63 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2022
    1. een to gradually transform the individual from a “random” animated carbon formation into a fully developed human being, an integral “actor” invested with meaning and purpose, who would walk softly on the earth and work collaboratively to ensure the sustenance of a healthy, productive life for every member of his/her immediate community and the greater community to which we all belong. The process of becoming, then, is inextricably bound up in and beholden to Story. After all, Story constitutes a container for our lives, or as Kiowa novelist and scholar N. Scott Momaday articulated it two generations ago: “We are what we imagine. Our very existence consists in our imagination of ourselves. Our best 1 The practice of introducing the Indigenous “actors” who play their parts within this project by tribal affiliation may seem unusual (or even superfluous) to those who may not be familiar with Indigenous thought and writings. There are several reasons for so doing, however, some of which I hope will clearly manifest themselves in the course of the work itself. For now, suffice it to say, it is important to remind ourselves that while the works and words of one tribal artist or scholar may inform the lives, words and works of others, these words and works belong to the cultural canon and speak to, from and of a tribal lifeway belonging to a specific nation. And the practice of identifying specific nations with specific ideas, stories or lifeways prevents confusion and/or the dissolution of that

      this whole thing about being is imagining and creating and being will help with my myth essay

  2. Jan 2022

      • It is neither cyclical nor linear
      • example seen in Maya hieroglyphic inscriptions
      • the elements of a date represented by living entities interact with each other

      1. the Aztec 52 year century
      2. maya k'atun cycle
      • apporximation fo the solar year (maya = ja'ab
    3. B8:

      • CALENDRIC SYSTEM IS a key feature of meso culture
      • says a lot about religion and cosmology

      • 3 distinct terms for the concept of a narrative
      1. to tell a story
      2. to tell a lie
      3. to mythologize
      • stories are exaggerated or lose some truth to them as they get passed along
      • myth is the collective dream world or collective subconscious
      • the stories that we are told and accept as truth
      • the halfway point of science and religion, most elaborate of all fictions
    5. B6: ARE WE HEALING?

      • people rediscovering gender

        "lives of communities into their own hands, into their own healing hands"

      • science, religion has not been able to explain "the life force of human origins"

      • Mythology: language that had to be invented to explain " the dream world( where we exists)
    6. B6: POWERFUL IMAGE OF 1482

      • god as a woman meets violence from god man

      • process of procreation dependent on feminine force of energy
      • the Trickster: half human and half god
      • the difference: concepts or divination does not translate to English
      1. no concept of gender, all are she/he
      • god is male and female simultaneously, we are all he/she
      1. god is not perfect
      • the concept of god in all and god in everything
      • pantheism: all things have divinity because it has god
      1. not time
      • existence in the universe i merely one endless circle of birth and life and death and a cycle
      1. paradise?

      • polytheistic
      • non-perfect gods, hyper sexual lol
      • space is more important than time
      • time is expansive curve,

      • one straight timeline
      • male only god, monotheistic
      • woman not necessary
      • humans here to exploit nature
      • lmao basically calls out all the bullshit

      1. Christian mythology
      2. Greek mythology
      3. North American mythology

      • life would have no meaning
      • myth is the "driving force that decides whether nature or our bodies..."
      • kind of relate to "ku"
      • its can be good or bad and it is everything

      • tells the story fo the spiritual movements across the landscape
      • outlines and delineates the spiritual nervous system - wondrous, mystical magical complexity
      • myth = narrative
      • logos = word or discourse
      • the art of story telling, narrative of humans, animals, and god(s)
      • antithesis of theology
    13. What is mythology?

      • roots, consciousness of people
      • tool to articulate life, where origins lie
      • electrical impulse that sparks life into people
      • we would be dead( empty, corpses), no point
    14. "lost so many children to death and residential schoo in The Pas" ( 92).

      • reminds me of the unmarked graves found in Canada. An indigenous nation in Canada says it has found 751 unmarked graves at the site of a former residential school in Saskatchewan. It comes weeks after the remains of 215 children were found at a similar residential school in British Columbia.
      • What are residential schools?
      • Between 1863 and 1998, more than 150,000 indigenous children were taken from their families and placed in these schools throughout Canada.
      • The children were often not allowed to speak their language or to practice their culture, and many were mistreated and abused.
    15. Defintions: Cree: The Cree are a North American Indigenous people. They live primarily in Canada, where they form one of that country's largest First Nations.

    16. B3: Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and indigenous peoples Chapter 1: Imperialism, History, Writing and Theory

      • written: 1999
      • page 39 to 51
    17. B2: Definitions

      • geological strata: In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that was formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.
      • Steven J Gould: he theory of punctuated equilibrium, a view of evolution by which species undergo long periods of stasis followed by rapid changes over relatively short periods instead of continually accumulating slow changes over millions of years.
      • geomythology: the study of etiological oral traditions created by pre-scientific cultures to explain—in poetic metaphor and mythological imagery—geological phenomena such as volcanoes, earthquakes, floods, ...
    18. B2 Main Concept: Native American knowledge only given validity when white scientists make same observations

      • asks for a dialogue between the western and tribal people
      • they know more
      1. corrective measures to eliminate scientific misconceptions about indians, culture and past
      2. need to find a way in which traditions will be taken more seriously as valid bodies of knowledge

      Struggle: who is the authority, racism, Indian knowledge is not due to luck

    19. B2 Storytelling and Language : Storytelling is a form of art

      • languages have precise words to describe human emotion, land, human intensity,
      • western languages cannot duplicate or translate
    20. B2: Difference: Relativity

      • it is known but different
      • knowledge is only valid and valuable when white scientists document and articulate it
      • story of bear use a plant as medicine that taught the Navajos how to use the plant
    21. B2: Difference: The world we live in is Alive

      • look at events to determine the spiritual activity supporting or undergirding them
      • human have to participate in events
      • western methods are mechanical
      • indians ask the spirits for knowledge
      • all things are connected and related,
      • knowledge in terms of religious rituals, and also guidance to structure them in their behaviour,
      • listen to their environment to fish, hunt and protect
    22. B2: Difference: Authority in Science

      • storytellers gain nothing form having knowledge
      • does not gain personal interest
      • a respected storyteller was not a status dependent upon economic or military powers
      • some cannot praise their own accomplishments
    23. B2 Scientific Community: Elders as Scientists

      • specialized jobs to remember certain knowledge
      • Vision Quests( puberty ceremonies) when young people sought to help and seek guidance from nature
      • info from young people shared with spritiual leaders
      • knowledge is personal for non-western people versus impersonal for western scientist
      • only those people given the knowledge by other entities can use it properly
    24. B2 Oral Tradition Practices

      • recited during winter time, regular part of the life
      • religious ceremonies involved reciting stories
      • accumulated tribe wisdom was shared to all
      • said that special knowledge is revealed in visions or dreams, "personal knowledge""need-to-know" basis?
    25. B2 Oral Tradition is the the equivalent to science

      • **oral tradition is "loosely held collection fo anecdotal material that explains the nature of the physical world as people have experience it and the important events of their historical journey" (33)
      • "American indian traditions deal with commonsense ordinary topic such as plants, animals, weather, and past events that are not particularly of a religious nature"
      • made a point of Westerners appropiating traditions ex: spiritually, burning sage, stones, meditation/trances,
      • validity based on tribe's spiritual forces
      • oral tradition is serious, knowledge, true
    26. B2 Problem with bringing non-western tradition within the scope of science

      1. subject to extra scrutiny:
      • future discredits their validity in culture
      1. subject to racism in academia:
      • white scientist looking form the outside in studying other cultures, they need to bring people from the culture
      1. information become valid when offered by a white scholar

        "color of the skin guarantees scientific reason"

      • they have to submit to the establish authority
    27. B2 Science is folkflore

      • i don't agree with this statement
      • especially because science is being attacked everyday through the debate of climate change
      • Science IS a true but sometimes the way it communicated to the public is flawed. Example the CDC with so many changes, people lose trust in the way it's communicated

        "immense knowledge and factual proof of many scientific theories does not extist"(30).

      • reminds me of the little high school argument between a biology teacher and a christian girl

      • this is very true, bering straight and big bang theory taught as fact when they are theory

    28. B2 Science critique in the paper

      • scientific method seen as the be all end all
      • scientists can be frauds
      • science is hierarchical - "poor ignorant laypeople" versus the elite scientists
      • scientists are ignorant fo the developments outside their field"
    29. B2 - Western Darwinian evolution discredited all other beliefs

      "all accounts of a creation ...are superstitions devised by ignorant peoples to explain the processes fo the world"


    30. B2: Native American and the myth of scientific fact,Chapter 2: Science and The Oral Tradition starts page 34

      • written 1995 Summary: every society maintinas its sense of idenity with a set of stories which explain creation, linked events after creation and experiences that "serve as precedents for determining present and future actions." Stories have moral teaching , traditions, spritual powers, invisible forces, memorable events in history.
    31. Concept: Pity on those who do not understand (page14) - Finally saying his theory?

      • the motivation is to get the true meaning of the bible (page19)
      • don't turn away ideas but inspect them and use the bible to investigate them

        "no proposition can be contrary to the faith unless it has first been proven to be false" (19)

      • page 20
    32. Theology

      • best of the sciences( page12)

        "supernatural things are a matter of faith"(12)

    33. The Bible as truth

      • European belief must conform to Christian belief and has to "ask for permission" and never disrespect the Church
      • galileo says "The bible cannot err", "the holy Bible can never speak untruth", but "anyone can take an erroneous position"
      • temerity : excessive confidence or boldness; audacity.
      • contumatious: stubbornly or willfully disobedient to authority.
      • page 9: 1st column, man's reason is flawed or his interpretation of the Bible is wrong; human's inability to comprehend; "two truths cannot contradict one another"
      • page 11: says a lot about people who do now know the true meaning of the bible,

        "not having penetrated the true sense of Scripture"

      • page 11: lazy people don't understand

        "distorting passages and twisting the Bible to their individual and contradictory whims"

    34. Seek knowledge from their diety(God)

      • seek guidance from the Holy Ghost(page 11)
    35. (page 12 B1) new discoveries does not contradict the bible

      • old testatment: The first five books – Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, book of Numbers and Deuteronomy
      • The New Testament focuses more on the life and teachings of Jesus and the Christian church.
      • The Old Testament explains the history of the creation of the World, the exodus of Israelites, and the Ten Commandments given to Moses by God
    36. (page 12 B1) - in order to establish a belief there has to be previous knowledgeHe's not alone, others have drawn the same conclusions and/ or agree**

      • Nicholas Copernicus was the first to say said theory
      • devoted Catholic man
      • the church has a history of studying the the sky and seeking more information
      • Copernicus' discovery was accepted but now it is rejected
      • zeal: great energy or enthusiasm in pursuit of a cause or an objective.
    37. (page 7,8) - Christianity and Nature

      • "God is known first through Nature, and then again by his doctrine; by Nature in his works and by doctrin in his revealed word"
      • "Nature is inexorable and immutable"
      • god would not be able to give us science or nature without having to understand it"
      • I guess this also contradicts the history of how the bibile has been used by humans to exploit the land and resources in the name of god , "divine right" used for conquest', "Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue it, and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over every living thing that moves on the earth.’
    38. (page 9) Science for the purpose of highest goal (salvation)

      • trying to justify his discovery in the eyes of the church
      • in the name of salvation
      • clergy says"

        "the intention of the Holy Ghost is to teach us how one goes to heaven, not how heaven goes"

      • this is very different from Maya:
      • Question what is the purpose of life for the Maya? *the same? because you live a life to be with the gods or please the gods
    39. B1. Big Picture: The "Letter to The Grand Duchess Christina" is

      • essay written in 1615 by Galileo Galilei.
      • purpose: to accommodate Copernicanism with the doctrines of the Catholic Church.
        • argued that the Copernican theory was physical reality. * Dominican friar Niccolò Lorini, to complain to the Inquisition, which tried and eventually condemned Galileo of suspicion of heresy.
      • Def: Copernican heliocentrism is the name given to the astronomical model developed by Nicolaus Copernicus and published in 1543. This model positioned the Sun at the center of the Universe, motionless, with Earth and the other planets orbiting around it in circular paths, modified by epicycles, and at uniform speeds
      • Galileo against Ptolemy
    40. (page 12 B1) - Writing to Grand Dutchess mother about his injustice

      imputations: accusation

      abhorrent: disgust, loathe, repugnant

      calumnies: the making of false and defamatory statements about someone in order to damage their reputation; slander.

    41. (page 12 B1):

      • those that know their science were the ones to accept the truth
      • others in plain disbelief were hard to convince
      • others have bruised egos and cannot deny their theories
      • others are silent
      • others clearly contradict Galileo
    42. (page 11, B1)

      • intro blaming other scientists and scholars for not accepting or inquiring about Galileo's new ideas
      • people not listening to reason



    1. also reveals one of the problems with this approach to the question ofmoral status

      morality: is this a value or ethical framework???

      morality is relative??? what is the connnection between morality physchollogy and ethics ??

    2. **QUestions:

      • would we be in this same situation if we saw how our food is killed?
      • so is it morally justified to consume meat if it were humanely raised? humanely killed? can a kill be humane?
      • leather is a buy product of the meat industry? is that morally right or morally wrong?
    3. In response to this line of argument, I could remind the reader that SamuelJohnson said, or should have said, that the Doctrine of Double Effect is the lastrefuge of a scoundrel3. I won’t do that, however, since neither the doctrine itself,nor the alleged moral distinction between intending and foreseeing can justifythe consumption of factory-raised meat. The Doctrine of Double Effect requiresnot merely that a bad effect be foreseen and not intended, but also that there bean outweighing good effect. In the case of the suffering of factory-raised ani-mals, whatever good could plausibly be claimed to come out of the systemclearly doesn’t outweigh the bad. Furthermore, it would be easy to modify thestory of Fred to render the puppies’ suffering ‘merely’ foreseen. For example,suppose that the cocoamone is produced by a chemical reaction that can onlyoccur when large quantities of drain-cleaner are forced down the throat of aconscious, unanaesthetized puppy. The consequent appalling suffering, whilenot itself a means to the production of cocoamone, is nonetheless an unavoid-able side-effect of the means. In this variation of the story, Fred’s behavior is noless abominable than in the original

      CAN YOU EXPLAIN Doctrine of Double effect: According to the principle of double effect, sometimes it is permissible to cause a harm as a side effect (or “double effect”) of bringing about a good result even though it would not be permissible to cause such a harm as a means to bringing about the same good end

    4. The industry may not be able torespond to each individual’s behavior, but it must respond to the behavior offairly large numbers. Suppose that the industry is sensitive to a reduction indemand for chicken equivalent to 10,000 people becoming vegetarians. (Thisseems like a reasonable guess, but I have no idea what the actual numbersare, nor is it important.)
      • ethics or ideals of a society
      • American in general is more indivualistic and i have a right to what i eat blah blah blah to they don't see thier indivual decision as a worthy action for themselves or the greater salvation of animals
    5. . If the attempted excuse of causal impotence is compelling in the lattercase, it should be compelling in the former case. But it isn’

      you clearly know how many dogs you can save with every chocolate mouse you eat

    6. Are there any morally significantdifferences between Fred’s behavior and their behavi
      • pleasure
      • done in secret
      • no reason to be doing that
      • meat eaters dont' do for it to taste better, we just do it becuase we like to beat animals ...
      • he coulve injected stress hormones...
      • the first arguments are just reframing the situation
    7. He derives no pleasurefrom the suffering of the puppies itself. He sympathizes with those who arehorrified by the pain and misery of the animals, but the court must realize thathuman pleasure is at stake. The puppies, while undeniably cute, are mere animals.He admits that he would be just as healthy without chocolate, if not more so. Butthis isn’t a matter of survival or health. His life would be unacceptably impover-ished without the experience of chocolate
      • human pleasure is above a living thing?
    8. No decent person would even contemplate torturing puppiesmerely to enhance a gustatory experience. However, billions of animals endure

      he got me there

    1. haole

      a person who is not a native Hawaiian, especially a white person.it may mean any foreigner or anything else introduced to the Hawaiian islands of foreign origin, though it is most commonly applied to people of European ancestry

    2. epiphenomenon

      a secondary effect or byproduct that arises from but does not causally influence a process.

    3. to view racism as a psychologicalproduct rather than as a product of social history.

      This is very important to understand institutional racism. Example police officer isn't racist but the systemhe works for is racist.

    4. Race was exposed as a socialcreation—a fiction that divided and categorized individuals by pheno-typic markers, such as skin color, which supposedly signified underly-ing differences

      I never understood the definition of race

    5. Social constructionist theory


      Social constructionism is a theory of knowledge that holds that characteristics typically thought to be immutable and solely biological—such as gender, race, class, ability, and sexuality—are products of human definition and interpretation shaped by cultural and historical contexts (Subramaniam 2010). As such, social constructionism highlights the ways in which cultural categories—like “men,” “women,” “black,” “white”—are concepts created, changed, and reproduced through historical processes within institutions and culture.

    6. The concept of gender thus pro-vides an overarching framework from which to view historical, cultural,and situational variability in definitions of womanhood and manhood,in meanings of masculinity and femininity, in relationships betweenmen and women, and in their relative power and political status.

      describes gender as binary

    7. For example, explanations of gender inequalitybased on middle-class white women’s experience focused on women’sencapsulation in the domestic sphere and economic dependence onmen. These concepts by and large did not apply to black women, whohistorically had to work outside the home

      There are fundamentally different struggles that woman face.

    8. the United States is theonly one to have substantially relied, for its economic development, onthe labor of peoples from all three nonwhite areas of the globe: Africa,Latin America, and Asia. Thus a central feature of the U.S. economyhas been its reliance on racialized and gendered systems of control, in-cluding coercion.


    9. The three regionsare also comparable in the roles they played in building the nationaleconomy. They supplied agricultural products and raw materials tomore industrialized regions of the country, and these basic industriesemployed large masses of immigrant and racialized labor. All three re-gions developed coercive labor systems that relied on racialized struc-tures of control, and in all three, struggles over labor and citizenshiprights were dominant issues that shaped relations among white andnonwhite groups.

      3 regions: South, Southwest, Hawaii

      • America relied on immigrant and racialize labor
      • labor systems negatively affected people
      • relations between white and non-white groups
    10. The two were brought together in the widely held idealof the “worker citizen,” which carried the twin attributes of white-ness and masculinity. Notions of which groups had the intellectual andemotional capacities to do conceptual work were similar to notions ofwhich groups had the rational, self-governing capacity required for cit-izenship. Therefore, labor and citizenship are intertwined institutionalarenas in which race and gender relations, meanings, and identitieshave been both constituted and contested


    11. Conversely, the lack of citizenship rightslimited the ability of some groups to form unions, compete for jobs,and attain education and training for higher-level positions

      We see this today with immigrants receiving unfair labor practices. I like that it is not necessarily violent practices(shouting, sweatshops), covert practices that affect the livelihood and standard of living.

    12. When I say that individual actors interpret and en-force boundaries, I don’t mean that they do so on the basis of their ownidiosyncratic ideas; usually they are working within rules and socialpractices that are widely shared within the local community or region.1

      something about discrimination within society, a larger society of oppression