414 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2016
    1. holiness on horses bells

      Zechariah 14:20

    2. Abraham‘s seed

      She likens the English Protestants to the Israelites.

    3. Gog

      A Biblical figure who made war against Israel (Ezek. 38), often a figure for the Antichrist. Here the term is used to describe Islam.

    4. Pursivants

      A junior officer of arms

    5. Catchpoles

      A petty officer of justice

    6. Not false to King

      Wary of committing treason, Parliament tasked Essex with "preserving the Safety of his Majesty's Person" - which, ironically, entailed Essex engaging Charles I's forces in battle, supposedly for the king's own good.

    7. Essex

      Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, was appointed Captain-General of the Parliamentary army to fight the royalists.

    8. Romes whore

      An alarming revision of the Catholic idea that the Church itself is the bride of Christ.

    9. Copes

      A long mantle worn by a priest; a liturgical vestment.

    10. Crossiers

      A bishop's staff, curled into a spiral on top.

    11. Mytires

      Mitre; a tall headdress worn by bishops.

    12. Tire


    13. Surplices

      A white linen vestment worn by clergymen

    14. Baals

      A demon, here referring to Catholic vestments as those of the devil.

    15. Popelings


    16. Mero‘s curse

      Judges 5:23

    17. Gideon

      A prophet from the Book of Judges in the Hebrew Bible, generally associated with military prowess due to his defeat of the Midianite army.

    18. Popery

      Derogatory term for Catholicism

    19. York

      Royalist forces were defeated by Parliamentary forces in the 1644 Siege of York, at the Battle of Marston Moor.

    20. This was deny’d

      The Commons' motion to appoint militia commanders independently of the king met with resistance from Charles I.

    21. Militia

      The Commons drew up the Militia Ordinance of 1642 to quell the Irish uprising.

    22. Laud

      A play on words: Archbishop William Laud was imprisoned in the Tower before being executed for treason.

    23. Strafford

      The House of Commons drew up a bill of attainder declaring Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, guilty of treason. After the bill was signed by Charles I, Strafford was beheaded - very literally brought low "by the head"!

    24. help the Church,

      The House of Commons also volubly opposed Catholic practices in England before and during the Civil War.

    25. beter part

      Probably referring to the House of Commons, which drafted the Petition of Right, a document that prohibited the king from infringing on specific liberties.

    26. Ireland

      English Protestants were massacred in the Irish rebellion of 1641, a slaughter documented in John Temple's The Irish Rebellion (1646).

    27. Rochel

      The Catholic Louis XIII of France laid siege to Rochelle in 1627-1628, defeating the Protestant Huguenot forces.

    28. calcined


    29. Germanyes

      Referring to the defeat of German Protestants by Catholic forces during the Thirty Years War, contemporary with the English Civil War.

    30. Afterclap

      A further damaging event following a supposedly closed affair.

    31. Hydraes

      A mythological monster with many heads, If one head was cut off, two would grow back in its place.

    32. Jane

      Lady Jane Grey ruled England for nine days before she was overthrown and executed by the notoriously Catholic Mary Tudor in 1554, at age nineteen. Known as the Nine Days Queen, she is the shortest reigning monarch in English history.

    33. Rome

      Roman Catholicism, due to the perceived Catholic leanings of Charles I.

    34. Edwards youths, and Clarence hapless son

      Referring again to Richard III's alleged murder of his nephews.

    35. princely heads

      Referring to the execution of Charles I on January 30, 1649.

    36. flying for the truth

      Puritans migrated to New England in the 17th century due to the Catholic leanings of Charles I and rising religious tension in England.

    37. thou

      New England

    38. Masters


    39. Belzebub


    40. Church Offices were sold and bought

      A practice known as simony.

    41. men of might

      Due to his marriage to the Catholic Henrietta Maria of France, Charles I gained the mistrust of Puritans such as Bradstreet.

    42. Idolatry

      One critique of Roman Catholicism was the inclusion of statues and images in the Church, which Protestants often condemned as the worship of idols. As a Puritan, Bradstreet would have been particularly opposed to this.

    43. injurious

      Probably referring to the supposed plots of Mary, Queen of Scots, to overthrow Elizabeth I.

    44. Lillies

      Presumably referring to the women that married these two English kings: Edward III married Philippa of Hainault, granddaughter of Philip III of France. When Edward laid siege to Calais during the Hundred Years' War, Philippa petitioned him not to execute the conquered Frenchmen. Henry V married Catherine of Valois after his victory over France at the Battle of Agincourt.

    45. Spains

      Recalling the 1588 defeat of the Spanish Armada

    46. white

      A white rose was the emblem of the House of York.

    47. red

      A red rose was the emblem of the House of Lancaster.

    48. Earl of March

      In 1403, Sir Edward Mortimer, the Welsh general Owain Glyndwr, and Henry Percy rebelled against Henry IV in the hopes of putting Mortimer's nephew, also Edward Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March, on the throne.

    49. Jews

      A misprint for "Lewis," referring to Louis VIII of France, who lent the English barons military aid during the First Barons' War.

    50. Edward third

      Edward III asserted dominion over France and initiated the Siege of Calais (1337-1453), early during the Hundred Years' War.

    51. Henry fifth

      Henry V defeated the French at the 1415 Battle of Agincourt, an encounter famously dramatized in Shakespeare's "Henry V."

    52. unite

      Lancaster and York united with the marriage of Henry VII to Elizabeth of York.

    53. Nephews slew

      Richard III allegedly killed his nephews, twelve-year old Edward V and nine-year old Richard of Shrewsbury, to ensure his claim to the throne. Shakespeare dramatizes the murder in his play, Richard III (IV.iii).

    54. Duke of York

      Alluding to Richard of York, who attempted to seize the throne from Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou. He was the father of Edward IV and Richard III.

    55. Richard

      Richard II

    56. Edward

      Edward II

    57. Henryes daughter

      Empress Matilda

    58. Alcies Son

      Stephen of Blois

    59. Holland

      After Holland rebelled against Spanish rule, Elizabeth I of England sent Robert Dudley, the Earl of Leicester, to be governor-general of the Netherlands. He resigned within a year due to political tensions.

    60. France

      Since Mary, Queen of Scots, had been married to the French King Francis II, France supported her claims to the English throne instead of Elizabeth I.

    61. Scots

      Perhaps alluding to Mary, Queen of Scots, executed in 1587 for allegedly plotting treason against Elizabeth I.

    62. Armado

      The Spanish Armada's 1588 naval attack on England under Philip II ended in defeat, when a storm ravaged the heavy Spanish galleons.

    63. Boar

      The white boar was the personal device of Richard III.

    64. Tushes


    65. Richmonds

      King Henry VII, formerly the Earl of Richmond, defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field (1485), ending the Wars of the Roses.

    66. roses

      The houses of Lancaster and York contended for the English crown during the 15th century Wars of the Roses, which ended with the marriage of the Lancastrian Henry VII to Elizabeth of York.

    67. second Richard

      Richard II was deposed by Henry Bolingbroke, later Henry IV, and imprisoned in the Tower of London before he was moved to Pontefract Castle.

    68. Edward

      She alludes to Edward II, who was deposed in 1327 by his wife, Isabella, and son, Edward III.

    69. Barons

      The English barons famously rose up against King John during the First Barons' War (1215-1217), with military support from France.

    70. Maud and Stephen

      Empress Matilda, the daughter of Henry I of England, contended with her cousin, Stephen of Blois, for the English throne in the 12th century. The war ended in stalemate, with Maud and Stephen controlling different parts of England.

    71. Intestine


    72. Norman

      She alludes to William the Great's conquest of England at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 AD.

    73. tane


    74. Canutus

      An 11th century king of Denmark and Norway, who invaded and conquered England in 1016, finally succeeding Edward II as king.

    75. Hengist

      An Anglo-Saxon mercenary, who massacred the Britons at a peace conference in the 5th century in an incident called the Treachery of the Long Knives. Vortigern, the king of the Britons, ceded half of his kingdom to Hengist.

    76. wherefore


    77. our

      Old England seems to be using the royal "we."

    78. sad


    79. Ague

      High fever

    80. consumption

      Paradoxically, even as the war has politically curative properties, its violence threatens to destroy England.

    81. purging potion

      The metaphor likens the Civil War to a medicinal concoction meant to rid the body (England) of disease-causing humors - or, in this case, of Charles I.

    82. Art

      Art thou

    1. Brasils

      Brazil, being a Portuguese colony, would have been Catholic.

    2. Roman Religion


    3. much

      Momentous; a big deal

    4. had

      Would have

    5. Breast Work

      A makeshift fortification or defense.

    6. Triangle

      Crusoe orders the men to enclose themselves within three pieces of timber arranged in a triangle.

    7. for Carriage

      To be carried (elsewhere)

    8. Fusees

      Light muskets or firelocks

    9. Tours


    10. especially on the French Side of the Mountains

      The Spanish Inquisition (the one we usually think of!) was actually just one of a series of Catholic inquisitions in Europe, beginning with the Inquisition in the south of France by Pope Lucius III at the end of the 12th century.

    11. two-legged Wolves

      Crusoe wryly alludes to the Catholic authorities, the agents of the Inquisition.

    12. Languedoc

      A territory in the south of France.

    13. Fonterabia

      Also Fuenterrabia or Hondarribia, a town on the west shore of the Bidasoa River's mouth in Spain.

    14. Bourdeaux

      A port city on the Garonne River in southwestern France.

    15. Pampeluna

      Pamplona, the capital city of Navarre. (Navarre itself is an autonomous community within Spain.)

    16. Original


    17. Rochell

      La Rochelle, a seaport city in France adjacent to the Bay of Biscay.

    18. Bay of Biscay

      A bay off the coast of Europe, adjacent to France and Spain.

    19. Groyne

      A rigid hydraulic structure built from a bank that interrupts water flow and limits the movement of sediment.

    20. had

      Would have

    21. Torbay

      A borough in Devon in the southern coast of England.

    22. Algerine

      People from Algeria

    23. Bays

      Baize, a coarse woolen cloth now commonly used on billiard tables.

    24. Papist

      Roman Catholic (derogatory term)

    25. Spirits

      Galenic theories of medicine proposed that illness was caused by a disproportionate quantity of bad humors in the body, which could be drained by bloodletting.

    26. had

      Would have

    27. had

      Would have

    28. Civil Death

      The loss of civil rights of a person due to an act by the government (in this case, an act that effectively deemed Crusoe permanently missing)

    29. straiten

      Make his financial situation tight

    30. Barco-Longo

      Spanish fishing boat

    31. I seem’d a little angry with the Captain

      Crusoe and the Captain's rather amusing charade tricks the captives into staying on the island of their own volition.

    32. Yard-Arm

      Outer extremity of a yard or shipyard

    33. a Bag full of Lemons, and two Bottles of Lime-Juice

      These would have been carried to prevent scurvy, which sailors often died from due to vitamin C deficiency. In the 16th century, Admiral Sir Richard Hawkins became the first to prevent scurvy among his crew by giving them citrus fruits to eat.

    34. and they were to go without me

      Perhaps Crusoe has been so long on the island that it still has not sunk in that he is leaving.

    35. Round-House

      The uppermost cabin in the stern of the ship

    36. stop the Breach of one

      Close the hole that he and Crusoe punched in the bottom of the first boat

    37. Hands


    38. that he did not want Men

      Crusoe's ostensible willingness to kill five hostages is meant to show the captives that he does not lack manpower, since five men are of so little value to him. This enhances the fiction of Crusoe as the powerful "Governour."

    39. upon their Behaviour

      Well behaved

    40. my great Army of 50 Men

      Crusoe gets comically carried away playing the "Governour"; his imaginary army of fifty frightens the captives into submission.

    41. Brow


    42. had

      Would have

    43. set them over

      Transport them inland, closer to the voices

    44. it was all one

      It was no use

    45. hollowing

      Halloaing, calling

    46. make a Waft with her Antient

      Hoist a particular flag up the mast to signal the boat to return.

    47. Leeward Islands

      A cluster of small islands east of Puerto Rico, including the modern US and British Virgin Islands and Guadeloupe.

    48. stave

      Break up, dismantle

    49. Husbands

      Stewards; caretakers

    50. Alicant

      A Spanish port city on the Costa Blanca

    51. yet rebell’d even against God himself that deliver’d them, when they came to want Bread in the Wilderness

      Exodus 16:3

    52. Islands


    53. New Spain

      Spain's New World land holdings, spanning modern-day Mexico, the southwestern United States, and northern regions of South America

    54. defaced

      Removed all traces of

    55. pretty much


    56. without

      Out of

    57. yearling

      Adolescent (~2 years)

    58. by the Way

      Of little consequence; extraneous information

    59. Ugly Dog

      As tempting as it is to read this as Friday insulting the Spaniard, he is actually referring (rather alarmingly) to himself!

    60. bad


    61. fain


    62. cock, and present

      To prepare a loaded gun for firing by raising the hammer (cocking) and aiming it (presenting)

    63. Skirt


    64. though

      Even if

    65. I fetch’d a Compass to my Right-Hand, of near a Mile

      He took a mile-long detour to the right-hand side ("compass" here refers to a circuitous route, not a navigation tool)

    66. fleet


    67. gyb’d

      Turned downwind

    68. Boom

      A long spar running from different places in the ship to the base of a mast

    69. Sprit

      A small spar reaching diagonally from low on a mast to the upper outer corner of a sail.

    70. pitch’d upon


    71. Fustic

      Maclura tinctoria, a medium to large tree of the neotropics

  2. Jun 2016
    1. Hangers


    2. Benamuckee

      There is no historic mythological source for this deity.

    3. Oowocakee

      There is no historical source for this.

    4. Laths

      Thin, narrow strips of wood used to form a groundwork upon which to fasten the slates of a roof

    5. discover


    6. discover’d


    7. my Man Friday

      The idiom "Man Friday" or "Girl Friday" still refers to an especially faithful servant or personal assistant. It came into use with the release of the film "His Girl Friday" (1940), whose title alludes to Defoe's novel.

    8. Stock

      The butt of a gun

    9. clapp’d


    10. Curlieu

      A bird with a long, curved bill.

    11. Supra-Cargo

      An official on a merchant ship responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale.

    12. Moydors

      Moidores (archaic), a unit of Portuguese currency.


      Alluding to Adam and Eve's consumption of the forbidden fruit, termed "original sin" in the Christian tradition.

    14. Ryals

      Reals, another unit of Spanish currency (not to be confused with Iranian rials)

    15. Pumps

      Heeled shoes

    16. glaz’d Powder

      The process of glazing involves tumbling the gunpowder grains in revolving drums with graphite, to smooth them and make them water resistant.

    17. Doubloons

      Spanish coin

    18. Till

      Drawer, especially for holding money

    19. Succades

      Candied fruit

    20. Cordial Waters

      Medicinal concoctions

    21. and so perhaps to Spain

      In the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, Spain grew wealthy on imports of gold, silver, and sugar from its Latin American colonies, eventually causing enormous inflation throughout Western Europe. Buenos Aires exported silver to Spain.

    22. Boltsprit

      Bowsprit; a large spar or beam extending forth from the front of a ship

    23. next


    24. found it

      Experienced these emotions

    25. which many Times obliges Men to stave, or take in Pieces their Boat

      If the violent storm damaged the lifeboat, the men would be forced to break apart the ruined boat and throw it overboard, to alleviate excess weight on the sinking ship.

    26. wave

      Waive, set aside

    27. happy


    28. nicest

      Most careful

    29. But it was otherwise directed

      Providence decreed otherwise

    30. Strait

      Narrow opening

    31. Goat’s Tallow

      Made from mutton fat

    32. some wild-fire in the Pan

      Dry rags or some other fuel, to catch the spark from the flint.

    33. Tinder-box

      A box containing flint and steel for striking a light to make fire

    34. Converse

      Conversation or communication (of spirits with humans)

    35. chop’d upon them

      Happened upon them accidentally

    36. Disposition

      Arrangement or organization; setting forth

    37. Glasses


    38. Swan-shot

      Small lead pellets - so called, of course, because a fowling piece is ordinarily used to shoot birds

    39. Brace of Slugs

      A handful of musket balls

    40. Signals

      Evidence, namely the human bones Crusoe found on the beach

    41. Ambuscade


    42. had

      would have

    43. Hops

      Particular varieties of seed cones used to provide bitter flavor, and as a stabilizing agent to prevent beer from going bad

    44. Design

      Plan or scheme

    45. Cutlashes

      Cutlasses (a sailor's sword with a curved blade)

    46. least


    47. distinguish’d

      Physically separated