25 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2021
    1. Political authorities occasionally tried to inter-vene, both in Egypt and in Rome and in several cities. Their action did sometimes make a difference, especially in creating influential models for other to imitate

      I am not sure what a political figure could have done to "intervene". Would they try to blame the god for something? Punish the worshippers? Or claim they have been blessed by the god?

    2. Disentangling the relationships is difficult since Etruscan, Italic and Greek speakers were in close contact for long

      It makes sense the history is so intertwined. Jupiter is Zeus reformed. Trying to distinguish them in the beginning would be like trying to find an off-color version. The close contact also muddles the history.

    3. Mitra

      Mitra- god of light. His religion is called Mithraism. The choice of worship is explained in the third paragraph.

    4. These case studies show that we cannot understand the mobility of gods simply in terms of the mobility of people.

      "The notion of «religious mobility» has also been proposed as a means of encompassing both religious change consequent on the mobility of people" from earlier in this article, pg 112. I feel this transition is a technique of writing the author implemented well. I did not think I would be introduced to a new concept and then read contradicting points. The author showed critical thinking and provided a solid argument.

    5. iconography

      Iconography- a collection of images used to symbolize meanings or stories. It is no surprised Egyptians used this, as hieroglyphs also incorporate images in their artwork.

    6. One common thread in the case studies presented here is that their histories are discontinuous, not gradual.

      Perhaps an explanation is the gods changed as society changed. Sometimes society is stagnant in growth, and revisiting an old god can add a new interest to the public. It happens today. Bell bottom jeans used to be popular in the 1970s but have recently began making sales again. Yes, it is fashion, but the concept remains the same.

    7. The spread of the cult of IOM Dolichenus

      IOM, or Iovi Optimo Maximo, is his full name in Latin. It is called a cult because a person could not practive unless they were initiated into it. The proper term for this type of practice is mystery cult.

    8. tendency to use modern Christianity as an analytical archetype or paradigm

      While Christianity is definitely a major religion both past and present, I think it is worth noting that Alexander the great ruled before it was invented, therefore making it obsolete to his part of history.

    9. There is no canonical list of ancient gods and goddesses. Quite apart from deciding what to do about those gods with multiple names, or those who seem different in one place to another, it is not easy to know what to do with heroes, nymphs, daemons, divine emperors, personifications like fides and spes, and other creatures of myth and cult who blur the boundary between gods and humans.

      Perhaps the reason behind this is because Greek gods are considered a mythology, not a religion. With this difference, anybody could create a story or a new figure. Religion has specific rules and a determined list of figures. This difference in freedom allowed the seemingly infinite figures and names. Not to mention, there are probably more lost to local towns.

    10. sis came to be associated with human fertility, with healing, with the passage to the underworld and with travel by boat.

      Isis original Egyptian name is Aset, translating to "queen of the throne." This would definitely help spread her popularity. Perhaps she is nationally worshipped because every culture ties a significance to death and healing.

    11. The range of deities worshipped generally reflected those worshipped by the social groups

      I believe a great example of this is Greek versus roman gods. Greek gods came first, the adapted by Romans. Greek gods are less cohesive as some gods have many variations of the same story. Roman gods were able to look at Greek gods and be inspired (and unified) to create their own stories.

    12. «Oriental Religions» or «Oriental Cults»

      Oriental religion/Cult is defined as "originating in Anatolia and the Fertile Crescent" by the Oxford Classical dictionary. Interestingly enough, I found an article titled "Why Were The 'Oriental Cults' Invented" by Andrzej Gillmeister and Danuta Musial.

  2. Oct 2021
  3. clas3209.files.wordpress.com clas3209.files.wordpress.com
    1. Jupiter’s eagle clutching his thunderbolt, beating itswings, steadying a palm-frond from whose end dangle two crowns and asacral ribbon.

      The reason an eagle is Jupiter's symbol is because they were believed to have oracle, or prophetic, properties. They were divine and as such, only the most powerful god could have one. The thunderbolt is also a symbol because Jupiter is the god of skies and everything with it. Ribbon is a headpiece and crown for victory.

    2. Above all, I do notthink it is necessary to say the décor means a specific battle, and insteadbelieve that these décors evade specificity in order to vaunt Numidianperennial achievement and characterise a Numidian collective.

      I agree, seeing as it is difficult to pick and choose a battle to display. Not to mention people are not fighting battles constantly. There could be a 10 years difference, but no one needs to know that.

    3. It can be hard to say what Punic art did ordid not do, for so much is lost. But the lack of evidence to the contrary impliesthat illustrating one’s persona as military in funerary and votive images anddedicated goods was rare in the West Phoenician diaspora

      Considering the Romans destroyed the city, they might have targeted military art especially. They might have wanted to show complete dominance by erasing all of Cathage's victories and key aspects.

    4. visual comparanda.

      Visual compranda- a visual aid which helps compare something. This is in the context of not having enough crowns that we can compare each with. Overall, there were only five types of crowns. They also had very simple designs. For the most part, it was slim and portrayed as leaves.

    5. Massinissa was caught between human pietas to wife and tofriend, fides to personal and (as king) political morality. Powerless to keep herphysically safe, he could only help her to die –a classic Punic honour-suicide,like that of her brother Hannibal, self-poisoned c. 183 BCE to escape imprison-ment, and of Hasdrubal’s wife in 146.15

      A tragic love story. Cleary, people at time had a lot of pride. They would rather die than be held captive. While this is still held today, it is nearly not as popular as it was before. It is also very similar to the ancient samurai Japanese practice of seppuku.

    6. Romanists gain the onlytriumphal narrative-painting we can truly glimpse.

      As they say, history is written by the winners. Despite the many battles and deaths, Rome will have the upper hand because they won. They will be placed on a higher pedestal.

    7. the Tombof Lyson and Kallikles (n. 23), design troped armoury and hall, contentshung away from damp and vermin, ready for civic defence and the king’swars.

      Even in death, kings had power. Not only does it display that, it also represents their position of power. Everything is meant to be a show of authority.

    8. The Senate courteously declined the king’s request to visitand sacrifice, which would have given him the chance to showcase his ownhuge aid to that victory; instead they awarded him again the consular regaliathat they and Scipio had given him in his youth.

      With this humble decline, they show that they are willing to put away their pride of victor. They honor the king by not letting him "waste their time" on them.

    9. Caesar thus showed offthe toddler as a rightful prince. Foreign hostages had been quar-tered well before, but it must have startled Romans, and greatly pleasedNumidians, that Caesar then fostered in his own domus a Numidian prince-ling, whom Octavian later raised like an adoptive half-brother.

      Another action with a political motive. Similar to how Alexander had a mass marriage at Susa in 324, Caesar clearly wanted to be connected to the royal family. It is still unusual, as political ties are made through marriage. Caesar clearly saw an opportunity and took it.

    10. Caesar allied with hissuccessful claimant Cleopatra VII. No such easy assignment here of the‘Other’to lesser, enemy people. This triumph tacitly engaged Roman civilconflict, too: Caesar could appear to avenge the murder by Cleopatra’sbrother of Roman Pompey, even though Pompey was his political enemy

      In this situation, both Cleopatra and Caesar are equals. Like most wars, there is always a hidden political agenda. Caesar improved his reputation in both lands by appearing charitable and sympathetic.

    11. No legend, history, or myth Greek or Roman accountsfor a ‘black’, diademed prince, or for his wedded princess with a ‘black’African entourage and thus also from a people prepotent in Africa. Noknown ‘genre scene’has ‘black’servants, either.

      This is a good point, since race had a clear role in this. Showing race means showing a true depiction of what happened. It adds a layer of history to it. It is interesting that in U,S history, being black meant being a slave. While Rome did have slaves, they were not predominantly black.

    12. The occasion had to be victorysnatched by one commander from ‘supreme desperation’as Pliny says, in hisfull list of winners, saving an army from certain annihilation; only one’ssoldiers could vote it, right there, unanimously, plucking the battlefield’sweeds to crown their saviour.

      A democratic approach to a reward normally not received. It is appropriate when considering democracy was first conceived in Greece. It is indeed an honor only given to a handful of people.

  4. Aug 2021