42 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2019
    1. 54Primer NameGenome Co-ordinatesSequence (5’-3’)Brk_RE_FchrX:7200547-7200702AAACCTCTGTGTTCGTCTGGCBrk_RE_RTCCGTAGAAACCGCGCAACBrk_RC_FchrX:7200789-7200926CCGATGTGGAAGGGGTATGGBrk_RC_RGGCTCTGCCAGTTGCTCATAC15_RE_Fchr3R:17325974-17326067GCCAAAATGTCCAGCCACGAC15_RE_RTGACATCCGCGAGTCCGAC15_RC_Fchr3R:17325763-17325861CCGTAGACCGTAATCCGTGAAC15_RC_RCCGCGAAGCACACACTAATCTable 2.4. | Primer sequences to determine DpnII digestion efficiency. Digestion efficiency was calculated using the following formula (Hagège et al., 2007):Digestion Efficiency %= 100-1002CtRE-CtRCDigested-CtRE-CtRCUndigestedSequencing Library Preparation:Prior to preparation of sequencing libraries, 5-6μg 3C libraries were sonicated using a S220 Focussed Ultrasonicator (Covaris) aiming for a peak size of 200bp. Libraries were sonicated with the following settings: Duty Cycle: 10%, Intensity: 5, Cycles per burst: 200 and Mode set as Frequency Sweeping with 6 cycles each of 60s. Following sonication, samples underwent clean-up using AMPure XP SPRI beads (Beckmann Coulter), with sonication quality assessed using a TapeStation 2200 (Agilent). Sequencing libraries were prepared using the NEBNext DNA Prep Reagent set and the NEBNext Multiplex Oligos for Illumina (NEB), following the manufacturers instructions with the following modifications. Firstly, AMPure bead clean up steps were performed x1.8 volume to avoid skewing for larger fragments. Secondly, library PCR amplification was performed using Herculase II Fusion DNA Polymerase kit (Agilent) to a total of 50μl using: 1x Herculase II Buffer, 250μM dNTPs, 0.5μM of both the NEB Universal and NEB Index Primer, and Units Herculase II Polymerase. Libraries were assessed after adaptor ligation and post indexing PCR on a TapeStation 2200 (Agilent)
    2. until 2-4h AEL. Collected embryos were dechorionated in cold 50% Bleach (Sodium Hydrochlorate) for 3mins and rinsed thoroughly in cold dH20 and cold Triton-NaCl (previously described). The subsequent steps for both cross-linking and nuclei isolation were based on a ChIP protocol for Drosophilaembryos (Sandmann et al., 2006).Covalent Cross-linking: Collected embryos were blotted dry then rinsed in 100% isopropanol, to remove the excess water. Covalent cross-linking was performed using 2% methanol-free formaldehyde (ThermoFisher Scientific) for 20mins with 50% Heptane and Cross-linking Buffer (1mM EDTA, 0.5mM EGTA, 50mM HEPES pH 8.0, 100mM NaCl) and quenched using 125mM Glycine in 1x PBS, 0.1% Triton X-100 for 1min. Embryos were subsequently washed in 1x PBS, 0.1% Triton X-100, flash frozen andthen stored at -80°C. Replicates were obtained through collections of two independent sets of cages.Isolating Nuclei: 1.2 ml of embryos were resuspended in cold 1x PBS with 0.1% Triton X-100 and dounced 5 times in 4ml aliquots in a 7ml Wheaton Dounce Homogenizer. The homogenate was centrifuged at 400g for 1min at 4°C and transferred to a new tube and centrifuged at 1100g for 10mins at 4°C. The cell pellet was resuspended in 5ml of cold cell lysis buffer (85mM KCl, 0.5% (v/v) IGEPAL CA-630, 5mM HEPES pH 8.0, 1mM PMSF and 1x Protease and Phosphatase inhibitors (Roche)) and dounced 20 times. Nuclei were pelleted by centrifugation at 2000g for 4min at 4°C. 3C Library Preparation: Preparation of Capture-C libraries were performed according to the Next-Generation (NG) Capture-C Protocol (Davies et al., 2015). Briefly, nuclei were resuspended to a total volume of 650μl and digested overnight at 37°C whilst agitating at 1400rpm on an Eppendorf Thermomixer. Digestion was performed using 1500 Units DpnII (NEB High Concentration 50,000 U/ml), 1x NEBuffer DpnII, 0.25% SDS and 1.65% Triton X-100, including a non-digested control. Digested 3C libraries were ligated using 240 Units T4 DNA HC Ligase (ThermoFisher Scientific) and 1x Ligation Buffer overnight at 16°C whilst agitating. Following ligation, all 3C libraries including controls were de-crosslinked overnight at 65°C with 3 Units Proteinase K (ThermoFisher Scientific). Ligated 3C libraries were digested with 15μg/μl RNAse (Roche) and DNA subsequently extracted with phenol-chloroform followed by ethanol precipitation. Digestion efficiency: Digestion efficiency was determined using primers pairs designed against DpnII digestion sites and genomic controls at two independent regions comparing the digested and undigested controls for both replicates. Efficiency was determined through qPCR on a StepOnePlus Real-Time PCR System (ThermoFisher Scientific) using the SYBR Select Master Mix (ThermoFisher Scientific) as per the manufacturers instructions. Primers used to determine restriction efficiency are shown in Table 2.4
    3. Embryo Collection: Embryo collections were carried out as described above with the following modifications. Prior to collections, plates from the first 2hrs were discarded to prevent inclusion of older embryonic stages. After pre-clearing, collections were carried out as above with ageing
    4. Capture-C
    5. smiFISH: The smiFISH protocol was performed as described by Tsanov et al., 2016with modifications for use in the Drosophila embryo. Briefly, a minimum of 50μl of embryos were transferred to Glass V-vials (Wheaton) and transitioned from 100% Methanol to PBT in 50% increments, followed by several 10min PBT washes. Subsequently, embryos were washed at 37°C in stellaris wash buffer(1x SSC (150 mM NaCl and Sodium Citrate at pH 7.0), 10% deionised formamide) pre-warmed to 37°C. Hybridisation was performed using 4uM of labelled probes mixtures, as described above, incubated in stellaris hybridisation buffer (1x SSC, 100mg dextran sulphate, 10% deionised formamide) for a minimum of 14 hours at 37°C. Following hybridisation excess probes are removed with washes in stellaris wash buffer, pre-warmed to 37°C and subsequently washed with PBT. During the pen-ultimate PBT wash DNA and the nuclear membrane were stained using 1:1000 of DAPI (5mg/ml) and 1:1000 of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) conjugated to Alexa 555 (5mg/ml, ThermoFisher Scientific), respectively. Embryos were subsequently mounted with ProLong Gold AntiFade (ThermoScientific).Alkaline Phosphatase Immunostaining: For immunostaining, a minimum of 50μl of embryos were gradually transferred from methanol to PBT and washed in PBT for 30mins with repeated changes of PBT. Embryos were blocked for 2hrs in 10% BSA in PBT and subsequently washed in PBT. Following this, embryos were incubated with monoclonal mouse anti-Hindsight-IgG1 (1:20, DSHB) primary in 1% BSA in PBT overnight at 4°C. To remove excess antibody, embryos were washed for 2hrs in 1% BSA in PBT. Next, polyclonal goat anti-mouse-IgG (H+L) AP Conjugate (1:500, Promega) was added in 0.1% BSA in PBT and incubated for 2hrs at room temperature. This was followed by washes with PBT and staining solution (defined above). Following staining, washing and mounting was performed as above. Image Acquisition: Images from alkaline phosphatase staining were acquired on a Leica DMR. Fluorescent images were acquired using a Leica TCS SP5 AOBS inverted confocal. Whole embryos were viewed using a20x 0.70 HXC PL APO Lambda Blue Immersion objective and embryo sections viewed with a 63x 1.40 HCX PL APO Lambda Blue Oil objective, with a maximum of 3x confocal zoom. Additional confocal settings were as follows: pinhole diameter of 1 airy unit, 400Hz unidirectional scan speedwith all images collected at 1024 x 1024. Images were collected sequentially usingPMTdetectors with the following mirror detection settings:DAPI (420-470nm), Alexa 488 (490-525nm), Alexa 555 (570-620nm) and Alexa 647 (650-780nm). The respective fluorophores were detected using the blue diode (20%) and the following laser lines: 488nm (50%), 555nm (50%) and 633nm (40%). When acquiring 3D optical stacks the confocal software was used to determine the optimal number of Z sections based on a Z section depth of 1μm at 20x and 0.3μm at 63x. Only themaximumintensity projections of these 3D stacks are shown in the results
    6. fluorescently conjugated secondary antibodies, also at a ratio of 1:400. Secondaries used included: donkey anti-mouse-IgG-Alexa 488, donkey anti-sheep-IgG-Alexa 555 and donkey anti-rabbit-IgG-Alexa 647 (all from ThermoFisher Scientific). Following incubation, excess secondaries were removed with PBT washes over 2hrs, including a 40 min incubation with 1:1000 wash with DAPI (5mg/ml, ThermoFisher Scientific). Finally embryos were resuspended in ProLong Gold AntiFade (ThermoScientific) and mounted. smiFISH Probe Design: CustomsmiFISH probes were designed using the Biosearch Technologies Stellaris RNA FISH Probe Designer ver 4.2 (Biosearch Technologies, Inc., Petaluma, CA), (available online at www.biosearchtech.com/stellarisdesigner(last accessed: 18/05/2017)) against the Drosophila genome. Probes were designed with the following parameters; masking level of >=3, oligo length between 18bp to 22bp, a minimum of 2bp spacing between probes with a minimum of 24 probes per gene. Sequences complementary to the Y and Z flaps based onTsanov et al., 2016were added to the 5’ end of the probes. 250pmoles of labelled flap sequences were hybridised to 200pmoles of smiFISH probes in 1x NEB Buffer 3 (NEB) and incubated in a thermocycler at a final concentration of 4uM in the following conditions: 85°C for 3min, 65°C for 3min and 25°C for 5min.Details of target regions, number of probes and flap sequence are shown below in Table 2.2with details of fluorescent-labelled flap sequences shown in Table 2.3. Individual probe sequences for Ance, peb and ush are available in the following supplementary tables: Table S1.1, Table S1.2 and Table S1.3, respectively. ProbeProbe TargetTarget Region(s)FlapNumber of ProbesAnceExon 1;Intron 1;Exon 2chr2L:13905733-13906413;chr2L:13906591-13907163;chr2L:13907608-13907958Y48PebIntron 1;Intron 2chrX:4512107-4513998;chrX:4514915-4515168Z48UshIntron 3;Intron 4chr2L:524083-525382;chr2L:525516-535905Z48Table 2.2. | smiFISH target probes target regions, including: flap sequence and total number of probes per regionsFlapSequenceFluorophore (nm)YAATGCATGTCGACGAGGTCCGAGTGTAAAlexa 488ZCTTATAGGGCATGGATGCTAGAAGCTGGAlexa 647Table 2.3. | Fluorescently labelled Flap sequences complementary to probes flaps, including fluorophore for smiFISH
    7. GenePrimer DirectionSequence (5’-3’)Intronic or ExonicAnceForwardAAACAAGTCATTCGCTTTAGGGCIntronicReverseCGCATTTTCGGATGACTCTGGKek1ForwardGCAGATTCGCACGGATGAACIntronicReverseTTTGCGTGGCAAAATGTGCTNetForwardATTCACCCAATTCCAACGACExonicReverseGTGGCAATGGACGGTACGGATupForwardCGGGAAAAGCAGCCTTGGATIntronicReverseTAGCTACAGCGAGTGCGAAATable 2.1. | Primer sequences for FISH.Alkaline Phosphatase RNA In-situ Hybridisation: For in situ hybridisations, a minimum of 50μl of embryos were washed with 100% ethanol, transitioned to 100% methanol, and then to PBT (1x PBS, 0.1% Tween-80). Embryos were then transferred to hybridisation buffer (previously described) and incubated at 55°C for 1hr, followed by overnight incubation in 0.5-2μl of the RNA probe in 50μl of hybridisation buffer. Sequential washes were then performed with hybridisation buffer and PBT, after which the embryos were incubated overnight at 4°C with anti-Digoxigenin-AP Fab fragments (1:250, Roche), pre-absorbed prior use against fixed embryos, in 500μl PBT. Excess primary antibody was removed with sequential several PBT washes, followed by two 5min washes in staining buffer (100mM NaCl, 50mM MgCl2, 100mM Tris pH 9.5, 0.1% Tween 80). The antibody bound RNA probe was visualised using 0.27mg Nitro-Blue tetrazolium and 0.14mg 5-Bromo-4-Chloro-3-indolyphosphate in 400ul. Staining was stopped by washing with PBT, followed by repeated washes with 100% ethanol over 1hr. Lastly embryos are briefly treated with 100% xylenes prior being mounted in Permount mounting medium (bioPLUS).Fluorescent RNA In-situ Hybridisation: For FISH, a minimum of 50μl of embryos were transferred from 100% methanol to 100% ethanol, as above. Embryos were washed for 1hr in 90% xylenes with 10% ethanol, followed by ethanol washes until complete removal of xylenes. Subsequently, embryos were washed with methanol and underwent post-fixation for 25mins using PBT with 5% formaldehyde. Following this embryos were pre-hybridised using hybridisation buffer (previously described) for 1hr at 55°C. Hybridisation was performed in 100ul of hybridisation buffer overnight at 55°C with 2μl of denatured RNA probe. Excess probes were removed through washes with hybridisation buffer and PBT. Prior to addition of primary antibodies, embryos were blocked for 30mins in 1x Blocking Reagent in PBT (Western Blocking Reagent, Roche). For detection of labelled RNA probes, the following primary antibodies were used: mouse monoclonal anti-Biotin-IgG (1:400, Roche), sheep polyclonal anti-DIG-IgG (1:400, Roche), rabbit polyclonal anti-DNP-IgG (1:400, ThermoFisher Scientific). Primary detection was performed overnight at 4°C in 400μl of 1x Blocking Buffer in PBT. Following incubation, excess primaries were removed with PBT washes and embryo re-blocked with 1x Blocking Reagent for 30mins. Subsequently, embryos were incubated for 1hr 30mins at room temperatur
    8. Embryo Collection: Embryos were collected at 25°C on apple juice agar plates from cages withapproximately 5ml of well-fed young flies. Collections were performed every 2hrs with plates aged at 18°C or 25°C After Egg Laying (AEL), as appropriate, resulting in a pool of embryos between 2-4hrs (Stage 5 to 9), unless otherwise stated.After ageing, collected embryos were washed with 1x NaCl/Triton X (68nM NaCl, 0.03% (w/v) Triton X-100) and loosened from plates with a brush. Embryos were subsequently dechorionated in 50% bleach for 2min and thoroughly washed, alternating between dH20 and 1x NaCl/Triton X. For RNA In-situ hybridisations, embryos were fixed with 4.625% formaldehyde for 20mins with 50% heptane and Fixing Buffer (0.5x PBS, 25mM EGTA pH 8.0). Following fixation, embryos are devitellinised using methanol, transferred to 100% ethanol and stored at -20°C. For Immunostaining, overnight plates with a maximum 12hrs of ageing were collected and dechorionated as above. Fixing was performed for 12mins with 1.85% formaldehyde, 50% heptane, and Buffer B (4.5mM KPO4, 6.75mM NaCl, 20.25mM MgCl2, 4.5mM NaP). Embryos were devitellinised as previously described, but stored in 100% methanol at 4°C.RNA Probe Synthesis: RNA probes for RNA in-situ hybridisation were synthesized using gene specific primers, flanked by the T3 and T7 promoters to transcribe sense or anti-sense probes respectively, except for the AncecDNA probes. All probes were designed against approximately 1kb of the target RNA unless otherwise constrained by sequence or target limits. All primers used to generate RNA probes are described in Table 2.1, including intronic or exonic position of probes. Anti-sense probes for Ancewere derived from Ance cDNA cloned between T3 and T7 promoters within pBluescript KS plasmid. Template is produced through PCR of the plasmid template using primers against the T3 and T7 promoters. Approximately 1ug of DNA template was used to generate labelled anti-sense RNA in a transcription reaction. Probes were either labelled with Biotin, Digoxigenin (DIG) or Dinitrophenol (DNP) labelled UTP in a mix with other nucleotides. The transcription reaction was carried out for 2 hrs at 37°Cusing, 1x transcription buffer (0.06M MgCl2, 0.1M NaCl, 0.02M Spermidine-HCl, 0.4M Tris pH 7.5), 10 Units RNAse inhibitor (Roche), 20 Units T3/T7 polymerase (Roche), 1x nucleotide mix (10mM ATP, 10mM GTP, 10mM CTP, 6mM UTP and 4mM Biotin, DIG or DNP labelled UTP (Roche)) and dH2O. The probes were then hydrolysed in 1x carbonate buffer (60mM Na2CO3, 40mM NaHCO3, pH 10.2) and incubated for 5mins at 65°C. Following hydrolysis, the reaction was stopped by the addition of 40μl dH2O, 50μl STOP solution (0.2M NaAc, pH6.0) for 5min and precipitated overnight at -20°C with 2μg of tRNA in 0.1M LiCl, and 100% ethanol. The sample was then centrifuged for 20mins at 13,000g and the pellet resuspended in 150ul of hybridisationbuffer (50% formamide, 750mM NaCl, 75mM sodium citrate, 100μg/ml ssDNA, 50μg/ml heparin, 0.1% Tween-80).
    9. Expression analysis of Drosophila Embryos
    10. Percentage lethality was calculated as:100×((number of non-CyO/ number CyO)×100)
    11. Flies were maintained at 18°C or 25°C as appropriate. Through out this thesis, flies defined as wild-type were yellow white of the genotype: y67c23w118. BEAF32 null lines BEAF32AB-KO/CyOGFP, kindly provided by Craig Hart, University of Illinois (Roy et al., 2007a). Homozygous BEAF32AB-KOlines were obtained by selection against the CyOGFPmarker at the 3rdinstar larvae stage, using a Leica M165 FC with a GFP filter. Lethality of the BEAF32AB-KOallele was assessed against the dppHr27hypersensitive allele (genotype: dppHr27,cn1,bw1/CyO P{dpp-P23}). For this embryos were collected from the following crosses as set up by Catherine Sutcliffe:BEAF32AB-KO/+ ×dppHr27,cn1,bw1/CyO P{dpp-P23}and+/+ ×dppHr27,cn1,bw1/CyO P{dpp-P23}
    12. Fly Stocks and Crosses
    13. Genomic DNA Preparation: Genomic DNA, used as a template for PCR, was isolated from approximately 20 wild-type flies. Flies were added to 125ul Homogenisation buffer (200mM sucrose, 100mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, 50mM EDTA, 0.5% SDS) and ground using a pestle. The mixture wasthen incubated at 67°C for 10mins. Subsequently, 1.5M KAc was added and incubated on ice for 10mins, followed by DNA extraction using an equal volume of phenol chloroform. The mixture was centrifuged at 16,000g and the DNA precipitated using 0.3M NaAc andethanol. The DNA pellet was then resuspended in 25μl of TE with 25ug RNaseA. PCR:Unless otherwise stated, all PCR reactions were performed using Phusion High Fidelity DNA Polymerase (NEB). PCR reactions were carried out at either 20μl or 50μl with the following reaction setup: 1x GC or HF Buffer, 200μM dNTPs, 0.5 μM of both primers, 1 Unit of Phusion and a maximum of 200ng of DNA. Thermocycling conditions used were as per the manufacturers instructions with a minimum of 35 PCR cycles at an elongation rate of 30s/kb at 72°C. Elongation time was adjusted as appropriate for the PCR product. Where necessary Tm was optimised using gradient PCR. All PCR reactions were performed on a BIO-RAD T100 Thermal Cycler. Both PCR purification and Gel extraction were performed using the NucleoSpin Gel & PCR Clean up kit (Macherey-Nagel), as per the manufacturers instructions. Unless otherwise specified, all primers used in this thesis were designed using NCBI’s Primer-BLAST, selecting against any primers or primer pairs that would produce unspecific products (Ye et al., 2012).
    14. Molecular Biology Protocols
    15. Experimental Methods
    16. Marco T.Pinheiro
    17. niversity of Manchester f
    18. Defining the Hierarchical Regulation of BMP Enhancers in Early Drosophila Development.