks between the logs served aswindows. Furniture was scarce. A pale blackboard crouched in the corner. My desk was made ofthree boards, reinforced at critical points, and my chair, borrowed from the landlady, had to bereturned every night. Seats for the children—these puzzled me muc

      very easy to visualize a classroom with a low budget made of old materials.

    9. “Oh,” thought I, “this is lucky”; but even then fell the awful shadow of the Veil, for they ate first,then I—alone

      The author is a black man so he must eat second to the white folk

    10. that but once sincethe war had a teacher been there; that she herself longed to learn,—and thus she ran on, talkingfast and loud, with much earnestness and energy

      This young black girl did not have access to education where she lived.

    11. white teachers inthe morning, Negroes at night.

      Making it clear that this is in a place with racism present.

    1. So far as Mr. Washington preaches Thrift, Patience,and Industrial Training for the masses, we must hold up his hands andstrive with him, rejoicing in his honors and glorying in the strength ofthis Joshua called of God and of man to lead the headless host

      Washington preached good and bad things for blacks to do, but as long as we are able to decipher them we are on a path to equality.

    2. Mr. Washington not to acknowledge that inseveral instances he has opposed movements in the South which wereunjust to the Negro

      Washington did some good for the blacks in the south but also failed on many things he promised he would do.

    3. when in fact the burden belongs to the nation, and the hands of none ofus are clean if we bend not our energies to righting these great wrongs

      The blame is not solely on the blacks or the whites, it is on the nation as a whole.

    4. Discriminating and broad-minded criticism is what theSouth needs,—needs it for the sake of her own white sons and daughters,and for the insurance of robust, healthy mental and moral development

      This makes me feel guilty that we haven't done enough today to make sure that blacks still don't feel discriminated against in the South and that there is still more to be done.

    5. Wehave no right to sit silently by while the inevitable seeds are sown for aharvest of disaster to our children, black and white.

      Many believed that they could not sit back and watch to see if Washington's plan would be successful or fail, so they took it upon themselves to try to make change.

    6. Negroes mustinsist continually, in season and out of season, that voting is necessaryto modern manhood, that color discrimination is barbarism, and thatblack boys need education as well as white boys.

      Consistency is key when it comes to trying to make a change in a stubborn and unforgiving world.

    7. They advocate,with Mr. Washington, a broad system of Negro common schools sup-plemented by thorough industrial training; but they are surprised thata man of Mr. Washington’s insight cannot see that no such educationalsystem ever has rested or can rest on any other basis than that of the well-equipped college and university, and they insist that there is a demandfor a few such institutions throughout the South to train the best of theNegro youth as teachers, professional men, and leaders.

      Washington is able to convince the whites that black schools would be helpful to the whites in the south, so they agree.

    8. for where in the world may we go and be safe fromlying and brute force?

      They cannot flee the states because they will likely be treated the same if not worse wherever they land by boat or land.

    9. If history and reason give any distinct answer tothese questions, it is an emphatic No. And Mr. Washington thus facesthe triple paradox of his career

      I wonder how Washington even came up with this idea after never haven seen it work successfully in the history of the world.

    10. First, political power,Second, insistence on civil rights,Third, higher education of Negro youth,—and concentrate all their energies on industrial education, and accu-mulation of wealth, and the conciliation of the South

      This gives me a visual of a sports team working so hard for years and finally almost reaching their full potential and then their coach leaves and a new one comes in and scratches all the plays and sets they have been working on for years.

    11. Mr. Washington’s programme practicallyaccepts the alleged inferiority of the Negro races

      Washington's program from the outside looked like it was just giving in to the white folk, but it was all part of his plan to make them equals.

    12. Naturallythe Negroes resented, at first bitterly, signs of compromise which surren-dered their civil and political rights, even though this was to be exchangedfor larger chances of economic development

      When Washington came in as the new leader a lot of blacks did not like his approach because they felt like he was making them compromise their few rights that they had to try to make ends meet with the whites.

    13. ised blacks, and they soon found themselves striving to keepeven the rights they formerly had of voting and working and movingas freemen. Schemes of migration and colonization arose among them;but these they refused to entertain, and they eventually turned to theAbolition movement as a final refu

      Even the free blacks in the north were classified as just people of color and were treated differently even though they were of the same status as the white man.

    14. insurrection,—in 1800 under Gabriel in Virginia, in 1822 under Veseyin Carolina, and in 1831 again in Virginia under the terrible Nat Turner.In the Free States, on the other hand, a new and curious attempt atself-development was made. In Philadelphia and New York color-pre-scription led to a withdrawal of Negro communicants from whitechurches and the formation of a peculiar socio-religious institutionamong the Negroes known as the African Church,—an organizationstill living and controlling in its various branches over a million of men

      The steps that blacks were trying to make in the country varied depending on if you were from the south or north.

    15. If the best of the AmericanNegroes receive by outer pressurea leader whom they had not recog-nized before, manifestly there is herea certain palpable gain

      I think black people sometimes didn't like Washingtons ideas because he made it seem like they should just stick to working rather than go out and try to be something that white men could only be at the time.

    16. Among his own people, however, Mr. Washington has encounteredthe strongest and most lasting opposition, amounting at times to bit-terness, and even today continuing strong and insistent even thoughlargely silenced in outward expression by the public opinion of thenation. Some of this opposition is, of course, mere envy; the disappoint-ment of displaced demagogues and the spite of narrow minds. But asidefrom this, there is among educated and thoughtful colored men in allparts of the land a feeling of deep regret, sorrow, and apprehension atthe wide currency and ascendancy which some of Mr. Washington’stheories have gained. These same men admire his sincerity of purpose,and are willing to forgive much to honest endeavor which is doingsomething worth the doing. They cooperate with Mr. Washington asfar as they conscientiously can; and, indeed, it is no ordinary tribute tothis man’s tact and power that, steering as he must between so manydiverse interests and opinions, he so largely retains the respect of all

      Washington is highly respected and appreciated amongst his own people even after some of the mistakes he made.

    17. his educational programme was un-necessarily narrow.

      I actually kind of felt this way reading "Industrial Education of the Negro" so its nice to hear it from this outside source as well.

    18. d training, so by singular insight he intuitively grasped the spiritof the age which was dominating the North. And so thoroughly didhe learn the speech and thought of triumphant commercialism, andthe ideals of material prosperity, that the picture of a lone black boyporing over a French grammar amid the weeds and dirt of a neglectedhome soon seemed to him the acme of absurdities.

      Washington wanted to appeal to the north too so he had to change some of his tactics.

    19. This “Atlanta Compromise” is by all odds the most notable thing inMr. Washington’s career. The South interpreted it in different ways: theradicals received it as a complete surrender of the demand for civil andpolitical equality; the conservatives, as a generously conceived workingbasis for mutual understanding.

      The Atlanta Compromise was perceived differently by different people in the south but the way it was said got the approval of the radicals and conservatives.

    20. His programme of industrial education, conciliationof the South, and submission and silence as to civil and political rights,was not wholly original; the Free Negroes from 1830 up to war-time hadstriven to build industrial schools, and the American Missionary Associ-ation had from the first taught various trades; and Price and others hadsought a way of honorable alliance with the best of the Southerners. ButMr. Washington first indissolubly linked these things; he put enthusiasm,unlimited energy, and perfect faith into his programme, and changed itfrom a by-path into a veritable Way of Life

      Washington started a program of industrial education in the south.

    21. His programme of industrial education, conciliationof the South, and submission and silence as to civil and political rights,was not wholly original;

      As of right now this sounds very similar to what he talked about in the "Industrial Education for the Negro"

    22. ascendancy

      ascendancy means having authority or dominance over somebody or something.

    1. Our pathway must be up through the soil, up throughswamps, up through forests, up through the streams, therocks, through commerce, education, and religion

      Making your way up in the world will not always be easy, but at the end of the day when all your hard work pays off you will be more satisfied than if it was all given to you.

    2. “We must incorporate into our public school systema larger recognition of the practical and industrialelements in educational training. Ours is anagricultural population. The school must be broughtmore closely to the soil. The teaching of history, forexample, is all very well, but nobody can really knowanything of history unless he has been taught to seethings grow–has so seen things not only with theoutward eye, but with the eyes of his intelligenceand conscience. The actual things of the present aremore important, however, than the institutions ofthe past. Even to young children can be shown thesimpler conditions and processes of growth–howcorn is put into the ground–how cotton andpotatoes should be planted–how to choose the soilbest adapted to a particular plant, how to improvethat soil, how to care for the plant while it grows,how to get the most value out of it, how to use theelements of waste for the fertilization of othercrops; how, through the alternation of crops, theland may be made to increase the annual value ofits products–these things, upon their elementaryside are absolutely vital to the worth and success ofhundreds of thousands of these people of theNegro race, and yet our whole educational systemhas practically ignored them.* * * * * *“Such work will mean not only an education inagriculture, but an education through agricultureand education, through natural symbols andpractical forms, which will educate as deeply, asbroadly and as truly as any other system which theworld has known. Such changes will bring far largerresults than the mere improvement of our Negroes.They will give us an agricultural class, a class oftenants or small land owners, trained not awayfrom the soil, but in relation to the soil and inintelligent dependence upon its resources

      It is crucial for black people to learn about agriculture but the education system has completely ignored it.

    3. The Negro in the South worksand works hard; but too often his ignorance and lack ofskill causes him to do his work in the most costly andshiftless manner, and this keeps him near the bottom ofthe ladder in the economic world

      Industrial education is meant to teach black people how to work in the most efficient ways possible, not to never work again.

    4. who will prove by actual resultstheir value to the community, I cannot but believe, I say,that this will constitute a solution to many of the presentpolitical and social diculties

      By learning certain trades and industrial development, black people could gain respect among the white people.

    5. drudgery.

      Drudgery: hard labor

    6. In fact, public sentiment among the students at Tuskegeeis now so strong for industrial training that it wouldhardly permit a student to remain on the grounds whowas unwilling to labor

      Not everyone loved the idea of their kids not touching a book while going to school but this mindset slowly changed over time as the graduated students and parents were able to reap the benefits more than they ever thought.

    7. Not only do the students receive instruction in thesetrades, but they do actual work, by means of which morethan half of them pay some part or all of their expenseswhile remaining at the school. Of the sixty buildingsbelonging to the school all but four were almost whollyerected by the students as a part of their industrialeducation. Even the bricks which go into the walls aremade by students in the school’s brick yard, in which, lastyear, they manufactured two million bricks.

      This makes me feel that as a generation we are not reaching our full potential and there is so much more meaningful and truly useful things to do then sit in a classroom.

    8. We began teaching wheelwrighting and blacksmithing ina small way to the men, and laundry work, cooking andsewing and housekeeping to the young women. Thefourteen hundred and over young men and women whoattended the school during the last school year receivedinstruction — in addition to academic and religioustraining — in thirty–three trades and industrie

      This institution is back to teaching children the things most useful in life, not irrelevant information that they will never use.

    9. I would set no limits to the attainments of the Negro inarts, in letters or statesmanship, but I believe the surestway to reach those ends is by laying the foundation in thelittle things of life that lie immediately about one’s door. Iplead for industrial education and development for theNegro not because I want to cramp him, but because Iwant to free him. I want to see him enter the all-powerfulbusiness and commercial world

      I can visualize a man holding a master key that symbolizes his education in industrial development that opens every door in a hallway and each one represents a different career. The foundation is industrial development and once you learn that there are so many options for you because you have learned the basis of everything.

    10. Without industrial development there can be nowealth; without wealth there can be no leisure; withoutleisure no opportunity for thoughtful reection and thecultivation of the higher arts.”

      Industrial development is the base of it all, there can be no higher arts without beginning with industrial development.

    11. but Iwould teach the race that in industry the foundationmust be laid–that the very best service which any one canrender to what is called the higher education is to teachthe present generation to provide a material or industrialfoundation. On such a foundation as this will grow habitsof thrift, a love of work, economy, ownership of property,bank accounts. Out of it in the future will grow practicaleducation, professional education, positions of publicresponsibility. Out of it will grow moral and religiousstrength. Out of it will grow wealth from which alone cancome leisure and the opportunity for the enjoyment ofliterature and the ne art

      The foundation of all higher teachings is the production of material and industrial goods. I believe also that kids should learn the basics of that before entering any kind of higher education.

    12. And just the same with theprofessional class which the race needs and must have, Iwould say give the men and women of that class, too, thetraining which will best t them to perform in the mostsuccessful manner the service which the race demands

      Is he saying that black people still need a professional class, but should go through the same mental training first as anybody who is in the working class too?

    13. It is discouraging to nd agirl who can tell you the geographical location of anycountry on the globe and who does not know where toplace the dishes upon a common dinner table. It isdiscouraging to nd a woman who knows much abouttheoretical chemistry, and who cannot properly wash andiron a shirt

      People think education is about memorizing insane facts or being able to talk about a subject that is totally irrelevant to their life, but it's really about being able to do the simple tasks that you need to everyday and understanding the bigger picture.

    14. Our schools teach everybody a little of almosteverything, but, in my opinion, they teach very fewchildren just what they ought to know in order tomake their way successfully in life. They do not putinto their hands the tools they are best tted to use,and hence so many failures. Many a mother andsister have worked and slaved, living upon scantyfood, in order to give a son and brother a ’liberaleducation,’ and in doing this have built up a barrierbetween the boy and the work he was tted to do.Let me say to you that all honest work is honorablework. If the labor is manual, and seems common,you will have all the more chance to be thinking ofother things, or of work that is higher and bringsbetter pay, and to work out in your minds betterand higher duties and responsibilities foryourselves, and for thinking of ways by which youcan help others as well as yourselves, and bringthem up to your own higher level.

      I still see this in our school systems today, especially in certain classes where you feel like you are never going to use anything that you have learned in the real world.

    15. Our schools teach everybody a little of almosteverything, but, in my opinion, they teach very fewchildren just what they ought to know in order tomake their way successfully in life. They do not putinto their hands the tools they are best tted to use,and hence so many failures. Many a mother andsister have worked and slaved, living upon scantyfood, in order to give a son and brother a ’liberaleducation,’ and in doing this have built up a barrierbetween the boy and the work he was tted to do.Let me say to you that all honest work is honorablework. If the labor is manual, and seems common,you will have all the more chance to be thinking ofother things, or of work that is higher and bringsbetter pay, and to work out in your minds betterand higher duties and responsibilities foryourselves, and for thinking of ways by which youcan help others as well as yourselves, and bringthem up to your own higher level.

      I still see this in our school systems today, especially in certain classes where you feel like you are never going to use anything that you have learned in the real world.

    16. “Our schools teach everybody a little of almosteverything, but, in my opinion, they teach very fewchildren just what they ought to know in order tomake their way successfully in life

      Similar argument that Freire makes in the Pedagogy of the Oppressed

    17. “Our schools teach everybody a little of almosteverything, but, in my opinion, they teach very fewchildren just what they ought to know in order tomake their way successfully in life

      Similar argument that Freire makes in the Pedagogy of the Oppressed

    18. s a generation began to pass,those who had been trained as mechanics in slaverybegan to disappear by death, and gradually it began to berealized that there were few to take their places. Therewere young men educated in foreign tongues, but few incarpentry or in mechanical or architectural drawing.

      After slavery was abolished and the last of the former slaves generation began to die off there was nobody to work the factory and skilled labor jobs because the white people were so worried about becoming educated for the wrong reasons.

    19. The industriesthat gave the South its power, prominence and wealthprior to the Civil War were mainly the raising of cotton,sugar cane, rice and tobacco.

      Much of the wealth and power that the south gained was because of the work that the slaves were doing to produce food and goods.

    20. For two hundred and fty years, I believe the way for theredemption of the Negro was being prepared throughindustrial development. Through all those years theSouthern white man did business with the Negro in a waythat no one else has done business with him. In mostcases if a Southern white man wanted a house built heconsulted a Negro mechanic about the plan and aboutthe actual building of the structure. If he wanted a suit ofclothes made he went to a Negro tailor, and for shoes hewent to a shoemaker of the same race. In a certain wayevery slave plantation in the South was an industrialschool. On these plantations young colored men andwomen were constantly being trained not only as farmersbut as carpenters, blacksmiths, wheelwrights, brickmasons, engineers, cooks, laundresses, sewing womenand housekeepers

      Plantations kind of acted as industrial schools because slaves learned how to make a variety of goods.

    21. If, in too many cases, the Negro race begandevelopment at the wrong end, it was largely becauseneither white nor black properly understood the case.Nor is it any wonder that this was so, for never before inthe history of the world had just such a problem beenpresented as that of the two races at the coming offreedom in this countr

      The clashing of the blacks and whites after slavery was banned was something the world had never seen before. The hatred they had towards each other was unmatched.

    22. proper cultivation and ownership of the soil.

      Everybody started their career working, and working hard, no matter their race, but slaves were treated inferior for the work they were doing on the plantations.