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    1. Joint Public Review:

      Comments on author responses to the other reviews:

      Reviewer 1:<br /> Interpretation of data has been appropriately reorganized in the discussion.<br /> Quantified mitochondria in the model show no difference in number. There is reduced size and structural abnormalities on electron microscopy.

      Application of mito-QC revealed increased mitophagy.

      Regarding partial rescue of axonal number in the mutant model, statistical significance between control and rescue is still not depicted in Figure 4D. Detailing possible explanations for this has been addressed in the discussion. However, only partial rescue of the most clinically relevant metric for optic atrophy in this model hamstrings subsequent mechanistic experiments that follow.

      Discussion regarding variant I382M has been improved.

      While reviewer 1's concerns about axonal number as a biomarker for OPA1 function are valid, it is worth noting that this is the most clinically relevant marker in the context of DOA. That said, I agree that the mechanistic DN/HI studies needed support using other measures of mitochondrial function, and the authors have done this. The ability of WT hOPA1 and I382M but not 2708del, D438V or R445H to rescue ROS levels or mitophagy in the context of dOPA1 knockdown serves to support axonal number as a valid measure of mitochondrial function in this context. However, the critical experiment demonstrating a dominant negative effect was performed in the context of expressing WT hOPA1 along with a pathogenic variant, in which no differences in ROS, COXII expression or mitophagy were seen. This makes it difficult to conclude that the (marginal) DN effect of D438V and R445H on axon number is related to mitochondrial function, and serves as a minor weakness of the paper.

      Which exons are included in the transcript, and therefore, which isoforms are expressed in the model, has been addressed.

      Reviewer 2:

      The authors have addressed the need to include greater methodological details.<br /> Language concerning the clinical utility of the model in informing treatment decisions has been appropriately modified. As pointed out by Reviewer 1, additional studies were needed to better establish the potential clinical utility of this model in screening DOA variants. The authors have completed those experiments, and the results overall support utility of this model in identifying pathogenic variants but not in distinguishing HI/DN mechanisms among those variants.

      Reviewer 3:

      The author has addressed the partial rescue effect as above.<br /> The authors have not modified the text to acknowledge the marginal effect sizes in the critical experiment of the study that demonstrates a DN effect. Statistically, the results indeed support a dominant negative effect of DOA plus-associated variants, yet the data show a marginal impact on axonal degeneration for these variants. This remains a weakness of the study.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:<br /> Overall, this study provides a meticulous comparison of developmental transcriptomes between two sub-species of the annelid Streblospio benedicti. Different lineages of S. benedicti maintain one of two genetically programmed alternative life histories, the ancestral planktotrophic or derived lecithotrophic forms of development. This contrast is also seen at the inter-species level in many marine invertebrate taxa, such as echinoderms and molluscs. The authors report relatively (surprisingly?) modest differences in transcriptomes overall, but also find some genes whose expression is essentially morph-specific (which they term "exclusive").

      Strengths:<br /> The study is based on dense and appropriately replicated sampling of early development. The tight clustering of each stage/morph combination in PCA space suggests the specimens were accurately categorized. The similar overall trajectories of the two morphs was surprising to me for two stage: 1) the earliest stage (16-cell), at which we might expect maternal differences due to the several-fold difference in zygote size, and 2) the latest stage (1-week), where there appears to be the most obvious morphological difference. This is why we need to do experiments!

      The examination of F1 hybrids was another major strength of the study. It also produced one of the most surprising results: though intermediate in phenotype, F1 embryos have the most distinct transcriptomes, and reveal a range of fixed, compensatory differences in the parental lines. Further, the F1 lack expression of nearly all transcripts identified as morph-specific in the pure parental lines. Since the F1 larvae present intermediate traits combining the features of both morphs, this implies that morph-specific transcripts are not actually necessary for morph-specific traits. This is interesting and somewhat counter to what one might naively expect.

      Weaknesses:<br /> Overall I really enjoyed this paper, and in its revised form it addresses some concerns I had in the first version. I still see a few places where it can be tightened and made more insightful.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The endocannabinoid system (ECS) components are dysregulated within the lesion microenvironment and systemic circulation of endometriosis patients. Using endometriosis mouse models and genetic loss of function approaches, Lingegowda et al. report that canonical ECS receptors, CNR1 and CNR2, are required for disease initiation, progression, and T-cell dysfunction.

      Strengths:

      The approach uses genetic approaches to establish in vivo causal relationships between dysregulated ECS and endometriosis pathogenesis. The experimental design incorporates both bulk and single-cell RNAseq approaches, as well as imaging mass spectrometry to characterize the mouse lesions. The identification of immune-related and T-cell-specific changes in the lesion microenvironment of CNR1 and CNR2 knockout (KO) mice represents a significant advance

      Weaknesses:

      Although the mouse phenotypic analyses involves a detailed molecular characterization of the lesion microenvironment using genomic approaches, detailed measurements of lesion size/burden and histopathology would provide a better understanding of how CNR1 or CNR2 loss contributes to endometriosis initiation and progression. The cell or tissue-specific effects of the CNR1 and CNR2 are not incorporated into the experimental design of the studies. Although this aspect of the approach is recognized as a major limitation, global CNR1 and CNR2 KO may affect normal female reproductive tract function, ovarian steroid hormone levels, decidualization response, or lead to preexisting alterations in host or donor tissues, which could affect lesion establishment and development in the surgically induced, syngeneic mouse model of endometriosis.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      The authors showed that autophagy-related genes are involved in plant immunity by regulating the protein level of the salicylic acid receptor, NPR1.

      The experiments are carefully designed and the data is convincing. The authors did a good job of understanding the relationship between ATG6 and NRP1.

      The authors have addressed most of my previous concerns.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this well-designed study, the authors of the manuscript have analyzed the impact of individually silencing 90 lipid transfer proteins on the overall lipid composition of a specific cell type. They confirmed some of the evidence obtained by their own and other research groups in the past, and additionally, they identified an unreported role for ORP9-ORP11 in sphingomyelin production at the trans-Golgi. As they delved into the nature of this effect, the authors discovered that ORP9 and ORP11 form a dimer through a helical region positioned between their PH and ORD domains.

      Strengths:

      This well-designed study presents compelling new evidence regarding the role of lipid transfer proteins in controlling lipid metabolism. The discovery of ORP9 and ORP11's involvement in sphingolipid metabolism invites further investigation into the impact of the membrane environment on sphingomyelin synthase activity.

      Weaknesses:

      There are a couple of weaknesses evident in this manuscript. Firstly, there's a lack of mechanistic understanding regarding the regulatory role of ORP9-11 in sphingomyelin synthase activity. Secondly, the broader role of hetero-dimerization of LTPs at ER-Golgi membrane contact sites is not thoroughly addressed. The emerging theme of LTP dimerization through coiled domains has been reported for proteins such as CERT, OSBP, ORP9, and ORP10. However, the specific ways in which these LTPs hetero and/or homo-dimerize and how this impacts lipid fluxes at ER-Golgi membrane contact sites remain to be fully understood.

      Regardless of the unresolved points mentioned above, this manuscript presents a valuable conceptual advancement in the study of the impact of lipid transfer on overall lipid metabolism. Moreover, it encourages further exploration of the interplay among LTP actions across various cellular organelles.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this work, Mohamed Y. El-Naggar and co-workers present a detailed electronic characterization of cable bacteria from Southern California freshwater sediments. The cable bacteria could be reliably enriched in laboratory incubations, and subsequent TEM characterization and 16S rRNA gene phylogeny demonstrated their belonging to the genus Candidatus Electronema. Atomic force microscopy and two-point probe resistance measurements were then used to map out the characteristics of the conductive nature, followed by microelectrode four-probe measurements to quantify the conductivity.

      Interestingly, the authors observe that some freshwater cable bacteria filaments displayed a higher degree of robustness upon oxygen exposure than what was previously reported for marine cable bacteria. Finally, a single nanofiber conductivity on the order of 0.1 S/cm is calculated, which matches the expected electron current densities linking electrogenic sulphur oxidation to oxygen reduction in sediment and is consistent with hopping transport.

      Strengths and weaknesses:

      A comprehensive study is applied to characterise the conductive properties of the sampled freshwater cable bacteria. Electrostatic force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy provide direct evidence of the location of conductive structures. Four-probe microelectrode devices are used to quantify the filament resistance, which presents a significant advantage over commonly used two-probe measurements that include contributions from contact resistances. While the methodology is convincing, I find that some of the conclusions seem to be drawn on very limited sample sizes, which display widely different behaviour. In particular:

      The authors observe that the conductivity of freshwater filaments may be less sensitive to oxygen exposure than previously observed for marine filaments. This is indeed the case for an interdigitated array microelectrode experiment (presented in Figure 5) and for a conductive atomic force microscopy experiment (described in line 391), but the opposite is observed in another experiment (Figure S1). It is therefore difficult to assess the validity of the conclusion until sufficient experimental replications are presented.

      The calculation of a single nanofiber conductivity is based on experiment and calculation with significant uncertainty. E.g. for the number of nanofibres in a single filament that varies depending on the filament size (Frontiers in microbiology, 2018, 9: 3044.), and the measured CB resistance, which does not scale well with inner probe separation (Figure 5). A more rigorous consideration of these uncertainties is required.

      Comments on revised version:

      The authors address all of the comments carefully.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Little is known about the local circuit mechanisms in the preoptic area (POA) that regulate body temperature. This carefully executed study investigates the role of GABAergic interneurons in the POA that express neurotensin (NTS). The principal finding is that GABA-release from these cells inhibits neighboring neurons, including warm-activated PACAP neurons, thereby promoting hyperthermia, whereas NTS released from these cells has the opposite effect, causing a delayed activation and hypothermia. This is shown through an elegant series of experiments that include slice recordings alongside matched in vivo functional manipulations. The roles of the two neurotransmitters are distinguished using a cell-type-specific knockout of Vgat as well as pharmacology to block GABA and NTS receptors. Overall, this is an excellent study that is noteworthy for revealing local circuit mechanisms in the POA that control body temperature and also for highlighting how amino acid neurotransmitters and neuropeptides released from the same cell can have opposing physiologic effects.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this manuscript, the authors investigated the effect of chronic activation of dopamine neurons using chemogenetics. Using Gq-DREADDs, the authors chronically activated midbrain dopamine neurons and observed that these neurons, particularly their axons, exhibit increased vulnerability and degeneration, resembling the pathological symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Baseline calcium levels in midbrain dopamine neurons were also significantly elevated following the chronic activation. Lastly, to identify cellular and circuit-level changes in response to dopaminergic neuronal degeneration caused by chronic activation, the authors employed spatial genomics (Visium) and revealed comprehensive changes in gene expression in the mouse model subjected to chronic activation. In conclusion, this study presents novel data on the consequences of chronic hyperactivation of midbrain dopamine neurons.

      Strengths:

      This study provides direct evidence that the chronic activation of dopamine neurons is toxic and gives rise to neurodegeneration. In addition, the authors achieved the chronic activation of dopamine neurons using water application of clozapine-N-oxide (CNO), a method not commonly employed by researchers. This approach may offer new insights into pathophysiological alterations of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease. The authors also utilized state-of-the-art spatial gene expression analysis, which can provide valuable information for other researchers studying dopamine neurons. Although the authors did not elucidate the mechanisms underlying dopaminergic neuronal and axonal death, they presented a substantial number of intriguing ideas in their discussion, which are worth further investigation.

      Weaknesses:

      Many claims raised in this paper are only partially supported by the experimental results. So, additional data are necessary to strengthen the claims. The effects of chronic activation of dopamine neurons are intriguing; however, this paper does not go beyond reporting phenomena. It lacks a comprehensive explanation for the degeneration of dopamine neurons and their axons. While the authors proposed possible mechanisms for the degeneration in their discussion, such as differentially expressed genes, these remain experimentally unexplored.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors aim to assess the effect of salt stress on root:shoot ratio, identify the underlying genetic mechanisms, and evaluate their contribution to salt tolerance. To this end, the authors systematically quantified natural variations in salt-induced changes in root:shoot ratio. This innovative approach considers the coordination of root and shoot growth rather than exploring biomass and the development of each organ separately. Using this approach, the authors identified a gene cluster encoding eight paralog genes with a domain-of-unknown-function 247 (DUF247), with the majority of SNPs clustering into SR3G (At3g50160). In the manuscript, the authors utilized an integrative approach that includes genomic, genetic, evolutionary, histological, and physiological assays to functionally assess the contribution of their genes of interest to salt tolerance and root development.

      Strengths:

      The holistic approach and integrative methodologies presented in the manuscript are essential for gaining a mechanistic understanding of a complex trait such as salt tolerance. The authors focused on At3g50160 but included in their analyses additional DUF247 paralogs, which further contributes to the strength of their approach. In addition, the authors considered the developmental stage (young seedlings, early or late vegetative stages) and growth conditions of the plants (agar plates or soil) when investigating the role of SR3G in salt tolerance and root or shoot development.

      Weaknesses:

      The authors' claims and interpretation of the results are not fully supported by the data and analyses. In several cases, the authors report differences that are not statistically significant (e.g., Figures 4A, 7C, 8B, S14, S16B, S17C), use inappropriate statistical tests (e.g., t-test instead of Dunnett Test/ANOVA as in Figures 10B-C, S19-23), present standard errors that do not seem to be consistent with the post-hoc Tukey HSD Test (e.g., Figures 4, 9B-C, S16B), or lack controls (e.g., Figure 5C-E, staining of the truncated versions with FM4-64 is missing).

      In other cases, traits of root system architecture and expression patterns are inconsistent between different assays despite similar growth conditions (e.g., Figures S17A-B vs. 10A-C vs. 6A, and Figures S16B vs. 4A/9B), or T-DNA insertion alleles of WRKY75 that are claimed to be loss-of-function show comparable expression of WRKY75 as WT plants. Additionally, several supplemental figures are mislabeled (Figures S6-9), and some figure panels are missing (e.g., Figures S16C and S17E).

      Consequently, the authors' decisions regarding subsequent functional assays, as well as major conclusions about gene function, including SR3G function in root system architecture, involvement in root suberization, and regulation of cellular damage are incomplete.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Assessment of cardiac LEC transcriptomes post-MI may yield new targets to improve lymphatic function. scRNAseq is a valid approach as cardiac LECs are rare compared to blood vessel endothelial cells.

      Strengths:

      Extensive bioinformatics approaches employed by the group.

      Weaknesses:

      Too few cells are included in scRNAseq data set and the spatial transcriptomics data that was exploited has little relevance, or rather specificity, for cardiac lymphatics. This study seems more like a collection of preliminary transcriptomic data than a conclusive scientific report to help advance the field.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this study, the authors developed three case studies: (1) transcriptome profiling of two human cell cultures (HEK293 and HeLa), (2) identification of experimentally enriched transcripts in cell culture (RiboMinus and RiboPlus treatments), and (3) identification of experimentally manipulated genes in yeast strains (gene knockouts or strains transformed with plasmids containing the deleted gene for overexpression). Sequencing was performed using the Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT), the only technology that allows for real-time analysis. The real-time transcriptomic analysis was performed using NanopoReaTA, a recent toolbox for comparative transcriptional analyses of Nanopore-seq data, developed by the group (Wierczeiko and Pastore et al. 2023). The authors aimed to show the use of the tool developed by them in data generated by ONT, evidencing the versatility of the tool and the possibility of cost reduction since the sequencing by ONT can be stopped at any time since enough data were collected.

      Strengths:

      Given that Oxford Nanopore Technologies offers real-time sequencing, it is extremely useful to develop tools that allow real-time data analysis in parallel with data generation. The authors demonstrated that this strategy is possible for both human cell lines and yeasts in the case studies presented. It is a useful strategy for the scientific community and it has the potential to be integrated into clinical applications for rapid and cost-effective quality checks in specific experiments such as overexpression of genes.

      Weaknesses:

      In relation to the RNA-Seq analyses, for a proper statistical analysis, a greater number of replicates should have been performed. The experiments were conducted with a minimal number of replicates (2 replicates for case study 1 and 2 and 3 replicates for case study 3).

      Regarding the experimental part, some problems were observed in the conversion to double-stranded and loading for Nanopore-Seq, which were detailed in Supplementary Material 2. This fact is probably reflected in the results where a reduction in the overall sequencing throughput and detected gene number for HEK293 compared to HeLa were observed (data presented in Supplementary Figure 2). It is necessary to use similar quantities of RNA/cDNA since the sequencing occurs in real-time. The authors should have standardized the experimental conditions to proceed with the sequencing and perform the analyses.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Assessment

      This study develops a potentially useful metric for quantifying codon usage adaptation – the Codon Adaptation Index of Species (CAIS) – that is intended to allow for more direct comparisons of the strength of selection at the molecular level across species by controlling for interspecies variation in amino acid usage and GC content. As evidence to support there claim CAIS better controls for GC content and amino acid usage across species, they note that CAIS has only a weak positive correlation with GC% (that does not stand up to multiple hypothesis testing correction) while CAI has a clear negative correlation with GC%. Using CAIS, they find better adapted species have more disordered protein domains; however, excitement about these findings is dampened due to (1) this result is also observed using the effective number of codons (ENC) and

      (2) concerns over the interpretation of CAIS as a proxy for the effectiveness of selection.

      Public Review

      Summary

      The goal of the authors in this study is to develop a more reliable approach for quantifying codon usage such that it is more comparable across species. Specifically, the authors wish to estimate the degree of adaptive codon usage, which is potentially a general proxy for the strength of selection at the molecular level. To this end, the authors created the Codon Adaptation Index for Species (CAIS) that attempts to control for differences in amino acid usage and GC% across species. Using their new metric, the authors observe a positive relationship between CAIS and the overall “disorderedness” of a species protein domains. I think CAIS has the potential to be a valuable tool for those interested in comparing codon adaptation across species in certain situations. However, I have certain theoretical concerns about CAIS as a direct proxy for the efficiency of selection sNe when mutation bias changes across species.

      Strengths

      (1) I appreciate that the authors recognize the potential issues of comparing CAI when amino acid usage varies and correct for this in CAIS. I think this is sometimes an under-appreciated point in the codon usage literature, as CAI is a relative measure of codon usage bias (i.e. only considers synonyms). However, the strength of natural selection on codon usage can potentially vary across amino acids, such that comparing mean CAI between protein regions with different amino acid biases may result in spurious signals of statistical significance.

      (2) The CAIS metric presented here is generally applicable to any species that has an annotated genome with protein-coding sequences. A significant improvement over the previous version is the implementation of software tool for applying this method.

      (3) The authors do a better job of putting their results in the context of the underlying theory of CAIS compared to the previous version.

      (4) The paper is generally well-written.

      Weaknesses

      (1) The previously observed correlation between CAIS and body size was due to a bug when calculating phylogenetic independent contrasts. I commend the authors for acknowledging this mistake and updating the manuscript accordingly. I feel that the unobserved correlation between CAIS and body size should remain in the final version of the manuscript. Although it is disappointing that it is not statistically significant, the corrected results are consistent with previous findings (Kessler and Dean 2014).

      (2) I appreciate the authors for providing a more detailed explanation of the theoretical basis model. However, I remain skeptical that shifts in CAIS across species indicates shifts in the strength of selection. I am leaving the math from my previous review here for completeness.

      As in my previous review, let’s take a closer look at the ratio of observed codon frequencies vs. expected codon frequencies under mutation alone, which was previously notated as RSCUS in the original formulation. In this review, I will keep using the RSCUS notation, even though it has been dropped from the updated version. The key point is this is the ratio of observed and expected codon frequencies. If this ratio is 1 for all codons, then CAIS would be 0 based on equation 7 in the manuscript – consistent with the complete absence of selection on codon usage. From here on out, subscripts will only be used to denote the codon and it will be assumed that we are only considering the case of r = genome for some species s.

      I think what the authors are attempting to do is “divide out” the effects of mutation bias (as given by Ei), such that only the effects of natural selection remain, i.e. deviations from the expected frequency based on mutation bias alone represents adaptive codon usage. Consider Gilchrist et al. GBE 2015, which says that the expected frequency of codon i at selection-mutation-drift equilibrium in gene g for an amino acid with Na synonymous codons is

      where ∆M is the mutation bias, ∆η is the strength of selection scaled by the strength of drift, and φg is the gene expression level of gene g. In this case, ∆M and ∆η reflect the strength and direction of mutation bias and natural selection relative to a reference codon, for which ∆M,∆η = 0. Assuming the selection-mutation-drift equilibrium model is generally adequate to model of the true codon usage patterns in a genome (as I do and I think the authors do, too), the Ei,g could be considered the expected observed frequency codon i in gene g

      E[Oi,g].

      Let’s re-write the  in the form of Gilchrist et al., such that it is a function of mutation bias ∆M. For simplicity we will consider just the two codon case and assume the amino acid sequence is fixed. Assuming GC% is at equilibrium, the term gr and 1 − gr can be written as

      where µx→y is the mutation rate from nucleotides x to y. As described in Gilchrist et al. MBE 2015 and Shah and Gilchrist PNAS 2011, the mutation bias . This can be expressed in terms of the equilibrium GC content by recognizing that

      As we are assuming the amino acid sequence is fixed, the probability of observing a synonymous codon i at an amino acid becomes just a Bernoulli process.

      If we do this, then

      Recall that in the Gilchrist et al. framework, the reference codon has ∆MNNG,NNG \= 0 =⇒ e−∆MNNG,NNG \=

      (1) Thus, we have recovered the Gilchrist et al. model from the formulation of Ei under the assumption that natural selection has no impact on codon usage and codon NNG is the pre-defined reference codon. To see this, plug in 0 for ∆η in equation (1).

      We can then calculate the expected RSCUS using equation (1) (using notation E[Oi]) and equation (6) for the two codon case. For simplicity assume, we are only considering a gene of average expression (defined as ). Assume in this case that NNG is the reference codon (∆MNNG,∆ηNNG \= 0).

      This shows that the expected value of RSCUS for a two codon amino acid is expected to increase as the strength of selection ∆η increases, which is desired. Note that ∆η in Gilchrist et al. is formulated in terms of selection against a codon relative to the reference, such that a negative value represents that a codon is favored relative to the reference. If ∆η = 0 (i.e. selection does not favor either codon), then E[RSCUS] = 1. Also note that the expected RSCUS does not remain independent of the mutation bias. This means that even if sNe (i.e. the strength of natural selection) does not change between species, changes to the strength and direction of mutation bias across species could impact RSCUS. Assuming my math is right, I think one needs to be cautious when interpreting CAIS as representative of the differences in the efficiency of selection across species except under very particular circumstances.

      Consider our 2-codon amino acid scenario. You can see how changing GC content without changing selection can alter the CAIS values calculated from these two codons. Particularly problematic appears to be cases of extreme mutation biases, where CAIS tends toward 0 even for higher absolute values of the selection parameter. Codon usage for the majority of the genome will be primarily determined by mutation biases,

      with selection being generally strongest in a relatively few highly-expressed genes. Strong enough mutation biases ultimately can overwhelm selection, even in highly-expressed genes, reducing the fraction of sites subject to codon adaptation.

      Peer review image 1.

      Peer review image 2.

      CAIS (Low Expression)

      Peer review image 3.

      CAIS (Average Expression)

      Peer review image 4.

      CAIS (High Expression)

      If we treat the expected codon frequencies as genome-wide frequencies, then we are basically assuming this genome made up entirely of a single 2-codon amino acid with selection on codon usage being uniform across all genes. This is obviously not true, but I think it shows some of the potential limitations of the CAIS approach. Based on these simulations, CAIS seems best employed under specific scenarios. One such case could be when it is known that mutation bias varies little across the species of interest. Looking at the species used in this manuscript, most of them have a GC content around 0.41, so I suspect their results are okay (assuming things like GC-biased gene conversion are not an issue). Outliers in GC content probably are best excluded from the analysis.

      Although I have not done so, I am sure this could be extended to the 4 and 6 codon amino acids. One potential challenge to CAIS is the non-monotonic changes in codon frequencies observed in some species (again, see Shah and Gilchrist 2011 and Gilchrist et al. 2015).

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      In this work, the authors provide a valuable transcriptomic resource for the intermediate free-living transmission stage (miracidium larva) of the blood fluke. The single-cell transcriptome inventory is beautifully supplemented with in situ hybridization, providing spatial information and absolute cell numbers for many of the recovered transcriptomic states. The identification of sex-specific transcriptomic states within the populations of stem cells was particularly unexpected. The work comprises a rich resource to complement the biology of this complex system.

      Comments on revised version:

      I have read through the responses and the revised manuscript. I think together this results in an improved version.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      This study of mixed glutamate/GABA transmission from axons of the supramammillary nucleus to dentate gyrus seeks to sort out whether the two transmitters are released from the same or different synaptic vesicles. This conundrum has been examined in other dual-transmission cases and even in this particular pathway, there are different views. The authors use a variety of electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods to reach the surprising (to me) conclusion that glutamate and GABA-filled vesicles are distinct yet released from the same nerve terminals. The strength of the conclusion rests on the abundance of data (approaches) rather than the decisiveness of any one approach, and I came away believing that the boutons may indeed produce and release distinct types of vesicles, but have reservations. Accepting the conclusion, one is now left with another conundrum, not addressed even in the discussion: how can a single bouton sort out VGLUTs and VIAATs to different vesicles, position them in distinct locations with nm precision, and recycle them without mixing? And why do it this way instead of with single vesicles having mixed chemical content? For example, could a quantitative argument be made that separate vesicles allow for higher transmitter concentrations? I feel the paper needs to address these problems with some coherent discussion, at minimum.

      Major concerns:

      (1) Throughout the paper, the authors use repetitive optogenetic stimulation to activate SuM fibers and co-release glutamate and GABA. There are several issues here: first, can the authors definitively assure the reader that all the short-term plasticity is presynaptic and not due to ChR2 desensitization? This has not been addressed. Second, can the authors also say that all the activated fibers release both transmitters? If for example 20% of the fibers retained a one-transmitter identity and had distinct physiological properties, could that account for some of the physiological findings?

      (2) PPR differences in Figures 1F-I are statistically significant but still quite small. You could say they are more similar than different in fact, and residual differences are accounted for by secondary factors like differential receptor saturation.

      (3) The logic of the GPCR experiments needs a better setup. I could imagine different fibers released different transmitters and had different numbers of mGluRs, so that one would get different modulations. On the assumption that all the release is from a single population of boutons, then either the mGluRs are differentially segregated within the bouton, or the vesicles have differential responsiveness to the same modulatory signal (presumably a reduced Ca current). This is not developed in the paper.

      (4) The biphasic events of Figures 3 and S3: I find these (unaveraged) events a bit ambiguous. Another way to look at them is that they are not biphasic per se but rather are not categorizable. Moreover, these events are really tiny, perhaps generated by only a few receptors whose open probability is variable, thus introducing noise into the small currents.

      (5) Figure 4 indicates that the immunohistochemical analysis is done on SuM terminals, but I do not see how the authors know that these terminals come from SuM vs other inputs that converge in DG.

      (6) Figure 4E also shows many GluN1 terminals not associated with anything, not even Vglut, and the apparent numbers do not mesh with the statistics. Why?

      (7) Do the conclusions based on the fluorescence immuno mesh with the apparent dimensions of the EM active zones and the apparent intermixing of labeled vesicles in immuno EM?

      (8) Figure 6 is not so interesting to me and could be removed. It seems to test the obvious: EPSPs promote firing and IPSPs oppose it.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Previous research shows that humans tend to adjust learning in environments where stimulus-outcome contingencies become more volatile. This learning rate adaptation is impaired in some psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety. In this tudy the authors reanalyze previously published data on a reversal learning task with two volatility levels. Through a new model they provide some evidence for an alternative explanation whereby the learning rate adaptation is driven by different decision-making strategies and not learning deficits. In particular, they propose that adjusting of learning can be explained by deviations from the optimal decision-making strategy (based on maximizing expected utility) due to response stickiness or focus on reward magnitude. Furthermore, a factor related to general psychopathology of individuals with anxiety and depression negatively correlated with the weight on the optimal strategy and response stickiness, while it correlated positively with the magnitude strategy (a strategy that ignores the probability of outcome).

      The main strength of the study is a novel and interesting explanation of an otherwise well-established finding in human reinforcement learning. This proposal is supported by rigorously conducted parameter retrieval and the comparison of the novel model to a wide range of previously published models. The authors explore from many angles, if and why the predictions from the new proposed model are superior to previously applied models.

      My previous concerns were addressed in the revised version of the manuscript. I believe that the article now provides a new perspective on a well-established learning effect and offer a novel set of interesting response models that can be applied to a wide array of decision-making problems.

      I see two limitations of the study not mentioned in the discussion of the manuscript. First, the task features binary inputs and responses, therefore unexpected uncertainty (volatility) is impossible to differentiate from the uncertainty about outcomes, and exploration is inseparable from random choices. Future work could validate these findings in task designs that allow to distinguish these processes. Second, clinical results are based on a small sample of patients and should be interpreted with this in mind.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this paper, the authors aimed to test the ability of bumblebees to use bird-view and ground-view for homing in cluttered landscapes. Using modelling and behavioural experiments, the authors showed that bumblebees rely most on ground-views for homing.

      Strengths:

      The behavioural experiments are well-designed, and the statistical analyses are appropriate for the data presented. 

      Weaknesses:

      Views of animals are from a rather small catchment area.

      Missing a discussion on why image difference functions were sufficient to explain homing in wasps (Murray and Zeil 2017).

      The artificial habitat is not really 'cluttered' since landmarks are quite uniform, making it difficult to infer ecological relevance.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Das and Menon describe an analysis of a large open-source iEEG dataset (UPENN-RAM). From encoding and recall phases of memory tasks, they analyzed power and phase-transfer entropy as a measure of directed information flow in regions across a hypothesized tripartite network system. The anterior insula (AI) was found to have heightened high gamma power during encoding and retrieval, which corresponded to suppression of high gamma power in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) during encoding but not recall. In contrast, directed information flow from (but not to) AI to mPFC/PCC and dorsal posterior parietal/middle frontal cortex is high during both time periods when PTE is analyzed with broadband but not narrowband activity. They claim that these findings significantly advance an understanding of how network communication facilitates cognitive operations such as control over memory and that the AI of the salience network (SN) is responsible for governing the switch between the frontoparietal network (FPN) and default-mode network (DMN) when shifting between externally- and internally-driven processing.

      I find this question interesting and important and agree with the authors that iEEG presents a unique opportunity to investigate the temporal dynamics within network nodes. However, I am not convinced that their claims are supported by the results currently presented. In particular, the fact that network-level communication is not modulated significantly compared to rest and does not relate to behavior suggests that PTE analyses may not be tapping into task-relevant communication. Moreover, dissociation of network effects - present during both encoding and recall - from local power suppression effects - present only during encoding - suggests that these sets of results may index separate and not unitary task processes.

      Strengths:

      - The authors present results from an impressively sized iEEG sample. For reader context, this type of invasive human data is difficult and time-consuming to collect and many similar studies in high-level journals include 5-20 participants, typically not all of whom have electrodes in all regions of interest. It is excellent that they have been able to leverage open-source data in this way.

      - Preprocessing of iEEG data also seems sensible and appropriate based on field standards.

      - The authors tackle the replication issues inherent in much of the literature by replicating findings across task contexts, demonstrating that the principles of network communication evidenced by their results generalize in multiple task memory contexts. Again, the number of iEEG patients who have multiple tasks' worth of data is impressive.

      Weaknesses:

      • The motivation for investigating the tripartite network during memory tasks is not currently well-elaborated. Though the authors mention, for example, that "the formation of episodic memories relies on the intricate interplay between large-scale brain networks (p. 4)", there are no citations provided for this statement, and the reader is unable to evaluate whether the nodes and networks evidenced to support these processes are the same as networks measured here.

      • In addition, though the tripartite network has been proposed to support cognitive control processes, and the neural basis of cognitive control is the framed focus of this work, the authors do not demonstrate that they have measured cognitive control in addition to simple memory encoding and retrieval processes. Tasks that have investigated cognitive control over memory (such as those cited on p. 13 - Badre et al., 2005; Badre & Wagner, 2007; Wagner et al., 2001; Wagner et al., 2005) generally do not simply include encoding, delay, and recall (as the tasks used here), but tend to include some manipulation that requires participants to engage control processes over memory retrieval, such as task rules governing what choice should be made at recall (e.g., from Badre et al., 2005 Fig. 1: congruency of match, associative strength, number of choices, semantic similarity). Moreover, though there are task-responsive signatures in the nodes of the tripartite networks, concluding that cognitive control is present because cognitive control networks are active would be a reverse inference.

      • It is currently unclear if the directed information flow from AI to DMN and FPN nodes truly arises from task-related processes such as cognitive control or if it is a function of static brain network characteristics constrained by anatomy (such as white matter connection patterns, etc.). This is a concern because the authors did not find that influences of AI on DMN or FPN are increased relative to a resting baseline (collected during the task) or that directed information flow differs in successful compared to unsuccessful retrieval. I doubt that this AI influence is 1) supporting a switch between the DMN and FPN via the SN or 2) relevant for behavior if it doesn't differ from baseline-active task or across accuracy conditions. An additional comparison that may help investigate whether this is reflective of static connectivity characteristics would be a baseline comparison during non-task rest or sleep periods.

      • Related to the above concern, it is also questionable how directed information flow from AI facilitates switching between FPN and DMN during both encoding and recall if high gamma activity does not significantly differ in AI versus PCC or mPFC during recall as it does during encoding. It seems erroneous to conclude that the network-level communication is happening or happening with the same effect during both task time points when these effects are decoupled in such a way from the power findings.

      • Missing information about the methods used for time-frequency conversion for power calculation and the power normalization/baseline-correction procedure bars a thorough evaluation of power calculation methods and results.

      If revisions to the manuscript can address concerns about directed information flow possibly being due to anatomical constraints - such as by indicating that directed information flow is not present during non-task rest or sleep - this work may convey important information about the structure and order of communication between these networks during attention to tasks in general. However, the ability of the findings to address cognitive control-specific communication and the nature of neurophysiological mechanisms of this communication - as opposed to the temporal order and structure of recruited networks - may be limited.

      Because phase-transfer entropy is presented as a "causal" analysis in this investigation (PTE), I also believe it is important to highlight for readers recent discussions surrounding the description of "causal mechanisms" in neuroscience (see "Confusion about causation" section from Ross and Bassett, 2024, Nature Neuroscience). A large proportion of neuroscientists (admittedly, myself included) use "causal" only to refer to a mechanism whose modulation or removal (with direct manipulation, such as by lesion or stimulation) is known to change or control a given outcome (such as a successful behavior). As Ross and Bassett highlight, it is debatable whether such mechanistic causality is captured by Granger "causality" (a.k.a. Granger prediction) or the parametric PTE, and the imprecise use of "causation" may be confusing. The authors could consider amending language regarding this analysis if they are concerned about bridging these definitions of causality across a wide audience.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The investigation delves into allosteric modulation within the glycosylated SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, focusing on the fatty acid binding site. This study uncovers intricate networks connecting the fatty acid site to crucial functional regions, potentially paving the way for developing innovative therapeutic strategies.

      Strengths:

      This article's key strength lies in its rigorous use of dynamic nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (D-NEMD) simulations. This approach provides a dynamic perspective on how the fatty acid binding site influences various functional regions of the spike. A comprehensive understanding of these interactions is crucial in deciphering the virus's behavior and identifying potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

      Weaknesses:

      The presented evidence is compelling but could be better if this study is supported with sequence analysis to facilitate a complete view of the allosteric networks. The thorough analysis of the simulation results is partially aligned with the discussion because observed in the replicates and the monomers an asymmetry in the perturbations generated by D-NEMD, even when we're using 210 nonequilibrium MD of 10 ns. While the authors claim that the strategy used in this article has been previously validated, the complexity of the spike and the interactions analyzed have required a robust statistical analysis, which is not shown quantitatively. The investigation examines the allosteric modulation within the glycosylated SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, emphasizing the significance of the fatty acid binding site in influencing the structural dynamics and communication pathways essential for viral function, potentially facilitating the development of novel therapeutic strategies. The presented evidence is compelling but needs to be supported by sequence analysis, which will facilitate understanding of the scientific community.

      Minor considerations:

      Figure S3 shows a discrepancy in the presentation of residue values S325 in the plots of Chains A, B, and C. While chain A shows a value near 0.1, chains B and C plots do not have any value.

      Please explain why the plots of figures S6, S7, and S8 show significant changes in several regions, such as RBM and Furin Site. Can these changes be explained?

      The flow of the allosteric interaction is complex to visualize just by looking at structures. Could you please include a diagram showing the flow of allosteric interactions (in a sequence diagram or using the structure of the protein)? Or could you include a vector showing how the perturbation done in the FA Active site takes contact with other relevant regions of the Spike protein?

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      The authors effectively delineate the differential distribution and behaviour of MNPs within the heart, noting that these cells can be characterised by their expression levels of csf1ra and mpeg1.1. Key findings include the identification of distinct origins for larval macrophage populations and the sustained presence of csf1ra-expressing cells on the surface of the adult heart. The study examines the embryonic development of these MNPs, revealing that csf1ra+ cells begin populating the heart from embryonic day 3, while mpeg1.1+ cells colonise the heart around day 10, with a significant increase by day 17. Given that the emergence of mpeg1.1+ cells coincides with the reported timing for the onset of haematopoietic stem cell-derived haematopoiesis, the authors combined kaede-lineage tracing experiments and mutant backgrounds to conclude that the earliest tissue-resident macrophages in the heart are derived from primitive haematopoiesis.

      The authors also note that the spatial distribution of MNPs varies, with csf1ra+ cells found on the atrium and ventricle surfaces, while mpeg1.1+ cells are initially located on the surface but later distributed throughout the cardiac tissue. Notably, the study demonstrates that tissue-resident macrophages proliferate rapidly following cardiac injury. The authors observe an increased number of proliferating csf1ra+ cells, especially in csf1ra mutant zebrafish, which likely correspond to primitive-derived tissue-resident macrophages that rapidly respond to injury and contribute to the reduced scarring observed in these mutants.

      This manuscript makes an important contribution to the field by enhancing our understanding of the ontogeny of tissue-resident macrophages in the heart and their cellular behaviour in a vertebrate model capable of heart regeneration.

      Strengths:

      This work presents a landmark study on the ontogeny and cellular behaviour of macrophages in the zebrafish heart as it comprehensively examines their development and distribution in both embryonic and adult stages.

      One of the key strengths of this study is its thorough cellular description using a range of available genetic tools. By employing transgenic lines to differentiate between a few MNP subtypes, the authors provide a detailed and nuanced understanding of these cells' origins, distribution, and behaviour. This approach allows for high-resolution characterisation of MNP populations, revealing significant insights into their potential role in cardiac homeostasis and regeneration.

      Furthermore, the study's findings are significant as they parallel those observed in mouse models, thereby reinforcing the validity and relevance of the zebrafish as a model organism for studying macrophage function in the context of cardiac injury. This comparative aspect underscores the evolutionary conservation of these cellular processes and enhances the study's impact.

      Another notable strength is the use of ex vivo imaging techniques, which enable the authors to observe and study the dynamic behaviour of MNPs in heart tissue in real-time. This live imaging capability is crucial for understanding how these cells interact with their environment, particularly in response to cardiac injury. The ability to visualise MNP proliferation and movement provides valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying tissue repair and regeneration.

      Weaknesses:

      While the manuscript offers significant insights into the ontogeny and behaviour of MNPs in the zebrafish heart, a few limitations described below should be considered:

      One potential issue lies in the lineage tracing experiments using the photoconversion Tg(csf1ra:Gal4); Tg(UAS:kaede) line. The authors photoconverted all cardiac tissue macrophages present at 2 days post-fertilisation (dpf) and examined the hearts of these fish at 21 dpf. Although photoconverted macrophages were still observed at 21 dpf, the majority of cells present in the heart at that time were non-photoconverted (cyan) csf1ra+ cells. While this suggests that early-seeded embryonic csf1ra+ macrophages are retained during late larval stages, the contribution of macrophages derived from haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) might be overestimated. An important concern is that the kaede-converted cells could have proliferated during the embryonic timeframe analysed, thereby diluting and extinguishing the converted kaede protein. This dilution effect could lead to an underestimation of the contribution of primitive embryonic macrophages relative to the HSC-derived cells, resulting in an inaccurate assessment of the proportion of embryonic-derived tissue-resident macrophages over time.

      Moreover, the study reports no significant difference in immune cell numbers in the hearts of cmyb-/- mutants, which have normal primitive haematopoiesis but lack HSCs, at 5 dpf. Given the authors' suggestion that mpeg+ cells originate from the HSC wave, it is essential to assess the number of mpeg+ cells in these mutants at later stages. This assessment would clarify whether mpeg+ cells are indeed HSC-derived or if csf1ra+ cells later switch on mpeg expression. Without this additional data, conclusions about the origins of mpeg+ cells remain speculative.

      The study's reliance on available genetic tools, while a strength, also introduces limitations. The use of only a few transgenic lines will not fully capture the complexity and diversity of MNP populations, leading to an incomplete understanding of their roles and dynamics.

      Furthermore, while the use of ex vivo imaging provides dynamic insights into cell behaviour, it may not fully capture the complexity of in vivo conditions, possibly overlooking interactions and influences present in the living organism.

      The manuscript would benefit from increasing the sample sizes to ensure the robustness of the findings. The use of Phalloidin staining to delineate single cells more accurately would also enhance the precision of cell counting and improve the overall data quality.

      The study could also benefit from a more in-depth exploration of the functional consequences of MNP heterogeneity in the heart. While the cellular characterisations are thorough, the molecular and regulatory insights provided by the study are limited to a couple of RT-PCRs for some known genes.

      Overall, the manuscript by Moyse and colleagues significantly advances our understanding of the ontogeny and behaviour of macrophages in the zebrafish heart, revealing important parallels with mammalian models. However, the points above should be carefully considered when interpreting the results presented in this study.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors aimed to investigate the contribution of antigenic drift in the HA and NA genes of seasonal influenza A(H3N2) virus to their epidemic dynamics. Analyzing 22 influenza seasons before the COVID-19 pandemic, the study explored various antigenic and genetic markers, comparing them against indicators characterizing the epidemiology of annual outbreaks. The central findings highlight the significant influence of genetic distance on A(H3N2) virus epidemiology and emphasize the role of A(H1N1) virus incidence in shaping A(H3N2) epidemics, suggesting subtype interference as a key factor.

      Major Strengths:

      The paper is well-organized, written with clarity, and presents a comprehensive analysis. The study design, incorporating a span of 22 seasons, provides a robust foundation for understanding influenza dynamics. The inclusion of diverse antigenic and genetic markers enhances the depth of the investigation, and the exploration of subtype interference adds valuable insights.

      Major Weaknesses:

      While the analysis is thorough, some aspects require deeper interpretation, particularly in the discussion of certain results. Clarity and depth could be improved in the presentation of findings, and minor adjustments are suggested. Furthermore, the evolving dynamics of H3N2 predominance post-2009 need better elucidation.

      Comments on revised version:

      The authors have addressed each of the comments well. I have no further comments.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this study, Maestri et al. use an integrative framework to study the evolutionary history of coronaviruses. They find that coronaviruses arose recently rather than having undergone ancient codivergences with their mammalian hosts. Furthermore, recent host switching has occurred extensively, but typically between closely related species. Humans have acted as an intermediate host, especially between bats and other mammal species.

      Strengths:

      The study draws on a range of data sources to reconstruct the history of virus-host codivergence and host switching. The analyses include various tests of robustness and evaluations through simulation.

      Weaknesses:

      The analyses are limited to a single genetic marker (RdRp) from coronaviruses, but using other sections of the genome might lead to different conclusions. The genetic marker also lacks resolution for recent divergences, which precludes the detailed examination of recent host switches. Careful and detailed reconstruction of the timescale would be helpful for clarifying the evolutionary history of coronaviruses alongside their hosts.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This study, titled "Enhancing Bone Regeneration and Osseointegration using rhPTH(1-34) and Dimeric R25CPTH(1-34) in an Osteoporotic Beagle Model," provides valuable insights into the therapeutic effects of two parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogs on bone regeneration and osseointegration. The research is methodologically sound, employing a robust animal model and a comprehensive array of analytical techniques, including micro-CT, histological/histomorphometric analyses, and serum biochemical analysis.

      Strengths:

      The use of a large animal model, which closely mimics postmenopausal osteoporosis in humans, enhances the study's relevance to clinical applications. The study is well-structured, with clear objectives, detailed methods, and a logical flow from introduction to conclusion. The findings are significant, demonstrating the potential of rhPTH(1-34) and dimeric R25CPTH(1-34) in enhancing bone regeneration, particularly in the context of osteoporosis.

      Weaknesses: There are no major weaknesses.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      This paper by Ionescu et al. applies novel brain connectivity measures based on fMRI and serotonin PET both at baseline and following ecstasy use in rats. There are multiple strengths to this manuscript. First, the use of connectivity measures using temporal correlations of 11C-DASB PET, especially when combined with resting state fMRI, is highly novel and powerful. The effects of ecstasy on molecular connectivity of the serotonin network and salience network are also quite intriguing.

      I would like the authors to discuss and justify their use of high-dose (1.3%) isolfurane. A recent consensus paper on rat fMRI (Grandjean et al., "A Consensus Protocol for Functional Connectivity Analysis in the Rat Brain.") found that medetomidine combined with low dose isoflurane provided optimal control of physiology and fMRI signal. To overcome any doubts about the effects of the high-dose anaesthetic I'd encourage the authors to show the results of their functional connectivity specificity using the same or similar image processing protocol as described in that consensus paper. This is especially true since the fMRI ICs in Figure 2A appear fairly restricted.

      I'd also be interested to read more about why the cerebellum was chosen as a reference region, given that serotonin is highly expressed in the cerebellum, and what effects the choice of reference region has on their quantification.

      The PET ICs appear less bilateral than the fMRI ICs. Is that simply a thresholding artefact or is it a real signal?

      "The data will be made available upon reasonable request" is not sufficient - please deposit the data in an open repository and link to its location.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The experiment is interesting and well executed and describes in high detail fish behaviour in thermally stratified waters. The evidence is strong but the experimental design cannot distinguish between temperature and vertical position of the treatments.

      Strengths:

      High statistical power, solid quantification of behaviour.

      Weaknesses:

      A major issue with the experimental design is the vertical component of the experiment. Many thermal preference and avoidance experiments are run using horizontal division in shuttlebox systems or in annular choice flumes. These remove the vertical stratification component so that hot and cold can be compared equally, without the vertical layering as a confounding factor. The method chosen, with its vertical stratification, is inherently unable to control for this effect because warm water is always above, and cold water is always below. This complicates the interpretations and makes firm conclusions about thermal behaviour difficult.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Allodynia is commonly measured in the pain field using von Frey filaments, which are applied to a body region (usually hindpaw if studying rodents) by a human. While humans perceive themselves as being objective, as the authors noted, humans are far from consistent when applying these filaments. Not to mention, odors from humans, including those of different sexes, can influence animal behavior. There is thus a major unmet need for a way to automate this tedious von Frey testing process and to remove humans from the experiment. I have no major scientific concerns with the study, as the authors did an outstanding job of comparing this automated system to human experimenters in a rigorous and quantitative manner. They even demonstrated that their automated system can be used in conjunction with in vivo imaging techniques.

      While it is somewhat unclear how easy and inexpensive this device will be, I anticipate everyone in the pain field will be clamoring to get their hands on a system like this. And given the mechanical nature of the device and the propensity for mice to urinate on things, I also wonder how frequently the device breaks/needs to be repaired. Perhaps some details regarding the cost and reliability of the device would be helpful to include, as these are the two things that could make researchers hesitant to adopt immediately.

      The only major technical concern, which is easy to address, is whether the device generates ultrasonic sounds that rodents can hear when idle or operational, across the ultrasonic frequencies that are of biological relevance (20-110 kHz). These sounds are generally alarm vocalizations and can create stress in animals, and/or serve as cues of an impending stimulus (if indeed they are produced by the device).

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors set out to evaluate the regulation of interferon (IFN) gene expression in fish, using mainly zebrafish as a model system. Similar to more widely characterized mammalian systems, fish IFN is induced during viral infection through the action of the transcription factor IRF3 which is activated by phosphorylation by the kinase TBK1. It has been previously shown in many systems that TBK1 is subjected to both positive and negative regulation to control IFN production. In this work, the authors find that the cell cycle kinase CDK2 functions as a TBK1 inhibitor by decreasing its abundance through the recruitment of the ubiquitinylation ligase, Dtx4, which has been similarly implicated in the regulation of mammalian TBK1. Experimental data are presented showing that CDK2 interacts with both TBK1 and Dtx4, leading to TBK1 K48 ubiquitinylation on K567 and its subsequent degradation by the proteasome.

      Strengths:

      The strengths of this manuscript are its novel demonstration of the involvement of CDK2 in a process in fish that is controlled by different factors in other vertebrates and its clear and supportive experimental data.

      Weaknesses:

      The weaknesses of the study include the following. 1) It remains unclear whether the function described for CDK2 is regulatory, that is, it affects TBK1 levels during physiological responses such as viral infection or cell cycle progression, or if it is homeostatic, governing the basal abundance of TBK1 but not responding to signaling. 2) The authors have not explored whether the catalytic activity of CDK2 is required for TBK1 ubiquitinylation and, if so, what its target specificity is. 3) Given the multitude of CDK isoforms in fish, it remains unexplored whether the identified fish CDK2 homolog is a requisite cell cycle regulator or if its action in the cell cycle is redundant with other CDKs.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Faiz et al. investigate small molecule-driven direct lineage reprogramming of mouse postnatal mouse astrocytes to oligodendrocyte lineage cells (OLCs). They use a combination of in vitro, in vivo, and computational approaches to confirm lineage conversion and to examine the key underlying transcription factors and signaling pathways. Lentiviral delivery of transcription factors previously reported to be essential in OLC fate determination-Sox10, Olig2, and Nkx2.2-to astrocytes allows for lineage tracing. They found that these transcription factors are sufficient in reprogramming astrocytes to iOLCs, but that the OLCs range in maturity level depending on which factor they are transfected with. They followed up with scRNA-seq analysis of transfected and control cultures 14DPT, confirming that TF-induced astrocytes take on canonical OLC gene signatures. By performing astrocyte lineage fate mapping, they further confirmed that TF-induced astrocytes give rise to iOLCs. Finally, they examined the distinct genetic drivers of this fate conversion using scRNA-seq and deep learning models of Sox10- astrocytes at multiple time points throughout the reprogramming. These findings are certainly relevant to diseases characterized by the perturbation of OLC maturation and/or myelination, such as Multiple Sclerosis and Alzheimer's Disease. Their application of such a wide array of experimental approaches gives more weight to their findings and allows for the identification of additional genetic drivers of astrocyte to iOLC conversion that could be explored in future studies. Overall, I find this manuscript thoughtfully constructed and only have a few questions to be addressed.

      (1) The authors suggest that Sox10- and Olig2- transduced astrocytes result in distinct subpopulations iOLCs. Considering it was discussed in the introduction that these TFs cyclically regulate one another throughout differentiation, could they speculate as to why such varying iOLCs resulted from the induction of these two TFs?

      (2) In Figure 1B it appears that the Sox10- MBP+ tdTomato+ cells decreases from D12 to D14. Does this make sense considering MBP is a marker of more mature OLCs?

      (3) Previous studies have shown that MBP expression and myelination in vitro occurs at the earliest around 4-6 weeks of culturing. When assessing whether further maturation would increase MBP positivity, authors only cultured cells up to 22 DPT and saw no significant increase. Has a lengthier culture timeline been attempted?

      (4) Figure S4D is described as "examples of tdTomatonegzsGreen+OLCmarker+ cells that arose from a tdTomatoneg cell with an astrocyte morphology." The zsGreen+ tdTomato- cell is not convincingly of "astrocyte morphology"; it could be a bipolar OLC. To strengthen the conclusions and remove this subjectivity, more extensive characterizations of astrocyte versus OLC morphology in the introduction or results are warranted. This would make this observation more convincing since there is clearly an overlap in the characteristics of these cell types.

    1. Joint Public Review:

      The manuscript "Engineering of PAClight1P78A: A High-Performance Class-B1 GPCR-Based Sensor for PACAP1-38" by Cola et al. presents the development of a novel genetically encoded sensor, PAClight1P78A, based on the human PAC1 receptor. The authors provide a thorough in vitro and in vivo characterization of this sensor, demonstrating its potential utility across various applications in life sciences, including drug development and basic research.

      The main criticism of this manuscript after initial review is that the PACLight1 sensor has not been shown to detect the release of endogenous PACAP, whether in culture, in vivo, or ex vivo. The authors appear to be cognizant of this significant limitation (for a PACAP sensor) but no significant changes to address this limitation are provided in the revision.

      While the sensor that is described here is new and the experimental results support the conclusions, the sensor reported here is not suited for the detection of endogenous PACAP release in vivo. In some respects, this manuscript could be seen as a stepping stone for further development either by the authors or other groups. Indeed, in many cases initial versions of genetically encoded sensors undergo substantial development post-publication, as exemplified by the evolution of GCaMP. However, the situation with the PAClight sensor reported here requires a different approach. Unlike GCaMP, which was one of the first genetically encoded calcium indicators, PAClight is another variant in a series of GPCR-fluorophore conjugates, following methodologies similar to those developed in the Lin Tian lab and the multiple GRAB-based sensors from Yulong Li's lab. These sensors have already demonstrated in vivo applicability, setting a standard that PAClight must meet or exceed to confirm its value and novelty.

      Given that the title of the manuscript, "Probing PAC1 receptor activation across species with an engineered sensor," implies broader applicability, it potentially misleads readers about the sensor's utility in vivo, where "in vivo" should be understood as referring to the detection of endogenous PACAP release.

      To align the manuscript with the expectations set by its title, it is crucial that the authors either provide substantial in vivo validation (ability to detect endogenous release of PACAP) or revise the title and the text to clarify that the sensor is primarily intended to detect exogenously applied PACAP. This clarification will ensure that the manuscript accurately reflects the sensor's current capabilities and scope of use.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Non-B DNA structures such as G4s and R-loops have the potential to impact genome stability, gene transcription, and cell differentiation. This study investigates the distribution of G4s and R-loops in human and mouse cells using some interesting technical modifications of existing Tn5-based approaches. This work confirms that the helicase DHX9 could regulate the formation and/or stability of both structures in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). It also provides evidence that the lack of DHX9 in mESCs interferes with their ability to differentiate.

      Strengths:

      HepG4-seq, the new antibody-free strategy to map G4s based on the ability of Hemin to act as a peroxidase when complexed to G4s, is interesting. This study also provides more evidence that the distribution pattern of G4s and R-loops might vary substantially from one cell type to another.

      Weaknesses:

      This study is essentially descriptive and does not provide conclusive evidence that lack of DHX9 does interfere with the ability of mESCs to differentiate by regulating directly the stability of either G4 or R-loops. In the end, it does not substantially improve our understanding of DHX9's mode of action.

      There is no in-depth comparison of the newly generated data with existing datasets and no rigorous control was presented to test the specificity of the hemin-G4 interaction (a lot of the hemin-dependent signal seems to occur in the cytoplasm, which is unexpected).

      The authors talk about co-occurrence between G4 and R-loops but their data does not actually demonstrate co-occurrence in time. If the same loci could form alternatively either R-loops or G4 and if DHX9 was somehow involved in determining the balance between G4s and R-loops, the authors would probably obtain the same distribution pattern. To manipulate R-loop levels in vivo and test how this affects HEPG4-seq signals would have been helpful.

      This study relies exclusively on Tn5-based mapping strategies. This is a problem as global changes in DNA accessibility might strongly skew the results. It is unclear at this stage whether the lack of DHX9, BLM, or WRN has an impact on DNA accessibility, which might underlie the differences that were observed. Moreover, Tn5 cleaves DNA at a nearby accessible site, which might be at an unknown distance away from the site of interest. The spatial accuracy of Tn5-based methods is therefore debatable, which is a problem when trying to demonstrate spatial co-occurrence. Alternative mapping methods would have been helpful.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Medina et al, 2023 investigated the peripheral blood transcriptional responses in patients with diversifying disease outcomes. The authors characterized the blood transcriptome of four non-hospitalized individuals presenting mild disease and four patients hospitalized with severe disease. These individuals were observed longitudinally at three timepoints (0-, 7-, and 28-days post recruitment), and distinct transcriptional responses were observed between severe hospitalized patients and mild non-hospitalized individuals, especially during 0- and 7-day collection timepoints. Particularly, the authors found that increased expression of genes associated with NK cell cytotoxicity is associated with mild outcomes. Additional co-regulated gene network analyses positively correlates T cell activity with mild disease and neutrophil degranulation with severe disease.

      Strengths:

      The longitudinal measurements in individual participants at consistent collection intervals can offer an added dimension to the dataset that involves temporal trajectories of genes associated with disease outcomes and is a key strength of the study. The use of co-expressed gene networks specific to the cohort to complement enrichment results obtained from pre-determined gene sets can offer valuable insights into new associations/networks associated with disease progression and warrants further analyses on the biological functions enriched within these co-expressed network modules.

      Weaknesses:

      There is a large difference in the infection timeline (onset of symptom to recruitment) between mild and severe patient cohort. As immune responses during early infection can be highly dynamic, the differences in infection timeline may bias transcriptional signatures observed between the groups. The study is also limited by a small cohort size.

      Comments on revised version:

      The authors have addressed the specific concerns brought forth by the reviewers.

    1. Reviewer #3 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors discovered that the RdnE effector possesses DNase activity, and in competition, P. mirabilis having RdnE outcompetes the null strain. Additionally, they presented evidence that the RdnI immunity protein binds to RdnE, suppressing its toxicity. Interestingly, the authors demonstrated that the RdnI homolog from a different phylum (i.e., Actinomycetota) provides cross-species protection against RdnE injected from P. mirabilis, despite the limited identity between the immunity sequences. Finally, using metagenomic data from human-associated microbiomes, the authors provided bioinformatic evidence that the rdnE/rdnI gene pair is widespread and present in individual microbiomes. Overall, the discovery of broad protection by non-cognate immunity is intriguing, although not necessarily surprising in retrospect, considering the prolonged period during which Earth was a microbial battlefield/paradise.

      Strengths:

      The authors presented a strong rationale in the manuscript and characterized the molecular mechanism of the RdnE effector both in vitro and in the heterologous expression model. The utilization of the bacterial two-hybrid system, along with the competition assays, to study the protective action of RdnI immunity is informative. Furthermore, the authors conducted bioinformatic analyses throughout the manuscript, examining the primary sequence, predicted structural, and metagenomic levels, which significantly underscore the significance and importance of the EI pair.

      Weaknesses:

      (1) The interaction between RdnI and RdnE appears to be complex and requires further investigation. The manuscript's data does not conclusively explain how RdnI provides a "promiscuous" immunity function, particularly regarding the RdnI mutant/chimera derivatives. The lack of protection observed in these cases might be attributed to other factors, such as a decrease in protein expression levels or misfolding of the proteins. Additionally, the transient nature of the binding interaction could be insufficient to offer effective defenses.<br /> (2) The results from the mixed population competition would benefit from quantitative analysis. The swarm competition assays only yield binary outcomes (Yes or No), limiting the ability to obtain more detailed insights from the data.<br /> (3) The discovery of cross-species protection is solely evident in the heterologous expression-competition model. It remains uncertain whether this is an isolated occurrence or a common characteristic of RdnI immunity proteins across various scenarios. Further investigations are necessary to determine the generality of this behavior.

    1. Public Review:

      The authors used an innovative technic to study the visual vigilance based on high-acuity vision, the fovea. Combining motion-capture features and visual space around the head, the authors were able to estimate the visual fixation of free-feeding pigeon at any moment. Simulating predator attacks on screens, they showed that 1) pigeons used their fovea to inspect predators cues, 2) the behavioural state (feeding or head-up) influenced the latency to use the fovea and 3) the use of the fovea decrease the latency to escape of both the individual that foveate the predators cues but also the other flock members.

      The paper is very interesting, and combines innovative technic well adapted to study the importance of high-acuity vision for spotting a predator, but also of improving the behavioural response (escaping). The results are strong and the models used are well-adapted. This paper is a major contribution to our understanding of the use of visual adaptation in a foraging context when at risk. This is also a major contribution to the understanding of individual interaction in a flock.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this preprint, the authors systematically and rigorously investigate how specific classes of residue mutations alter the critical temperature as a proxy for the driving forces for phase separation. The work is well executed, the manuscript well-written, and the results reasonable and insightful.

      Strengths:

      The introductory material does an excellent job of being precise in language and ideas while summarizing the state of the art. The simulation design, execution, and analysis are exceptional and set the standard for these types of large-scale simulation studies. The results, interpretations, and Discussion are largely nuanced, clear, and well-motivated.

      Weaknesses:

      This is not exactly a weakness, but I think it would future-proof the authors' conclusions to clarify a few key caveats associated with this work. Most notably, given the underlying implementation of the Mpipi model, temperature dependencies for intermolecular interactions driven by solvent effects (e.g., hydrophobic effect and charge-mediated interactions facilitated by desolvation penalties) are not captured. This itself is not a "weakness" per se, but it means I would imagine CERTAIN types of features would not be well-captured; notably, my expectation is that at higher temperatures, proline-rich sequences drive intermolecular interactions, but at lower temperatures, they do not. This is likely also true for the aliphatic residues, although these are found less frequently in IDRs. As such, it may be worth the authors explicitly discussing.

      Similarly, prior work has established the importance of an alpha-helical region in TDP-43, as well as the role of aliphatic residues in driving TDP-43's assembly (see Schmidt et al 2019). I recognize the authors have focussed here on a specific set of mutations, so it may be worth (in the Discussion) mentioning [1] what impact, if any, they expect transient or persistent secondary structure to have on their conclusions and [2] how they expect aliphatic residues to contribute. These can and probably should be speculative as opposed to definitive.

      Again - these are not raised as weaknesses in terms of this work, but the fact they are not discussed is a minor weakness, and the preprint's use and impact would be improved on such a discussion.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this paper, the authors had 2 aims:

      (1) Measure macaques' aversion to sand and see if its' removal is intentional, as it is likely in an unpleasurable sensation that causes tooth damage.

      (2) Show that or see if monkeys engage in suboptimal behavior by cleaning foods beyond the point of diminishing returns, and see if this was related to individual traits such as sex and rank, and behavioral technique.

      They attempted to achieve these aims through a combination of geochemical analysis of sand, field experiments, and comparing predictions to an analytical model.

      The authors' conclusions were that they verified a long-standing assumption that monkeys have an aversion to sand as it contains many potentially damaging fine-grained silicates and that removing it via brushing or washing is intentional.

      They also concluded that monkeys will clean food for longer than is necessary, i.e. beyond the point of diminishing returns, and that this is rank-dependent.

      High and low-ranking monkeys tended not to wash their food, but instead over-brushed it, potentially to minimize handling time and maximize caloric intake, despite the long-term cumulative costs of sand.

      This was interpreted through the *disposable soma hypothesis*, where dominants maximize immediate needs to maintain rank and increase reproductive success at the potential expense of long-term health and survival.

      Strengths:

      The field experiment seemed well-designed, and their quantification of physical and mineral properties of quartz particles (relative to human detection thresholds) seemed good relative to their feret diameter and particle circularity (to a reviewer who is not an expert in sand). The *Rank Determination* and *Measuring Sand* sections were clear.

      In achieving Aim 1, the authors validated a commonly interpreted, but unmeasured function, of macaque and primate behavior-- a key study/finding in primate food processing and cultural transmission research.

      I commend their approach in developing a quantitative model to generate predictions to compare to empirical data for their second aim.

      This is something others should strive for.

      I really appreciated the historical context of this paper in the introduction, and found it very enjoyable and easy to read.

      I do think that interpreting these results in the context of the *disposable soma hypothesis* and the potential implications in the *paleolithic matters* section about interpreting dental wear in the fossil record are worthwhile.

      Weaknesses:

      Most of the weaknesses in this paper lie in statistical methods, visualization, and a missing connection to the marginal value theorem and optimal foraging theory.

      I think all of these weaknesses are solvable.

      The data and code were not submitted. Therefore I was unable to better understand the simulation or to provide useful feedback on the stats, the connection between the two, and its relevance to the broader community.

      (1) Statistics:

      (a) AIC and outcome distributions

      The use of AIC for hierarchical models, and models with different outcome distributions brought up several concerns.

      The authors appear to use AIC to help inform which model to use for their primary analyses in Tables S1 and S2. It is unclear which of these models are analyzed in Tables S3 and S4.

      AIC should not be used on hierarchical models, and something like WAIC (or DIC which has other caveats) would be more appropriate.

      Also, using information criteria on Mixture Models like Negative Binomials (aka Gamma-Poisson) should be done with extreme caution, or not at all, as the values are highly sensitive to the data structure.

      Some researchers also say that information criteria should not be used to compare models with different outcome distributions - although this might be slightly less of a concern as all of your models are essentially variations on a Poisson GLM.

      Discussion on this can be found in McElreath Statistical Rethinking (Section 12.1.3) and Gelman et al. BDA3 (Chapter 7).

      Choosing an outcome distribution, based on your understanding of the data generating process is a better approach than relying on AIC, especially in this context where it can be misleading.

      (b) Zeros

      I also had some concerns about how zeros were treated in the models.

      In lines 217-218, they mentioned that "if a monkey consumed a cucumber slice without brushing or washing it, the zero-second duration was included in both GLMMs."

      This zero implies no processing and should not be treated as a length 0 duration of processing.

      This suggests to me that a zero-inflated poisson or zero-inflated negative binomial, would be the best choice for modelling the data as it is essentially a 2-step process:<br /> (i) Do they process the cucumber at all?<br /> (ii) If so do they wash or brush, and how is this predicted by rank and treatment?

      (2) Absence of Links to Foraging Theory

      Optimal cleaning time model: the optimality model was not well described including how it was programmed. Better description and documentation of this model, along with code (Mathematica judging from the plot?) is needed.

      There seems to be much conceptual and theoretical overlap with foraging theory models that were not well described - namely the *marginal value theorem (Charnov (1976), Krebs et al. (1974),) and its subsequent advances* (see https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaa.2016.03.002 and https://doi.org/10.1086/283929 for examples).

      In the suggestions, I attached the R code where I replicated their model to show that it is *mathematically identical to the marginal value theorem*. This was not mentioned at all in the text or citations.

      This is a well-studied literature since the 1970's and there is a history of studies that compare behavior to an optimality model and fail (or do find) instances where animals conform or diverge with its predictions (https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.15.110184.002515). This link should be highlighted, and interpreting it in that theoretical context will make it more broadly applicable to behavioral ecologists.

      The data was subsetted to include instances where there were < 3 monkeys present to avoid confounds of rank, but it is important to know that optimal behavior might vary by individual, and can change in a social context depending on rank (see https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2022.06.010). Discussion of this, and further exploration of it in the data would strengthen the overall contribution of this manuscript to the field, but I understand that the researchers wish to avoid that in this paper for it is a complex topic, which this dataset is uniquely suited to address.

      (3) Interpretation and validity of model relative to data

      In lines 92-102, they present summary statistics (I think) showing that time spent brushing and washing is consistent with washing or brushing to remove sand.

      In the **mitigating tooth wear** section (line 73) and corresponding Figure S1 showing surface sand removed, more detail about how these numbers were acquired, and statistical modelling, is needed.

      This is important as uncertainty and measurement error around these metrics are key to the central finding and interpretation of Aim 2 in this paper.

      It appears that the researchers simulated the monkey's brushing and washing behaviors (similar to https://doi.org/10.1007/s10071-009-0230-3).

      How many researchers simulated monkey behavior and how many times?

      What are the repeat points in Figure S1?

      What is the number of trials or number of people?

      This effect appears stronger for washing than brushing as well - if so, why?

      More info about this data, and the uncertainty in this is important, as it is key to the second central claim of this paper.

      The estimates of removing between 76% +/- 7 and 93% +/- 4 of sand (visualized in Figure S1), are statistical estimates.

      I would find the argument more convincing if after propagating for the uncertainty in handling in sand removal rates, and the corresponding half-saturation constants, if this processing for food is too long, after accounting for diminishing returns held true.<br /> It is very possible that after accounting for uncertainty and variation in handling time and removal rates, the second result may not hold true.

      I was not able to convince myself of this via reanalysis as the description of the data in the text was not enough to simulate it myself.

      Essentially, this would imply that in Figure 3 the predicted value would have some variation around it (informed by boundary conditions of time being positive, and percents having floors and ceilings) and that a range of predicting cleaning times (optimal give-up times) would be plotted in Figure 3.

      This could be accomplished in a Bayesian approach, Or by simply plotting multiple predictions given some confidence interval around, c and h.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors attempt to understand how cells forage for spatially heterogeneous complex polysaccharides. They aimed to quantify the foraging behavior and interrogate its genetic basis. The results show that cells aggregate near complex polysaccharides and disperse when simpler byproducts are added. Dispersing cells tend to move towards the polysaccharide. The authors also use transcriptomics to attempt to understand which genes support each of these behaviors - with motility and transporter related genes being highly expressed during dispersal, as expected.

      Strengths:

      The paper is well written and builds on previous studies by some of the authors showing similar behavior by a different species of bacteria (Caulobacter) on another polysaccharide (xylan). The conceptual model presented at the end encapsulates the findings and provides an interesting hypothesis. I also find the observation of chemotaxis towards the polysaccharide in the experimental conditions interesting.

      Weaknesses:

      Much of the genetic analysis, as it stands, is quite speculative and descriptive. I found myself confused about many of the genes (e.g., quorum sensing) that pop up enriched during dispersal quite in contrast to my expectations. While the authors do discuss this in the text as worth following up on, I think the analysis as it stands is speculative about the behaviors observed. In the authors' defense, I acknowledge that it might have the potential to generate hypotheses and thus aid future studies.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      The present paper presents a new, simple, and cost-effective technique for multimodal EM imaging that combines the strengths of volume scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron microscopic tomography. The novel ATUM-Tomo approach enables the consecutive inspection of selected areas of interest by correlated serial SEM and TEM, optionally in combination with CLEM, as demonstrated. The most important finding of ATUM-Tomo and particularly correlative ATUM-Tomo is that it can bridge several scales from the cellular to the high-resolution subcellular scale, from the micrometer to low nanometer resolution, which is particularly important for the ultrastructural analysis of biological regions of interest as demonstrated here by focal pathologies or rare cellular and subcellular structures. Both imaging modalities are non-destructive, thus allowing re-imaging and hierarchical imaging at the SEM and TEM levels, which is particularly important for precious samples, such as human biopsies or specimens from complex CLEM experiments. The paper demonstrates that the new approach is very helpful in analyses of pathologically altered brains, including humans brain tissue samples, that require high-resolution SEM and TEM in combination with immunohistochemistry for analysis. Even the combination with tracers would be possible. In sum, ATUM-Tomo opens up new possibilities in multimodal volume EM imaging for diverse biological areas of research.

      Strengths

      This paper is a very nice piece of work. It combines modern, high-end, state-of-the-art technology that allows to investigate diverse biological questions in different fields and at multiple scales. The paper is clear and well-written. It is accompanied by excellent figures, supplementals, and colored 3D-reconstructions that make it easy for the reader to follow the experimental procedure and the scientific context alike.

      Weaknesses

      There is a bit of an imbalance between the description of the state-of-the-art methodology and the scientific context. The discussion of the latter could be expanded.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this study, Faniyan and colleagues build on their recent finding that renal Glut2 knockout mice display normal fasting blood glucose levels despite massive glucosuria. Renal Glut2 knockout mice were found to exhibit increased endogenous glucose production along with decreased hepatic metabolites associated with glucose metabolism. Crh mRNA levels were higher in the hypothalamus while circulating ACTH and corticosterone was elevated in this model. While these mice were able to maintain normal fasting glucose levels, ablating afferent renal signals to the brain caused low fasting blood glucose levels. In addition, the higher CRH and higher corticosterone levels of the knockout mice were lost following this denervation. Finally, acute phase proteins were altered, plasma Gpx3 was lower, and major urinary protein MUP18 and its gene expression were higher in renal Glut2 knockout mice. Overall, the main conclusion that afferent signaling from the kidney is required for renal glut2 dependent increases in endogenous glucose production is well supported by these findings.

      Strengths:

      An important strength of the paper is the novelty of the identification of kidney to brain communication as being important for glucose homeostasis. Previous studies had focused on other functions of the kidney modulated by or modulating brain function. This work is likely to promote interest in CNS pathways that respond to afferent renal signals and the response of the HPA axis to glucosuria. Additional strengths of this paper stem from the use of incisive techniques. Specifically, the authors use isotope enabled measurement of endogenous glucose production by GC-MS/MS, capsaicin ablation of afferent renal nerves, and multifiber recording from the renal nerve. The authors also paid excellent attention to rigor in the design and performance of these studies. For example, they used appropriate surgical controls, confirmed denervation through renal pelvic CGRP measurement, and avoided the confounding effects of nerve regrowth over time. These factors strengthen confidence in their results. Finally, humans with glucose transporter mutations and those being treated with SGLT2 inhibitors show a compensatory increase in endogenous glucose production. Therefore, this study strengthens the case for using renal Glut2 knockout mice as a model for understanding the physiology of these patients.

      Comments on latest version:

      My concerns have been addressed.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Authors explore how sex-peptide (SP) affects post-mating behaviours in adult females, such as receptivity and egg laying. This study identifies different neurons in the adult brain and the VNC that become activated by SP, largely by using an intersectional gene expression approach (split-GAL4) to narrow down the specific neurons involved. They confirm that SP binds to the well-known Sex Peptide Receptor (SPR), initiating a cascade of physiological and behavioural changes related to receptivity and egg laying.

      Areas of improvement and suggestions:

      (1) "These results suggest the SP targets interneurons in the brain that feed into higher processing centers from different entry points likely representing different sensory input" and "All together, these data suggest that the abdominal ganglion harbors several distinct type of neurons involved in directing PMRs"<br /> The characterization of the post-mating circuitry has been largely described by the group of Barry Dickson and other labs. I suggest ruling out a potential effect of mSP in any of the well-known post-mating neuronal circuitry, i.e: SPSN, SAG, pC1, vpoDN or OviDNs neurons. A combination of available split-Gal4 should be sufficient to prove this.

      (2) Authors must show how specific is their "head" (elav/otd-flp) and "trunk" (elav/tsh) expression of mSP by showing images of the same constructs driving GFP.

      (3) VT3280 is termed as a SAG driver. However, VT3280 is a SPSN specific driver (Feng et al., 2014; Jang et al., 2017; Scheunemann et al., 2019; Laturney et al., 2023). The authors should clarify this.

      (4) Intersectional approaches must rule out the influence of SP on sex-peptide sensing neurons (SPSN) in the ovary by combining their constructs with SPSN-Gal80 construct. In line with this, most of their lines targets the SAG circuit (4I, J and K). Again, here they need to rule out the involvement of SPSN in their receptivity/egg laying phenotypes. Especially because "In the female genital tract, these split-Gal4 combinations show expression in genital tract neurons with innervations running along oviduct and uterine walls (Figures S3A-S3E)".

      (5) The authors separate head (brain) from trunk (VNC) responses, but they don't narrow down the neural circuits involved on each response. A detailed characterization of the involved circuits especially in the case of the VNC is needed to (a) show that the intersectional approach is indeed labelling distinct subtypes and (b) how these distinct neurons influence oviposition.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Previous Review:

      The authors have identified the predicted EBE of PthA4 in the promoter of Cs9g12620, which is induced by Xcc. The authors identified a homolog of Cs9g12620, which has variations in the promoter region. The authors show PthA4 suppresses Cs9g12620 promoter activity independent of the binding action. The authors also show that CsLOB1 binds to the promoter of Cs9g12620. Interestingly, the authors show that PthA4 interacts with CsLOB1 at protein level. Finally, it shows that Cs9g12620 is important for canker symptoms. Overall, this study has reported some interesting discoveries and the writing is generally well done. However, the discoveries are affected by the reliability of the data and some flaws of the experimental designs.

      Here are some major issues:

      The authors have demonstrated that Cs9g12620 contains the EBE of PthA4 in the promoter region, to show that PthA4 controls Cs9g12620, the authors need to compare to the wild type Xcc and pthA4 mutant for Cs9g12620 expression. The data in Figure 1 is not enough.

      The authors confirmed the interaction between PthA4 and the EBE in the promoter of Cs9g12620 using DNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). However, Fig. 2B is not convincing. The lane without GST-PthA4 also clearly showed mobility shift. For EMSA assay, the authors need also to include non-labeled probe as competitor to verify the specificity. The description of the EMSA in this paper suggests that it was not done properly. It is suggested the authors to redo this EMSA assay following the protocol: Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) for detecting protein-nucleic acid interactions PMID: 17703195.

      The authors also claimed that PthA4 suppresses the promote activity of Cs9g12620. The data is not convincing and also contradicts with their own data that overexpression of Cs9g12620 causes canker and silencing of it reduces canker considering PthA4 is required for canker development. The authors conducted the assays using transient expression of PthA4. It should be done with Xcc wild type, pthA4 mutant and negative control to inoculate citrus plants to check the expression of Cs9g12620.

      Fig. 6 AB is not convincing. There are no apparent differences. The variations shown in B is common in different wild type samples. It is suggested that the authors to conduct transgenic instead of transient overexpression.

      Gene silencing data needs more appropriate controls. Fig. D. seems to suggest canker symptoms actually happen for the RNAi treated. The authors need to make sure same amount of Xcc was used for both CTV empty vector and the RNAi. It is suggested a blink test is needed here.

      Comments on revised version:

      Point 1: Addressed well.

      Point 2: The EMSA was reconducted with adding unlabeled DNA, however, the results are still not convincing. Firstly, in fig.3D lane 5, with the absence of unlabeled DNA, the shifted bound signal wasn't reduced significantly. Secondly, still in fig.3D lane 5, the free labeled DNA probe at the bottom of the gel didn't increase. Which together mean that the unlabeled DNA was unable to compete with the labeled DNA and the "bound" shifted bands might not be true positive.

      Point 3: The authors didn't address the question clearly regarding the connection between the inhibition of Cs9g12620 promoter by PthA4 and the positive function of Cs9g12620 on citrus canker.

      Point 4: The comment was not addressed. Fig.7A and B are not convincing. Firstly, no evidence shows the expression of transiently expressed genes. Secondly, hard to tell the difference in 7A. Thirdly, since CsLOB1 positively regulates Cs9g12620, why expressing of CsLOB1 is unable to cause phenotype, while expression of PthA4 does?

      Point 5: addressed.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Orlovski and his colleagues revealed an interesting phenomenon that SAP54-overexpressing leaf exposure to leafhopper males is required for the attraction of followed females. By transcriptomic analysis, they demonstrated that SAP54 effectively suppresses biotic stress response pathways in leaves exposed to the males. Furthermore, they clarified how SAP54, by targeting SVP, heightens leaf vulnerability to leafhopper males, thus facilitating female attraction and subsequent plant colonization by the insects.

      Strengths:

      The phenomenon of this study is interesting and exciting.

      Weaknesses:

      The underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon are not convincing.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors used video tracking of 4 larval cichlid species and medaka to quantify prey-capture behaviors.

      Strengths:

      Comparing these behaviors is in principle an interesting question, and helps to address the typicality of the much better-understood zebrafish model. The authors make a good effort to analyze their data quantitatively.

      Weaknesses:

      (1) The overall conclusion, as summarized in the abstract as "Together, our study documents the diversification of locomotor and oculomotor adaptations among hunting teleost larvae" is not that compelling. What would be much more interesting would be to directly relate these differences to different ecological niches (e.g. different types of natural prey, visual scene conditions, height in water column etc), and/or differences in neural circuit mechanisms. While I appreciate that this paper provides a first step on this path, by itself it seems on the verge of stamp collecting, i.e. collecting and cataloging observations without a clear, overarching hypothesis or theoretical framework.

      (2) The data to support some of the claims is either weak or lacking entirely.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary and Strengths:

      The study focuses on PIM1 and 2 in CD8 T cell activation and differentiation. These two serine/threonine kinases belong to a large network of Serine/Threonine kinases that acts following engagement of the TCR and of cytokine receptors and phosphorylates proteins that control transcriptional, translational and metabolic programs that result in effector and memory T cell differentiation. The expression of PIM1 and PIM2 is induced by the T-cell receptor and several cytokine receptors. The present study capitalized on high-resolution quantitative analysis of the proteomes and transcriptomes of Pim1/Pim2-deficient CD8 T cells to decipher how the PIM1/2 kinases control TCR-driven activation and IL-2/IL-15-driven proliferation, and differentiation into effector T cells.<br /> Quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis of naïve OT1 CD8 T cell stimulated with their cognate peptide showed that the PIM1 protein was induced within 3 hours of TCR engagement and its expression was sustained at least up to 24 hours. The kinetics of PIM2 expression was protracted as compared to that of PIM1. Such TCR-dependent expression of PIM1/2 correlated with the analysis of both Pim1 and Pim2 mRNA. In contrast, Pim3 mRNA was only expressed at very low levels and the PIM3 protein was not detected by mass spectrometry. Therefore, PIM1 and 2 are the major PIM kinases in recently activated T cells. Pim1/Pim2 double knockout (Pim dKO) mice were generated on a B6 background and found to express a lower number of splenocytes. No difference in TCR/CD28-driven proliferation was observed between WT and Pim dKO T cells over 3 days in culture. Quantitative proteomics of >7000 proteins further revealed no substantial quantitative or qualitative differences in protein content or proteome composition. Therefore, other signaling pathways can compensate for the lack of PIM kinases downstream of TCR activation.

      Considering that PIM1 and PIM2 kinase expression is regulated by IL-2 and IL-15, antigen-primed CD8 T cells were expanded in IL-15 to generate memory phenotype CD8 T cells or expanded in IL-2 to generate effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Analysis of the survival, proliferation, proteome, and transcriptome of Pim dKO CD8 T cells kept for 6 days in IL-15 showed that PIM1 and PIM2 are dispensable to drive the IL-15-mediated metabolic or differentiation programs of antigen-primed CD8 T cells. Moreover, Pim1/Pim2-deficiency had no impact on the ability of IL-2 to maintain CD8 T cell viability and proliferation. However, WT CTL downregulated the expression of CD62L whereas the Pim dKO CTL sustained higher CD62L expression. Pim dKO CTL was also smaller and less granular than WT CTL. Comparison of the proteome of day 6 IL-2 cultured WT and Pim dKO CTL showed that the latter expressed lower levels of the glucose transporters, SLC2A1 and SLC2A3, of a number of proteins involved in fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis, and CTL effector proteins such as granzymes, perforin, IFNg, and TNFa. Parallel transcriptomics analysis showed that the reduced expression of perforin and some granzymes correlated with a decrease in their mRNA whereas the decreased protein levels of granzymes B and A, and the glucose transporters SLC2A1 and SLC2A3 did not correspond with decreased mRNA expression. Therefore, PIM kinases are likely required for IL-2 to maximally control protein synthesis in CD8 CTL. Along that line, the translational repressor PDCD4 was increased in Pim dKO CTL and pan-PIM kinase inhibitors caused a reduction in protein synthesis rates in IL-2-expanded CTL. Finally, the differences between Pim dKO and WT CTL in terms of CD62L expression resulted in Pim dKO CTL but not WT CTL retained the capacity to home to secondary lymphoid organs. In conclusion, this thorough and solid study showed that the PIM1/2 kinases shape the effector CD8 T cell proteomes rather than transcriptomes and are important mediators of IL2-signalling and CD8 T cell trafficking.

      Weaknesses:

      None identified by this reviewer.

    1. Joint Public Review:

      Summary:

      This paper by Beath et. al. identifies a potential regulatory role for proteins involved in cytoplasmic streaming and maintaining the grouping of paternal organelles: holding sperm contents in the fertilized embryos away from the oocyte meiotic spindle so that they don't get ejected into the polar body during meiotic chromosome segregation. The authors show that by time-lapse video, paternal mitochondria (used as a readout for sperm and its genome) is excluded from yolk granules and maternal mitochondria, even when moving long distances by cytoplasmic streaming. To understand how this exclusion is accomplished, they first show that it is independent of both internal packing and the engulfment of the paternal chromosomes by the maternal endoplasmic reticulum creating an impermeable barrier. They then test whether the control of cytoplasmic steaming affects this exclusion by knocking down two microtubule motors, Katanin and kinesis I. They find that the ER ring, which is used as a proxy for paternal chromosomes, undergoes extensive displacement with these treatments during anaphase I and interacts with the meiotic spindle, supporting their hypothesis that the exclusion of paternal chromosomes is regulated by cytoplasmic streaming. Next, they test whether a regulator of maternal ER organization, ATX-2, disrupts sperm organization so that they can combine the double depletion of ATX-2 and KLP-7, presumably because klp-7 RNAi (unlike mei-1 RNAi) does not affect polar body extrusion and they can report on what happens to paternal chromosomes. They find that the knockdown of both ATX-2 and KLP-7 produces a higher incidence of what appears to be the capture of paternal chromosomes by the meiotic spindle (5/24 vs 1/25). However, this capture event appears to halt the cell cycle, preventing the authors from directly observing whether this would result in the paternal chromosomes being ejected into the polar body.

      The authors addressed the vast majority of the Reviewer's comments including the addition of new figures, re-wording of data interpretation and discussion points to better reflect the claims of the paper. There remain a few outstanding points which were not addressed.

      In many cases the number of embryos analyzed or events capture remains low and the authors conclude that these sample sizes prevented statistical significance. It's not clear if more embryos were analyzed or if more capture would lead to statistical significance. Language capturing this caveat should also be included in the manuscript. A specific example of this is given below:

      In the double knockdown of ATX-2 and KLP-7, there was no significant difference between single and double knockdowns and the ER ring displacement was not analyzed in this double mutant. Further, there was no difference in the frequency of sperm capture between single and double ATX-2 and KLP-7 due to low sample size, the the strength of the conclusion of this manuscript would be greatly improved if both of these results were further explored.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:<br /> The authors used four datasets spanning 30 countries to examine funding success and research quality score for various disciplines. They examined whether funding or research quality score were influenced by majority gender of the discipline and whether these affected men, women, or both within each discipline. They found that disciplines dominated by women have lower funding success and research quality score than disciplines dominated by men. These findings are surprising because even the men in women-dominated fields experienced lower funding success and research quality score.

      Strengths:<br /> - The authors utilized a comprehensive dataset covering 30 countries to explore the influence of the majority gender in academic disciplines on funding success and research quality scores.<br /> - Findings suggest a systemic issue where disciplines with a higher proportion of women have lower evaluations and funding success for all researchers, regardless of gender.<br /> - The manuscript is notable for its large sample size and the diverse international scope, enhancing the generalizability of the results.<br /> - The work accounts for various factors including age, number of research outputs, and bibliometric measures, strengthening the validity of the findings.<br /> - The manuscript raises important questions about unconscious bias in research evaluation and funding decisions, as evidenced by lower scores in women-dominated fields even for researchers that are men.<br /> - The study provides a nuanced view of gender bias, showing that it is not limited to individuals but extends to entire disciplines, impacting the perception and funding and quality or worth of research.<br /> - This work underscores the need to explore motivations behind gender distribution across fields, hinting at deep-rooted societal and institutional barriers.<br /> - The authors have opened a discussion on potential solutions to counter bias, like adjusting funding paylines or anonymizing applications, or other practical solutions.<br /> - While pointing out limitations such as the absence of data from major research-producing countries, the manuscript paves the way for future studies to examine whether its findings are universally applicable.<br /> - The study carefully uses the existing data (including PBRF funding panel gender diversity) to examine gender bias. These types of datasets are often not readily accessible for analysis. Here, the authors have used the available data to the fullest extent possible.

      The authors have addressed the concerns I had about the original version.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary: The authors present a close to complete annotation of the male Drosophila ventral nerve cord, a critical part of the fly's central nervous system.

      Strengths: The manuscript describes an enormous amount of work that takes the first steps towards presenting and comprehending the complexity and organization of the ventral nerve cord. The analysis is thorough and complete. It also makes the effort to connect this EM-centric view of the nervous system to more classical analyses, such as the previously defined hemilineages, that also describe the organization of the fly nervous system. There are many, many insights that come from this work that will be valuable to the field for the foreseeable future.

      Weaknesses: With more than 60 primary figures, the paper is overwhelming and cannot be read and digested in a single sitting. The result is more like a detailed resource rather than a typical research paper.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      This study generated 3D cell constructs from endometrial cell mixtures that were seeded in the Matrigel scaffold. The cell assemblies were treated with hormones to induce a "window of implantation" (WOI) state.

      The authors did their best to revise their study according to the reviewers' comments. However, the study remains unconvincing and at the same time too dense and not focused enough.

      (1) The use of the term organoids is still confusing and should be avoided. Organoids are epithelial tissue-resembling structures. Hence, the multiple-cell aggregates developed here are rather "co-culture models" (or "assembloids"). It is still unexpected (unlikely) that these structures containing epithelial, stromal and immune cells can be robustly passaged in the epithelial growth conditions used. All other research groups developing real organoids from endometrium have shown that only the epithelial compartment remains in culture at passaging (while the stromal compartment is lost). If authors keep to their idea, they should perform scRNA-seq on both early and late (passage 6-10) "organoids". And they should provide details of culturing/passaging/plating etc that are different with other groups and might explain why they keep stromal and immune cells in their culture for such a long time. In other words, they should then in detail compare their method to the standard method of all other researchers in the field, and show the differences in survival and growth of the stromal and immune cells.<br /> (2) The paper is still much too dense, touching upon all kind of conclusions from the manifold bioinformatic analyses. The latter should be much clearer and better described, and then some interesting findings (pathways/genes) should be highlighted without mentioning every single aspect that is observed. The paper needs a lot of editing to better focus and extract take-home messages, not bombing the reader with a mass of pathways, genes etc which makes the manuscript just not readable or 'digest-able'. There is no explanation whatever and no clear rationale why certain genes are included in a list while others are not. There is the impression that mass bioinformatics is applied without enough focus.<br /> (3) The study is much too descriptive and does not show functional validation or exploration (except glycogen production). Some interesting findings extracted from the bioinformatics must be functionally tested.<br /> (4) In contrast to what was found in vivo (Wang et al. 2020), no abrupt change in gene expression pattern is mentioned here from the (early-)secretory to the WoI phase. Should be discussed. Although the bioinformatic analyses point into this direction, there are major concerns which must be solved before the study can provide the needed reliability and credibility for revision.<br /> (5) All data should be benchmarked to the Wang et al 2020 and Garcia-Alonso et al. 2021 papers reporting very detailed scRNA-seq data, and not only the Stephen R. Quake 2020 paper.<br /> (6) Fig. 2B: Vimentin staining is not at all clear. F-actin could be used to show the typical morphology of the stromal cells?<br /> (7) Where does the term "EMT-derived stromal cells" come from? On what basis has this term been coined?<br /> (8) CD44 is shown in Fig. 2D but the text mentions CD45 (line 159)?<br /> (9) All quantification experiments (of stainings etc) should be in detail described how this was done. It looks very difficult (almost not feasible) when looking at the provided pictures to count the stained cells.<br /> (10) Fig. 3C: it is unclear how quantification can be reliably done. Moreover, OLFM4 looks positive in all cells of Ctrl, but authors still see an increase?<br /> (11) Fig. 3F: Met is downregulated which is not in accordance with the mentioned activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway.<br /> (12) Lines 222-226: transcriptome and proteome differences are not significant; so, how meaningful are the results then? Then, it is very hard to conclude an evolution from secretory phase to WoI.<br /> (13) WoI organoids show an increased number of cilia. However, some literature shows the opposite, i.e. less ciliated cells in the endometrial lining at WoI (to keep the embryo in place). How to reconcile?<br /> (14) How are pinopodes distinguished from microvilli? Moreover, Fig. 3 does not show the typical EM structure of cilia.<br /> (15) There is a recently published paper demonstrating another model for implantation. This paper should be referenced as well (Shibata et al. Science Advances, 2024).<br /> (16) Line 78: two groups were the first here (Turco and Borreto) and should both be mentioned.<br /> (17) Line 554: "as an alternative platform" - alternative to what? Authors answer reviewers' comments by just changing one word, but this makes the text odd.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this manuscript, the authors conducted an important study that explored an innovative regenerative treatment for pediatric craniofacial bone loss, with a particular focus on investigating the impacts of JAGGED1 (JAG1) signaling.

      Strengths:

      Building on their prior research involving the effect of JAG1 on murine cranial neural crest cells, the authors demonstrated successful bone regeneration in an in vivo murine bone loss model with a critically-sized cranial defect, where they delivered JAG1 with pediatric human bone-derived osteoblast-like cells in the hydrogel. Additionally, their findings unveiled a crucial mechanism wherein JAG1 induces pediatric osteoblast commitment and bone regeneration through the phosphorylation of p70 S6K. This discovery offers a promising avenue for potential treatment, involving targeted delivery of JAG1 and activation of downstream p70 s6K, for pediatric craniofacial bone loss. Overall, the experimental design is appropriate, and the results are clearly presented.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this paper, proteomics analysis of the plasma of human subjects that underwent an exercise training regime consisting of a combination of endurance and resistance exercise led to the identification of several proteins that were responsive to exercise training. Confirming previous studies, many exercise-responsive secreted proteins were found to be involved in the extra-cellular matrix. The protein CD300LG was singled out as a potential novel exercise biomarker and the subject of numerous follow-up analyses. The levels of CD300LG were correlated with insulin sensitivity. The analysis of various open-source datasets led to the tentative suggestion that CD300LG might be connected with angiogenesis, liver fat, and insulin sensitivity. CD300LG was found to be most highly expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue and specifically in venular endothelial cells. In a subset of subjects from the UK Biobank, serum CD300LG levels were positively associated with several measures of physical activity - particularly vigorous activity. In addition, serum CD300LG levels were negatively associated with glucose levels and type 2 diabetes. Genetic studies hinted at these associations possibly being causal. Mice carrying alterations in the CD300LG gene displayed impaired glucose tolerance, but no change in fasting glucose and insulin. Whether the production of CD300LG is changed in the mutant mice is unclear.

      Strengths:

      The specific proteomics approach conducted to identify novel proteins impacted by exercise training is new. The authors are resourceful in the exploitation of existing datasets to gain additional information on CD300LG.

      Weaknesses:

      While the analyses of multiple open-source datasets are necessary and useful, they lead to relatively unspecific correlative data that collectively insufficiently advance our knowledge of CD300LG and merely represent the starting point for more detailed investigations. Additional more targeted experiments of CD300LG are necessary to gain a better understanding of the role of CD300LG and the mechanism by which exercise training may influence CD300LG levels. One should also be careful to rely on external data for such delicate experiments as mouse phenotyping. Can the authors vouch for the quality of the data collected?

    1. Reviewer #3 (Public Review):

      In multiple cancers, the key roles of B cells are emerging in the tumor microenvironment (TME). The authors of this study appropriately introduce that B cells are relatively under-characterised in the TME and argue correctly that it is not known how the B cell receptor (BCR) repertoires across tumor, lymph node and peripheral blood relate. The authors therefore supply a potentially useful study evaluating the tumor, lymph node and peripheral blood BCR repertoires and site-to-site as well as intra-site relationships. The authors employ sophisticated analysis techniques, although the description of the methods is incomplete.

      Major strengths:

      (1) The authors provide a unique analysis of BCR repertoires across tumor, dLN, and peripheral blood. The work provides useful insights into inter- and intra-site BCR repertoire heterogeneity. While patient-to-patient variation is expected, the findings with regard to intra-tumor and intra-dLN heterogeneity with the use of fragments from the same tissue are of importance, contribute to the understanding of the TME, and will inform future study design.

      (2) A particular strength of the study is the detailed CDR3 physicochemical properties analysis which leads the authors to observations that suggest a less-specific BCR repertoire of TIL-B compared to circulating B cells.

      Concerns and comments on current version:

      The revision has improved the manuscript but, in my opinion, remains inadequate. While most of my requested changes have been made, I do not see an expansion of Fig1A legend to incorporate more details about the analysis. Lacking details of methodology was a concern from all reviewers. Similarly, the 'fragmented' narrative was a concern of all reviewers. These matters have not been dealt with adequately enough - there are parts of the manuscript which remain fragmented and confusing. The narrative and analysis does not explain how the plasma cell bias has been dealt with adequately and in fact is simply just confusing. There is a paragraph at the beginning of the discussion re the plasma cell bias, which should be re-written to be clearer and moved to have a prominent place early in the results. Why are these results not properly presented? They are key for interpretation of the manuscript. Furthermore, the sorted plasma cell sequencing analysis also has only been performed on two patients. Another issue is that some disease cohorts are entirely composed of patients with metastasis, some without but metastasis is not mentioned. Metastasis has been shown to impact the immune landscape.

      A reviewer brought up a concern about the overlap analysis and I also asked for an explanation on why this F2 metric chosen. Part of the rebuttal argues that another metric was explored showing similar results, thus conclusion reached is reasonable. Remarkably, these data are not only omitted from the manuscript, but is not even provided for the reviewers.

      This manuscript certainly includes some interesting and useful work. Unfortunately, a comprehensive re-write was required to make the work much clearer and easier to understand and this has not been realised.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Kroeg et al. describe a novel method for 2D culture human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to form cortical tissue in a multiwell format. The method claims to offer a significant advancement over existing developmental models. Their approach allows them to generate cultures with precise, reproducible dimensions and structure with a single rosette; consistent geometry; incorporating multiple neuronal and glial cell types (cellular diversity); avoiding the necrotic core (often seen in free-floating models due to limited nutrient and oxygen diffusion). The researchers demonstrate the method's capacity for long-term culture, exceeding ten months, and show the formation of mature dendritic spines and considerable neuronal activity. The method aims to tackle multiple key problems of in vitro neural cultures: reproducibility, diversity, topological consistency, and electrophysiological activity. The authors suggest their potential in high-throughput screening and neurotoxicological studies.

      Strengths:

      The main advances in the paper seem to be: The culture developed by the authors appears to have optimal conditions for neural differentiation, lineage diversification, and long-term culture beyond 300 days. These seem to me as a major strength of the paper and an important contribution to the field. The authors present solid evidence about the high cell type diversity present in their cultures. It is a major point and therefore it could be better compared to the state of the art. I commend the authors for using three different IPS lines, this is a very important part of their proof. The staining and imaging quality of the manuscript is of excellent quality.

      Weaknesses:

      (1) The title is misleading: The presented cultures appear not to be organoids, but 2D neural cultures, with an insufficiently described intermediate EB stage. For nomenclature, see: doi: 10.1038/s41586-022-05219-6. Should the tissue develop considerable 3D depth, it would suffer from the same limited nutrient supply as 3D models - as the authors point out in their introduction.

      (2) The method therefore should be compared to state-of-the-art (well-based or not) 2D cultures, which seems to be somewhat overlooked in the paper, therefore making it hard to assess what the advance is that is presented by this work.

      (3) Reproducibility is prominently claimed throughout the manuscript. However, it is challenging to assess this claim based on the data presented, which mostly contain single frames of unquantified, high-resolution images. There are almost no systematic quantifications presented. The ones present (Figure S1D, Figure 4) show very large variability. However, the authors show sets of images across wells (Figure S1B, Figure S3) which hint that in some important aspects, the culture seems reproducible and robust.

      (4) What is in the middle? All images show markers in cells present around the center. The center however seems to be a dense lump of cells based on DAPI staining. What is the identity of these cells? Do these cells persist throughout the protocol? Do they divide? Until when? Addressing this prominent cell population is currently lacking.

      (5) This manuscript proposes a new method of 2D neural culture. However, the description and representation of the method are currently insufficient.<br /> (a) The results section would benefit from a clear and concise, but step-by-step overview of the protocol. The current description refers to an earlier paper and appears to skip over some key steps. This section would benefit from being completely rewritten. This is not a replacement for a clear methods section, but a section that allows readers to clearly interpret results presented later.<br /> (b) Along the same lines, the graphical abstract should be much more detailed. It should contain the time frames and the media used at the different stages of the protocol, seeding numbers, etc.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The manuscript by Kelbert et al. presents results on the involvement of the yeast transcription factor Sfp1 in the stabilisation of transcripts whose synthesis it stimulates. Sfp1 is known to affect the synthesis of a number of important cellular transcripts, such as many of those that code for ribosomal proteins. The hypothesis that a transcription factor can remain bound to the nascent transcript and affect its cytoplasmic half-life is attractive. However, the association of Sfp1 with cytoplasmic transcripts remains to be validated, as explained in the following comments:

      A two-hybrid based assay for protein-protein interactions identified Sfp1, a transcription factor known for its effects on ribosomal protein gene expression, as interacting with Rpb4, a subunit of RNA polymerase II. Classical two-hybrid experiments depend on the presence of the tested proteins in the nucleus of yeast cells, suggesting that the observed interaction occurs in the nucleus. Unfortunately, the two-hybrid method cannot determine whether the interaction is direct or mediated by nucleic acids. The revised version of the manuscript now states that the observed interaction could be indirect.

      To understand to which RNA Sfp1 might bind, the authors used an N-terminally tagged fusion protein in a cross-linking and purification experiment. This method identified 264 transcripts for which the CRAC signal was considered positive and which mostly correspond to abundant mRNAs, including 74 ribosomal protein mRNAs or metabolic enzyme-abundant mRNAs such as PGK1. The authors did not provide evidence for the specificity of the observed CRAC signal, in particular what would be the background of a similar experiment performed without UV cross-linking. This is crucial, as Figure S2G shows very localized and sharp peaks for the CRAC signal, often associated with over-amplification of weak signal during sequencing library preparation.

      In a validation experiment, the presence of several mRNAs in a purified SFP1 fraction was measured at levels that reflect the relative levels of RNA in a total RNA extract. Negative controls showing that abundant mRNAs not found in the CRAC experiment were clearly depleted from the purified fraction with Sfp1 would be crucial to assess the specificity of the observed protein-RNA interactions (to complement Fig. 2D). The CRAC-selected mRNAs were enriched for genes whose expression was previously shown to be upregulated upon Sfp1 overexpression (Albert et al., 2019). The presence of unspliced RPL30 pre-mRNA in the Sfp1 purification was interpreted as a sign of co-transcriptional assembly of Sfp1 into mRNA, but in the absence of valid negative controls, this hypothesis would require further experimental validation. Also, whether the fraction of mRNA bound by Sfp1 is nuclear or cytoplasmic is unclear.

      To address the important question of whether co-transcriptional assembly of Spf1 with transcripts could alter their stability, the authors first used a reporter system in which the RPL30 transcription unit is transferred to vectors under different transcriptional contexts, as previously described by the Choder laboratory (Bregman et al. 2011). While RPL30 expressed under an ACT1 promoter was barely detectable, the highest levels of RNA were observed in the context of the native upstream RPL30 sequence when Rap1 binding sites were also present. Sfp1 showed better association with reporter mRNAs containing Rap1 binding sites in the promoter region. Removal of the Rap1 binding sites from the reporter vector also led to a drastic decrease in reporter mRNA levels. Co-purification of reporter RNA with Sfp1 was only observed when Rap1 binding sites were included in the reporter. Negative controls for all the purification experiments might be useful.

      To complement the biochemical data presented in the first part of the manuscript, the authors turned to the deletion or rapid depletion of SFP1 and used labelling experiments to assess changes in the rate of synthesis, abundance and decay of mRNAs under these conditions. An important observation was that in the absence of Sfp1, mRNAs encoding ribosomal protein genes not only had a reduced synthesis rate, but also an increased degradation rate. This important observation needs careful validation, as genomic run-on experiments were used to measure half-lives, and this particular method was found to give results that correlated poorly with other measures of half-life in yeast (e.g. Chappelboim et al., 2022 for a comparison). As an additional validation, a temperature shift to 42{degree sign}C was used to show that , for specific ribosomal protein mRNA, the degradation was faster, assuming that transcription stops at that temperature. It would be important to cite and discuss the work from the Tollervey laboratory showing that a temperature shift to 42{degree sign}C leads to a strong and specific decrease in ribosomal protein mRNA levels, probably through an accelerated RNA degradation (Bresson et al., Mol Cell 2020, e.g. Fig 5E). Finally, the conclusion that mRNA deadenylation rate is altered in the absence of Sfp1, is difficult to assess from the presented results (Fig. 3D).

      The effects of SFP1 on transcription were investigated by chromatin purification with Rpb3, a subunit of RNA polymerase, and the results were compared with synthesis rates determined by genomic run-on experiments. The decrease in polII presence on transcripts in the absence of SFP1 was not accompanied by a marked decrease in transcript output, suggesting an effect of Sfp1 in ensuring robust transcription and avoiding RNA polymerase backtracking. To further investigate the phenotypes associated with the depletion or absence of Sfp1, the authors examined the presence of Rpb4 along transcription units compared to Rpb3. An effect of spf1 deficiency was that this ratio, which decreased from the start of transcription towards the end of transcripts, increased slightly. To what extent this result is important for the main message of the manuscript is unclear.

      Suggestions: a) please clearly indicate in the figures when they correspond to reanalyses of published results. b) In table S2, it would be important to mention what the results represent and what statistics were used for the selection of "positive" hits.

      Strengths:

      - Diversity of experimental approaches used.<br /> - Validation of large-scale results with appropriate reporters.

      Weaknesses:

      - Lack of controls for the CRAC results and lack of negative controls for the co-purification experiments that were used to validate specific mRNA targets potentially bound by Sfp1.<br /> - Several conclusions are derived from complex correlative analyses that fully depend on the validity of the aforementioned Sfp1-mRNA interactions.

  2. Jul 2024
    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      This work seeks to understand how behaviour-related information is represented in the neural activity of the primate motor cortex. To this end, a statistical model of neural activity is presented that enables a non-linear separation of behaviour-related from unrelated activity. As a generative model, it enables the separate analysis of these two activity modes, here primarily done by assessing the decoding performance of hand movements the monkeys perform in the experiments. Several lines of analysis are presented to show that while the neurons with significant tuning to movements strongly contribute to the behaviourally-relevant activity subspace, less or un-tuned neurons also carry decodable information. It is further shown that the discovered subspaces enable linear decoding, leading the authors to conclude that motor cortex read-out can be linear.

      Strengths:

      In my opinion, using an expressive generative model to analyse neural state spaces is an interesting approach to understand neural population coding. While potentially sacrificing interpretability, this approach allows capturing both redundancies and synergies in the code as done in this paper. The model presented here is a natural non-linear extension of a previous linear model PSID) and uses weak supervision in a manner similar to a previous non-linear model (TNDM).

      Weaknesses:

      This revised version provides additional evidence to support the author's claims regarding model performance and interpretation of the structure of the resulting latent spaces, in particular the distributed neural code over the whole recorded population, not just the well-tuned neurons. The improved ability to linearly decode behaviour from the relevant subspace and the analysis of the linear subspace projections in my opinion convincingly demonstrates that the model picks up behaviour-relevant dynamics, and that these are distributed widely across the population. As reviewer 3 also points out, I would, however, caution to interpret this as evidence for linear read-out of the motor system - your model performs a non-linear transformation, and while this is indeed linearly decodable, the motor system would need to do something similar first to achieve the same. In fact to me it seems to show the opposite, that behaviour-related information may not be generally accessible to linear decoders (including to down-stream brain areas).

      As in my initial review, I would also caution against making strong claims about identifiability although this work and TNDM seem to show that in practise such methods work quite well. CEBRA, in contrast, offers some theoretical guarantees, but it is not a generative model, so would not allow the type of analysis done in this paper. In your model there is a para,eter \alpha to balance between neural and behaviour reconstruction. This seems very similar to TNDM and has to be optimised - if this is correct, then there is manual intervention required to identify a good model.

      Somewhat related, I also found that the now comprehensive comparison with related models shows that the using decoding performance (R2) as a metric for model comparison may be problematic: the R2 values reported in Figure 2 (e.g. the MC_RTT dataset) should be compared to the values reported in the neural latent benchmark, which represent well-tuned models (e.g. AutoLFADS). The numbers (difficult to see, a table with numbers in the appendix would be useful, see: https://eval.ai/web/challenges/challenge-page/1256/leaderboard) seem lower than what can be obtained with models without latent space disentanglement. While this does not necessarily invalidate the conclusions drawn here, it shows that decoding performance can depend on a variety of model choices, and may not be ideal to discriminate between models. I'm also surprised by the low neural R2 for LFADS I assume this is condition-averaged) - LFADS tends to perform very well on this metric.

      One statement I still cannot follow is how the prior of the variational distribution is modelled. You say you depart from the usual Gaussian prior, but equation 7 seems to suggest there is a normal prior. Are the parameters of this distribution learned? As I pointed out earlier, I however suspect this may not matter much as you give the prior a very low weight. I also still am not sure how you generate a sample from the variational distribution, do you just draw one for each pass?

      Summary:

      This paper presents a very interesting analysis, but some concerns remain that mainly stem from the complexity of deep learning models. It would be good to acknowledge these as readers without relevant background need to understand where the possible caveats are.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Calcium channels are key regulators of synaptic strength and plasticity, yet how these channels are differentially utilized to enable synaptic diversity is not clear. In this manuscript, the authors use new endogenous tagging of the Drosophila CaV2 channel Cac and three auxiliary subunits to investigate distinct calcium channel functions at two motor neuron subtypes at the fly NMJ, Is and Ib. Although it is clear from previous studies that Pr is higher at Is over Ib, it is not clear why. The authors confirm these differences using postsynaptic calcium imaging combined with post-hoc Cac-TdTomato imaging. Then, through a series of confocal and super resolution imaging studies, the authors describe differences in calcium channel and active zone structure between Is and Ib motor neuron terminals, and the role of Brp and homeostatic plasticity in regulating channel abundance. Finally, the authors show that while the CaBeta subunit is present at similar levels at Is and Ib active zones, there is an interesting reduction in Stj at Is active zones. The authors conclude that these differences in active zone structure and architecture contribute to the generation of the observed heterogeneity in synaptic strength.

      Overall the manuscript is well written, and the successful generation of the new endogenous Cac tags (Td-Tomato, Halo) and CaBeta, stj, and stolid genes with V5 tags will be powerful reagents for the field to enable new studies on calcium channels in synaptic structure, function, and plasticity. There are also some interesting, though not entirely unexpected, findings regarding how Brp and homeostatic plasticity modulate calcium channel abundance. The key factors generating diversity in synaptic strength beyond simple Ca2+ influx are well articulated in framing this study. Beyond the particularly useful new reagents for the field presented, the new data demonstrating a concerted and coupled increase in Cac, Stj, and CaB together after plasticity provides an interesting new dimension to the study and a foundation for new work moving forward.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      This study explored the relationship between sustained attention and substance use from ages 14 to 23 in a large longitudinal dataset. They found behaviour and brain connectivity associated with poorer sustained attention at age 14 predicted subsequent increase in cannabis and cigarette smoking from ages 14-23. They concluded that the brain network of sustained attention is a robust biomarker for vulnerability to substance use. The big strength of the study is a substantial sample size and validation of the generalization to an external dataset. In addition, various methods/models were used to prove the relationship between sustained attention and substance use over time.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This paper by Schommartz and colleagues investigates the neural basis of memory reinstatement as a function of both how recently the memory was formed (recent, remote) and its development (children, young adults). The core question is whether memory consolidation processes as well as the specificity of memory reinstatement differ with development. A number of brain regions showed a greater activation difference for recent vs. remote memories at the long versus shorter delay specifically in adults (cerebellum, parahippocampal gyrus, LOC). A different set showed decreases in the same comparison, but only in children (precuneus, RSC). The authors also used neural pattern similarity analysis to characterize reinstatement, though still in this revised paper I have substantive concerns about how the analyses were performed. While scene-specific reinstatement decreased for remote memories in both children and adults, claims about its presence cannot be made given the analyses. Gist-level reinstatement was observed in children but not adults, but I also have concerns about this analysis. Broadly, the behavioural and univariate findings are consistent with the idea memory consolidation differs between children and adults in important ways, and takes a step towards characterizing how.

      Strengths:

      The topic and goals of this paper are very interesting. As the authors note, there is little work on memory consolidation over development, and as such this will be an important data point in helping us begin to understand these important differences. The sample size is great, particularly given this is an onerous, multi-day experiment; the authors are to be commended for that. The task design is also generally well controlled, for example as the authors include new recently learned pairs during each session.

      Weaknesses:

      As noted above and in my review of the original submission, the pattern similarity analysis for both item and category-level reinstatement were performed in a way that is not interpretable given concerns about temporal autocorrelation within scanning run. Unfortunately these issues remain of concern in this revision because they were not rectified. Most of my review focuses on this analytic issue, though I also outline additional concerns.

      (1) The pattern similarity analyses are largely uninterpretable due to how they were performed.

      (a) First, the scene-specific reinstatement index: The authors have correlated a neural pattern during a fixation cross (delay period) with a neural pattern associated with viewing a scene as their measure of reinstatement. The main issue with this is that these events always occurred back-to-back in time. As such, the two patterns will be similar due simply to the temporal autocorrelation in the BOLD signal. Because of the issues with temporal autocorrelation within scanning run, it is always recommended to perform such correlations only across different runs. In this case, the authors always correlated patterns extracted from the same run, and which moreover have temporal lags that are perfectly confounded with their comparison of interest (i.e., from Fig 4A, the "scene-specific" comparisons will always be back-to-back, having a very short temporal lag; "set-based" comparisons will be dispersed across the run, and therefore have a much higher lag). The authors' within-run correlation approach also yields correlation values that are extremely high - much higher than would be expected if this analysis was done appropriately. The way to fix this would be to restrict the analysis to only cross-run comparisons, which is not possible given the design.

      To remedy this, in the revision the authors have said they will refrain from making conclusions about the presence of scene-specific reinstatement (i.e., reinstatement above baseline). While this itself is an improvement from the original manuscript, I still have several concerns. First, this was not done thoroughly and at times conclusions/interpretations still seem to imply or assume the presence of scene reinstatement (e.g., line 979-985, "our research supports the presence of scene-specific reinstatement in 5-to-7-year-old children"; line 1138). Second, the authors' logic for the neural-behavioural correlations in the PLSC analysis involved restricting to regions that showed significant reinstatement for the gist analysis, which cannot be done for the analogous scene-specific reinstatement analysis. This makes it challenging to directly compare these two analyses since one was restricted to a small subset of regions and only children (gist), while scene reinstatement included both groups and all ROIs. Third, it is also unclear whether children and adults' values should be directly comparable given pattern similarity can be influenced by many factors like motion, among other things.

      My fourth concern with this analysis relates to the lack of regional specificity of the effects. All ROIs tested showed a virtually identical pattern: "Scene-specific reinstatement" decreased across delays, and was greater in children than adults. I believe control analyses are needed to ensure artifacts are not driving these effects. This would greatly strengthen the authors' ability to draw conclusions from the "clean" comparison of day 1 vs. day 14. (A) The authors should present results from a control ROI that should absolutely not show memory reinstatement effects (e.g., white matter?). Results from the control ROI should look very different - should not differ between children and adults, and should not show decreases over time. (B) Do the recent items from day 1 vs. day 14 differ? If so, this could suggest something is different about the later scans (and if not, it would be reassuring). (C) If the same analysis was performed comparing the object cue and immediately following fixation (rather than the fixation and the immediately following scene), the results should look very different. I would argue that this should not be an index of reinstatement at all since it involves something presented visually rather than something reinstated (i.e., the scene picture is not included in this comparison). If this control analysis were to show the same effects as the primary analysis, this would be further evidence that this analysis is uninterpretable and hopelessly confounded.

      (b) For the category-based neural reinstatement: (1) This suffers from the same issue of correlations being performed within run. Again, to correct this the authors would need to restrict comparisons to only across runs (i.e., patterns from run 1 correlated with patterns for run 2 and so on). The authors in their response letter have indicated that because the patterns being correlated are not derived from events in close temporal proximity, they should not suffer from the issue of temporal autocorrelation. This is simply not true. For example, see the paper by Prince et al. (eLife 2022; on GLMsingle). This is not the main point of Prince et al.'s paper, but it includes a nice figure that shows that, using standard modelling approaches, the correlation between (same-run) patterns can be artificially elevated for lags as long as ~120 seconds (and can even be artificially reduced after that; Figure 5 from that paper) between events. This would affect many of the comparisons in the present paper. The cleanest way to proceed is to simply drop the within-run comparisons, which I believe the authors can do and yet they have not. Relatedly, in the response letter the authors say they are focusing mainly on the change over time for reinstatement at both levels including the gist-type reinstatement; however, this is not how it is discussed in the paper. They in fact are mainly relying on differences from zero, as children show some "above baseline" reinstatement while adults do not, but I believe there were no significant differences over time (i.e., the findings the authors said they would lean on primarily, as they are arguably the most comparable). (2) This analysis uses a different approach of comparing fixations to one another, rather than fixations to scenes. In their response letter and the revised paper, the authors do provide a bit of reasoning as to why this is the most sensible. However, it is still not clear to me whether this is really "reinstatement" which (in my mind) entails the re-evoking of a neural pattern initially engaged during perception. Rather, could this be a shared neural state that is category specific? In any case, I think additional information should be added to the text to clarify that this definition differs from others in the literature. The authors might also consider using some term other than reinstatement. Again (as I noted in my prior review), the finding of no category-level reinstatement in adults is surprising and confusing given prior work and likely has to do with the operationalization of "reinstatement" here. I was not quite sure about the explanation provided in the response letter, as category-level reinstatement is quite widespread in the brain for adults and is robust to differences in analytic procedures etc. (3) Also from a theoretical standpoint-I'm still a bit confused as to why gist-based reinstatement would involve reinstatement of the scene gist, rather than the object's location (on the screen) gist. Were the locations on the screen similar across scene backgrounds from the same category? It seems like a different way to define memory retrieval here would be to compare the neural patterns when cued to retrieve the same vs. similar (at the "gist" level) vs. different locations across object-scene pairs. This is somewhat related to a point from my review of the initial version of this manuscript, about how scene reinstatement is not necessary. The authors state that participants were instructed to reinstate the scene, but that does not mean they were actually doing it. The point that what is being measured via the reinstatement analyses is actually not necessary to perform the task should be discussed in more detail in the paper.

      (2) Inspired by another reviewer's comment, it is unclear to me the extent to which age group differences can be attributed to differences in age/development versus memory strength. I liked the other reviewer's suggestions about how to identify and control for differences in memory strength, which I don't think the authors actually did in the revision. They instead showed evidence that memory strength does seem to be lower in children, which indicates this is an interpretive confound. For example, I liked the reviewer's suggestion of performing analyses on subsets of participants who were actually matched in initial learning/memory performance would have been very informative. As it is, the authors didn't really control for memory strength adequately in my opinion, and as such their conclusions about children vs. adults could have been reframed as people with weak vs. strong memories. This is obviously a big drawback given what the authors want to conclude. Relatedly, I'm not sure the DDM was incorporated as the reviewer was suggesting; at minimum I think the authors need to do more work in the paper to explain what this means and why it is relevant. (I understand putting it in the supplement rather than the main paper, but I still wanted to know more about what it added from an interpretive perspective.)

      (3) Some of the univariate results reporting is a bit strange, as they are relying upon differences between retrieval of 1- vs. 14-day memories in terms of the recent vs. report difference, and yet don't report whether the regions are differently active for recent and remote retrieval. For example in Figure 3A, neither anterior nor posterior hippocampus seem to be differentially active for recent vs. remote memories for either age group (i.e., all data is around 0). Precuneus also interestingly seems to show numerically recent>remote (values mostly negative), whereas most other regions show the opposite. This difference from zero (in either direction) or lack thereof seems important to the message. In response to this comment on the original manuscript, the authors seem to have confirmed that hippocampal activity was greater during retrieval than implicit baseline. But this was not really my question - I was asking whether hippocampus is (and other ROIs in this same figure are) differently engaged for recent vs. remote memories.

      (4) Related to point 3, the claims about hippocampus with respect to multiple trace theory feel very unsupported by the data. I believe the authors want to conclude that children's memory retrieval shows reliance on hippocampus irrespective of delay, presumably because this is a detailed memory task. However the authors have not really shown this; all they have shown is that hippocampal involvement (whatever it is) does not vary by delay. But we do not have compelling evidence that the hippocampus is involved in this task at all. That hippocampus is more active during retrieval than implicit baseline is a very low bar and does not necessarily indicate a role in memory retrieval. If the authors want to make this claim, more data are needed (e.g., showing that hippocampal activity during retrieval is higher when the upcoming memory retrieval is successful vs. unsuccessful). In the absence of this, I think all the claims about multiple trace theory supporting retrieval similarly across delays and that this is operational in children are inappropriate and should be removed.

      (5) There are still not enough methodological details in the main paper to make sense of the results. Some of these problems were addressed in the revision but others remain. For example, a couple of things that were unclear: that initially learned locations were split, where half were tested again at day 1 and the other half at day 14; what specific criterion was used to determine to pick the 'well-learned' associations that were used for comparisons at different delay periods (object-scene pairs that participants remembered accurately in the last repetition of learning? Or across all of learning?).

      (6) In still find the revised Introduction a bit unclear. I appreciated the added descriptions of different theories of consolidation, though the order of presented points is still a bit hard to follow. Some of the predictions I also find a bit confusing as laid out in the introduction. (1) As noted in the paper multiple trace theory predicts that hippocampal involvement will remain high provided memories retained are sufficiently high detail. The authors however also predict that children will rely more on gist (than detailed) memories than adults, which would seem to imply (combined with the MTT idea) that they should show reduced hippocampal involvement over time (while in adults, it should remain high). However, the authors' actual prediction is that hippocampus will show stable involvement over time in both kids and adults. I'm having a hard time reconciling these points. (2) With respect to the extraction of gist in children, I was confused by the link to Fuzzy Trace Theory given the children in the present study are a bit young to be showing the kind of gist extraction shown in the Brainerd & Reyna data. Would 5-7 year olds not be more likely to show reliance on verbatim traces under that framework? Also from a phrasing perspective, I was confused about whether gist-like information was something different from just gist in this sentence: "children may be more inclined to extract gist information at the expense of detailed or gist-like information." (p. 8) - is this a typo?

      (7) For the PLSC, if I understand this correctly, the profiles were defined for showing associations with behaviour across age groups. (1) As such, is it not "double dipping" to then show that there is an association between brain profile and behaviour-must this not be true by definition? If I am mistaken, it might be helpful to clarify this in the paper. (2) In addition, I believe for the univariate and scene-specific reinstatement analyses these profiles were defined across both age groups. I assume this doesn't allow for separate definition of profiles across the two group (i.e., a kind of "interaction"). If this is the case, it makes sense that there would not be big age differences... the profiles were defined for showing an association across all subjects. If the authors wanted to identify distinct profiles in children and adults they may need to run another analysis. (3) Also, as for differences between short delay brain profile and long delay brain profile for the scene-specific reinstatement - there are 2 regions that become significant at long delay that were not significant at a short delay (PC, and CE). However, given there are ceiling effects in behaviour at the long but not short delay, it's unclear if this is a meaningful difference or just a difference in sensitivity. Is there a way to test whether the profiles are statistically different from one another? (4) As I mentioned above, it also was not ideal in my opinion that all regions were included for the scene-specific reinstatement due to the authors' inability to have an appropriate baseline and therefore define above-chance reinstatement. It makes these findings really challenging to compare with the gist reinstatement ones.

      (8) I would encourage the authors to be specific about whether they are measuring/talking about memory representations versus reinstatement, unless they think these are the same thing (in which case some explanation as to why would be helpful). For example, especially under the Fuzzy Trace framework, couldn't someone maintain both verbatim and gist traces of a memory yet rely more on one when making a memory decision?

      (9) With respect to the learning criteria - it is misleading to say that "children needed between two to four learning-retrieval cycles to reach the criterion of 83% correct responses" (p. 9). Four was the maximum, and looking at the Figure 1C data it appears as though there were at least a few children who did not meet the 83% minimum. I believe they were included in the analysis anyway? Please clarify. Was there any minimum imposed for inclusion?

      (10) For the gist-like reinstatement PLSC analysis, results are really similar a short and long delays and yet some of the text seems to implying specificity to the long delay. One is a trend and one is significant (p. 31), but surely these two associations would not be statistically different from one another?

      (11) As a general comment, I had a hard time tying all of the (many) results together. For example adults show more mature neocortical consolidation-related engagement, which the authors say is going to create more durable detailed memories, but under multiple trace theory we would generally think of neocortical representations as providing more schematic information. If the authors could try to make more connections across the different neural analyses, as well as tie the neural findings in more closely with the behaviour & back to the theoretical frameworks, that would be really helpful.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This work by Passlick and colleagues set out to reveal the mechanism by which short bouts of ischemia perturb glutamate signalling. This manuscript builds upon previous work in the field that reported a paradoxical increase in synaptic transmission following acute, transient ischemia termed ischemic or anoxic long-term potentiation. Despite these observations how this occurs and the involvement of glutamate release and uptake mechanisms remained unanswered.

      Here the authors employed two distinct chemical ischemia models, one lasting 2-minutes, the other 5-minutes. Recording evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in acute brain slices, the authors revealed that shorter bouts of ischemia resulted in a transient decrease in postsynaptic responses followed by an overshoot and long-term potentiation. Longer bouts of chemical ischemia (5-minutes), however, resulted in synaptic failure that did not return to baseline levels over 50-minutes of recording (Figure 1).

      Two-photon Imaging of fluorescent glutamate sensor iGluSnFR expressed in astrocytes matched postsynaptic responses with shorter ischemia resulting in a transient dip before increase in extracellular glutamate which was not the case with prolonged ischemia (Figure 2).

      Mechanistically, the authors show that this increased glutamate levels and postsynaptic responses were not due to changes in glutamate clearance (Figure 3). Next using a competitive antagonist for postsynaptic AMPA receptors the authors show that synaptic glutamate release was enhanced by 2-minute chemical ischemia.

      Taken together, these data reveal the underlying mechanism regarding ischemic long-term potentiation, highlighting presynaptic release as the primary culprit. Additionally, the authors show relative insensitivity of glutamate uptake mechanisms during ischemia, highlighting the resilience of astrocytes to this metabolic challenge.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This manuscript describes the crystallographic screening of a number of small molecules derived from the natural substrates S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) and adenine, against the SARS-CoV-2 2'-O-methyltransferase NSP16 in complex with its partner NSP10. High-quality structures for several of these are presented together with efforts to evaluate their potential biophysical binding and antiviral activities. The structures are of high quality and the data are well presented but do not yet show potency in biophysical binding. They only offer limited insights into the design of inhibitors of NSP16/10.

      Strengths:

      The main strengths of the study are the high quality of the structural data, and associated electron density maps making the structural data highly accurate and informative for future structure-based design. These results are clearly presented and communicated in the manuscript. Another strength is the authors' attempts to probe the binding of the identified fragments using biophysical assays. Although in general the outcome of these experiments shows negative data or very weak binding affinities the authors should be commended for attempting several techniques and showing the data clearly. This study is also useful as an example of the complexities associated with drug discovery on a bi-substrate target such as a methyltransferase, several of the observed binding poises were unexpected with compounds that are relatively similar to substrates binding in different parts of the active site or other unexpected orientations. This serves as an example of how experimental structural information is still of crucial importance to structure-based drug design. In general, the claims in the manuscript are well supported by the data.

      Weaknesses:

      The main limitations of the study are that the new structures generated in the study are fairly limited in terms of chemical space being similar to either SAM or RNA-CAP analogues. It feels a little bit of a lost opportunity to expand this to more diverse ligands which may reveal potential inhibitors that are distinct from current methyltransferase inhibitors based on SAM analogues and truly allow a selective targeting of this important target.

      Another limitation is the potentially misleading nature of the antiviral assays. It is not possible to say if these compounds display on-target activity in these assays or even if the inhibition of NSP16/10 would have any effect in these assays. Whilst the authors do mention these points I think this should be emphasized more strongly.

      Minor critical points:

      The authors state that their crystals and protein preps have co-purified SAM occupying the active site of the crystals. Presumably, this complicates the interpretation of electron density maps as many of the ligands share overlap with the existing SAM density making traditional analysis of difference maps challenging. The authors did not utilize the PanDDA analysis for this step, perhaps this is related to the presence of SAM in the ground state datasets? Also, occupancies are reported in the manuscript in some cases to two significant figures, this seems to be an overestimation of the ability of refinement to determine occupancy based on density alone and the authors should clarify how these figures were reached.

      The molecular docking approach to pre-selection of library compounds to soak did not appear to be successful. Could the authors make any observations about the compounds selected by docking or the docking approach used that may explain this?

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      The comments below are from my review of the first submission of this article. I would now like to thank the authors for their hard work in responding to my comments. I am happy with the changes they have made, in particular the inclusion of further experimental evidence in Figures 2 and 4. I have no further comments to make.

      In 'Systems analysis of miR-199a/b-5p and multiple miR-199a/b-5p targets during chondrogenesis', Patel et al. present a variety of analyses using different methodologies to investigate the importance of two miRNAs in regulating gene expression in a cellular model of cartilage development. They first re-analysed existing data to identify these miRNAs as one of the most dynamic across a chondrogenesis development timecourse. Next, they manipulated the expression of these miRNAs and showed that this affected the expression of various marker genes as expected. An RNA-seq experiment on these manipulations identified putative mRNA targets of the miRNAs which were also supported by bioinformatics predictions. These top hits were validated experimentally and, finally, a kinetic model was developed to demonstrate the relationship between the miRNAs and mRNAs studied throughout the paper.

      I am convinced that the novel relationships reported here between miR-199a/b-5p and target genes FZD6, ITGA3 and CAV1 are likely to be genuine. It is important for researchers working on this system and related diseases to know all the miRNA/mRNA relationships but, as the authors have already published work studying the most dynamic miRNA (miR-140-5p) in this biological system I was not convinced that this study of the second miRNA in their list provided a conceptual advance on their previous work.

      I was also concerned with the lack of reporting of details of the manipulation experiments. The authors state that they have over-expressed miR-199a-5p (Figure 2A) and knocked down miR-199b-5p (Figure 2B) but they should have reported their proof that these experiments had worked as predicted, e.g. showing the qRT-PCR change in miRNA expression. Similarly, I was concerned that one miRNA was over-expressed while the other was knocked down - why did the authors not attempt to manipulate both miRNAs in both directions? Were they unable to achieve a significant change in miRNA expression or did these experiments not confirm the results reported in the manuscript?

      I had a number of issues with the way in which some of the data is presented. Table 1 only reported whether a specific pathway was significant or not for a given differential expression analysis but this concealed the extent of this enrichment or the level of statistical significance reported. Could it be redrawn to more similarly match the format of Figure 3A? The various shades of grey in Figure 2 and Figure 4 made it impossible to discriminate between treatments and therefore identify whether these data supported the conclusions made in the text. It also appeared that the same results were reported in Figure 3B and 3C and, indeed, Figure 3B was not referred to in the main text. Perhaps this figure could be made more concise by removing one of these two sets of panels?

      Overall, while I think that this is an interesting and valuable paper, I think its findings are relatively limited to those interested in the role of miRNAs in this specific biomedical context.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      PPARgamma is a nuclear receptor that binds to orthosteric ligands to coordinate transcriptional programs that are critical for adipocyte biogenesis and insulin sensitivity. Consequently, it is a critical therapeutic target for many diseases, but especially diabetes. The malleable nature and promiscuity of the PPARgamma orthosteric ligand binding pocket have confounded the development of improved therapeutic modulators. Covalent inhibitors have been developed but they show unanticipated mechanisms of action depending on which orthosteric ligands are present. In this work, Shang and Kojetin present a compelling and comprehensive structural, biochemical, and biophysical analysis that shows how covalent and noncovalent ligands can co-occupy the PPARgamma ligand binding pocket to elicit distinctive preferences of coactivator and corepressor proteins. Importantly, this work shows how the covalent inhibitors GW9662 and T0070907 may be unreliable tools as pan-PPARgamma inhibitors despite their widespread use.

      Strengths:

      - Highly detailed structure and functional analyses provide a comprehensive structure-based hypothesis for the relationship between PPARgamma ligand binding domain co-occupancy and allosteric mechanisms of action.<br /> - Multiple orthogonal approaches are used to provide high-resolution information on ligand binding poses and protein dynamics.<br /> - The large number of x-ray crystal structures solved for this manuscript should be applauded along with their rigorous validation and interpretation.

      Weaknesses

      - Inclusion of statistical analysis is missing in several places in the text.<br /> - Functional analysis beyond coregulator binding is needed.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      This is a fantastic, comprehensive, timely, and landmark pan-species work that demonstrates the convergence of multiple familial PD mutations onto a synaptic program. It is extremely well written and I have only a few comments that do not require additional data collection.

      Major Comments:

      (1) In the functional experiments performing calcium imaging on projection neurons I could not find a count of cell bodies across conditions. Since the loss of OPNs could explain the reduced calcium signal, this is a critical control to perform. A differential abundance test on the single-cell data would also suffice here and be easy for the authors to perform with their existing data.

      (2) One of the authors' conclusions is that cholinergic neurons and the olfactory system are acutely impacted by these PD mutations. However, I wonder if this is the case:<br /> a. Most Drosophila excitatory neurons are cholinergic and only a subpopulation appear to be dysregulated by these mutations. The authors point out that visual neurons also have many DEGs, couldn't the visual system also be dysregulated in these flies? Is there something special about these cholinergic neurons versus other cholinergic neurons in the fly brain? I wonder if they can leverage their nice dataset to say something about vulnerability.<br /> b. As far as I can tell, the cross-species analysis of DEGs (Figure 3) is agnostic to neuronal cell type, although the conclusion seems to suggest only cholinergic neurons were contrasted. Is this correct? Could you please clarify this in the text as it's an important detail. If not, Have the authors tried comparing only cholinergic neuron DEGs across species? That would lend strength to their specificity argument. The results for the NBM are impressive. Could the authors add more detail to the main text here about other regions to the main text?<br /> c. Uniquely within the human data, are cholinergic neurons more dysregulated than others? I understand this is not an early timepoint but would still be useful to discuss.<br /> d. In the discussion, the authors say that olfactory neurons are uniquely poised to be dysregulated as they are large and have high activity. Is this really true compared to other circuits? I didn't find the references convincing and I am not sure this has been borne out in electron microscopy reconstructions for anatomy.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This is an important and interesting study that uses the split-GFP approach. Localization of receptors and correlating them to function is important in understanding the circuit basis of behavior.

      Strengths:

      The split-GFP approach allows visualization of subcellular enrichment of dopamine receptors in the plasma membrane of GAL4-expressing neurons allowing for a high level of specificity.

      The authors resolve the presynaptic localization of DopR1 and Dop2R, in "giant" Drosophila neurons differentiated from cytokinesis-arrested neuroblasts in culture as it is not clear in the lobes and calyx.

      Starvation-induced opposite responses of dopamine receptor expression in the PPL1 and PAM DANs provide key insights into models of appetitive learning.

      Starvation-induced increase in D2R allows for increased negative feedback that the authors test in D2R knockout flies where appetitive memory is diminished.

      This dual autoreceptor system is an attractive model for how amplitude and kinetics of dopamine release can be fine-tuned and controlled depending on the cellular function and this paper presents a good methodology to do it and a good system where the dynamics of dopamine release can be tested at the level of behavior.

      Weaknesses:

      LI measurements of Kenyon cells and lobes indicate that Dop2R was approximately twice as enriched in the lobe as the average density across the whole neuron, while the lobe enrichment of Dop1R1 was about 1.5 times the average, are these levels consistent during different times of the day and the state of the animal. How were these conditions controlled and how sensitive are receptor expression to the time of day of dissection, staining, etc.

      The authors assume without discussion as to why and how presynaptic enrichment of these receptors is similar in giant neurons and MB.

      Figures 1-3 show the expensive expression of receptors in alpha and beta lobes while Figure 5 focusses on PAM and localization in γ and β' projections of PAM leading to the conclusion that pre-synaptic dopamine neurons express these and have feedback regulation. Consistency between lobes or discussion of these differences is important to consider.

      Receptor expression in any learning-related MBONs is not discussed, and it would be intriguing as how receptors are organized in those cells. Given that these PAMs input to both KCs and MBONs these will have to work in some coordination.

      Although authors use the D2R enhancement post starvation to show that knocking down receptors eliminated appetitive memory, the knocking out is affecting multiple neurons within this circuit including PAMs and KCs. How does that account for the observed effect? Are those not important for appetitive learning?

      The evidence for fine-tuning is completely based on receptor expression and one behavioral outcome which could result from many possibilities. It is not clear if this fine-tuning and presynaptic feedback regulation-based dopamine release is a clear possibility. Alternate hypotheses and outcomes could be considered in the model as it is not completely substantiated by data at least as presented.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The study made fundamental findings in investigations of the dynamic functional states during sleep. Twenty-one HMM states were revealed from the fMRI data, surpassing the number of EEG-defined sleep stages, which can define sub-states of N2 and REM. Importantly, these findings were reproducible over two nights, shedding new light on the dynamics of brain function during sleep.

      Strengths:

      The study provides the most compelling evidence on the sub-states of both REM and N2 sleep. Moreover, they showed these findings on dynamics states and their transitions were reproducible over two nights of sleep. These novel findings offered unique information in the field of sleep neuroimaging.

      Weaknesses:

      The only weakness of this study has been acknowledged by the authors: limited sample size.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This work studies representations in a network with one recurrent layer and one output layer that needs to path-integrate so that its position can be accurately decoded from its output. To formalise this problem, the authors define a cost function consisting of the decoding error and a regularisation term. They specify a decoding procedure that at a given time averages the output unit center locations, weighted by the activity of the unit at that time. The network is initialised without position information, and only receives a velocity signal (and a context signal to index the environment) at each timestep, so to achieve low decoding error it needs to infer its position and keep it updated with respect to its velocity by path integration.

      The authors take the trained network and let it explore a series of environments with different geometries while collecting unit activities to probe learned representations. They find localised responses in the output units (resembling place fields) and border responses in the recurrent units. Across environments, the output units show global remapping and the recurrent units show rate remapping. Stretching the environment generally produces stretched responses in output and recurrent units. Ratemaps remain stable within environments and stabilise after noise injection. Low-dimensional projections of the recurrent population activity forms environment-specific clusters that reflect the environment's geometry, which suggests independent rather than generalised representations. Finally, the authors discover that the centers of the output unit ratemaps cluster together on a triangular lattice (like the receptive fields of a single grid cell), and find significant clustering of place cell centers in empirical data as well.

      The model setup and simulations are clearly described, and are an interesting exploration of the consequences of a particular set of training requirements - here: path integration and decodability. But it is not obvious to what extent the modelling choices are a realistic reflection of how the brain solves navigation. Therefore it is not clear whether the results generalize beyond the specifics of the setup here.

      Strengths:

      The authors introduce a very minimal set of model requirements, assumptions, and constraints. In that sense, the model can function as a useful 'baseline', that shows how spatial representations and remapping properties can emerge from the requirement of path integration and decodability alone. Moreover, the authors use the same formalism to relate their setup to existing spatial navigation models, which is informative.

      The global remapping that the authors show is convincing and well-supported by their analyses. The geometric manipulations and the resulting stretching of place responses, without additional training, are interesting. They seem to suggest that the recurrent network may scale the velocity input by the environment dimensions so that the exact same path integrator-output mappings remain valid (but maybe there are other mechanisms too that achieve the same).

      The clustering of place cell peaks on a triangular lattice is intriguing, given there is no grid cell input. It could have something to do with the fact that a triangular lattice provides optimal coverage of 2d space? The included comparison with empirical data is valuable, although the authors only show significant clustering - there is no analysis of its grid-like regularity.

      Weaknesses:

      The navigation problem that needs to be solved by the model is a bit of an odd one. Without any initial position information, the network needs to figure out where it is, and then path-integrate with respect to a velocity signal. As the authors remark in Methods 4.2, without additional input, the only way to infer location is from border interactions. It is like navigating in absolute darkness. Therefore, it seems likely that the salient wall representations found in the recurrent units are just a consequence of the specific navigation task here; it is unclear if the same would apply in natural navigation. In natural navigation, there are many more sensory cues that help inferring location, most importantly vision, but also smell and whiskers/touch (which provides a more direct wall interaction; here, wall interactions are indirect by constraining velocity vectors). There is a similar but weaker concern about whether the (place cell like) localised firing fields of the output units are a direct consequence of the decoding procedure that only considers activity center locations.

      The conclusion that 'contexts are attractive' (heading of section 2) is not well-supported. The authors show 'attractor-like behaviour' within a single context, but there could be alternative explanations for the recovery of stable ratemaps after noise injection. For example, the noise injection could scramble the network's currently inferred position, so that it would need to re-infer its position from boundary interactions along the trajectory. In that case the stabilisation would be driven by the input, not just internal attractor dynamics. Moreover, the authors show that different contexts occupy different regions in the space of low-dimensional projections of recurrent activity, but not that these regions are attractive.

      The authors report empirical data that shows clustering of place cell centers like they find for their output units. They report that 'there appears to be a tendency for the clusters to arrange in hexagonal fashion, similar to our computational findings'. They only quantify the clustering, but not the arrangement. Moreover, in Figure 7e they only plot data from a single animal, then plot all other animals in the supplementary. Does the analysis of Fig 7f include all animals, or just the one for which the data is plotted in 7e? If so, why that animal? As Appendix C mentions that the ratemap for the plotted animal 'has a hexagonal resemblance' whereas other have 'no clear pattern in their center arrangements', it feels like cherrypicking to only analyse one animal without further justification.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors aimed to enhance the effectiveness of PARP inhibitors (PARPi) in treating high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) by inhibiting PRMT1/5 enzymes. They conducted a drug screen combining PARPi with 74 epigenetic modulators to identify promising combinations.

      Zhang et al. reported that protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) 1/5 inhibition acts synergistically to enhance the sensitivity of Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. The authors are the first to perform a drug screen by combining PARPi with 74 well-characterized epigenetic modulators that target five major classes of epigenetic enzymes. Their drug screen identified both PRMT1/5 inhibitors with high combination and clinical priority scores in PARPi treatment. Notably, PRMT1/5 inhibitors significantly enhance PARPi treatment-induced DNA damage in HR-proficient HGSOC and TNBC cells through enhanced maintenance of gene expression associated with DNA damage repair, BRCAness, and intrinsic innate immune pathways in cancer cells. Additionally, bioinformatic analysis of large-scale genomic and functional profiles from TCGA and DepMap further supports that PRMT1/5 are potential therapeutic targets in oncology, including HGSOC and TNBC. These results provide a strong rationale for the clinical application of a combination of PRMT and PARP inhibitors in patients with HR-proficient ovarian and breast cancer. Thus, this discovery has a high impact on developing novel therapeutic approaches to overcome resistance to PARPi in clinical cancer therapy. The data and presentation in this manuscript are straightforward and reliable.

      Strengths:

      (1) Innovative Approach: First to screen PARPi with a large panel of epigenetic modulators.<br /> (2) Significant Results: Found that PRMT1/5 inhibitors significantly boost PARPi effectiveness in HR-proficient HGSOC and TNBC cells.<br /> (3) Mechanistic Insights: Showed how PRMT1/5 inhibitors enhance DNA damage repair and immune pathways.<br /> (4) Robust Data: Supported by extensive bioinformatic analysis from large genomic databases.

      Weaknesses:

      (1) Novelty Clarification: Needs clearer comparison to existing studies showing similar effects.<br /> (2) Unclear Mechanisms: More investigation is needed on how MYC targets correlate with PRMT1/5.<br /> (3) Inconsistent Data: ERCC1 expression results varied across cell lines.<br /> (4) Limited Immune Study: Using immunodeficient mice does not fully explore immune responses.<br /> (5) Statistical Methods: Should use one-way ANOVA instead of a two-tailed Student's t-test for multiple comparisons.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Herneisen et al characterise the Toxoplasma PDK1 orthologue SPARK and an associated protein SPARKEL (cute name) in controlling important fate decisions in Toxoplasma. Over recent years this group and others have characterised the role of cAMP and cGMP signalling in negatively and positively regulating egress, motility and invasion, respectively. This manuscript furthers this work by showing that SPARK and SPARKEL likely act upstream, or at least control the levels of the cAMP and cGMP-dependent kinases PKA and PKG, respectively, thus controlling the transition of intracellular replicating parasites into extracellular motile forms (and back again).

      The authors use quantitative (phospho)proteomic techniques to elegantly demonstrate the upstream role of SPARK in controlling cAMP and cGMP pathways. They use sophisticated analysis techniques (at least for parasitology) to show the functional association between cGMP and cAMP signalling pathways. They therefore begin to unify our understanding of the complicated signalling pathways used by Toxoplasma to control key regulatory processes that control the activation and suppression of motility. The authors then use molecular and cellular assays on a range of generated transgenic lines to back up their observations made by quantitative proteomics that are clear in their design and approach.

      The authors then extend their work by showing that SPARK/SPARKEL also control PKAc3 function. PKAc3 has previously been shown to negatively regulate differentiation into bradyzoite forms and this work backs up and extends this finding to show that SPARK also controls this. The authors conclude that SPARK could act as a central node of regulation of the asexual stage, keeping parasites in their lytic cell growth and preventing differentiation. Whether this is true is beyond the scope of this paper and will have to be determined at a later date.

      Strengths:

      This is an exceptional body of work. It is elegantly performed, with state-of-the-art proteomic methodologies carefully being applied to Toxoplasma. Observations from the proteomic datasets are masterfully backed up with validation using quantitative molecular and cellular biology assays.

      The paper is carefully and concisely written and is not overreaching in its conclusions. This work and its analysis set a new benchmark for the use of proteomics and molecular genetics in apicomplexan parasites.

      Weaknesses:

      There are no weaknesses in this paper.

    1. Joint Public Review:

      Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive pediatric cancer driven by the EWS-FLI oncogene. Ewing sarcoma cells are addicted to this chimeric transcription factor, which represents a strong therapeutic vulnerability. Unfortunately, targeting EWS-FLI has proven to be very difficult and better understanding how this chimeric transcription factor works is critical to achieving this goal. Towards this perspective, the group had previously identified a DBD-𝛼4 helix (DBD) in FLI that appears to be necessary to mediate EWS-FLI transcriptomic activity. Here, the authors used multi-omic approaches, including CUT&tag, RNAseq, and MicroC to investigate the impact of this DBD domain. Importantly, these experiments were performed in the A673 Ewing sarcoma model where endogenous EWS-FLI was silenced, and EWS-FLI-DBD proficient or deficient isoforms were re-expressed (isogenic context). The authors found that the DBD domain is key to mediate EWS-FLI cis activity (at msat) and to generate the formation of specific TADs. Furthermore, cells expressing DBD deficient EWS-FLI display very poor colony forming capacity, highlighting that targeting this domain may lead to therapeutic perspectives.

      This new version of the study comprises as requested new data from an additional cell line. The new data has strengthened the manuscript. Nevertheless, some of the arguments of the authors pertaining to the limitations of immunoblots to assess stability of the DBD constructs or the poor reproducibility of the Micro C data remain problematic. While the effort to repeat MicroC in a different cell line is appreciated, the data are as heterogeneous as those in A673 and no real conclusion can be drawn. The authors should tone down their conclusions. If DBD has a strong effect on chromatin organization, it should be reproducible and detectable. The transcriptomic and cut and tag data are more consistent and provide robust evidence for their findings at these levels.

      Concerning the issue of stability of the DBD and DBD+ constructs, a simple protein half-life assay (e.g. cycloheximide chase assay) could rule out any bias here and satisfactorily address the issue.

      Suggestions:

      The Reviewing Editor and a referee have considered the revised version and the responses of the referees. While the additional data included in the new version has consolidated many conclusions of the study, the MicroC data in the new cell line are also heterogeneous and as the authors argue, this may be an inherent limitation of the technique. In this situation, the best would be for the authors to avoid drawing robust conclusions from this data and to acknowledge its current limitations.

      The referee and Reviewing Editor also felt that the arguments of the authors concerning a lack of firm conclusions on the stability of EWS-FLI1 under +/-DBD conditions could be better addressed. We would urge the authors to perform a cycloheximide chase type assay to assess protein half-life. These types of experiments are relatively simple to perform and should address this issue in a satisfactory manner.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this manuscript entitled "Association with TFIIIC limits MYCN accumulation in hubs of active promoters and chromatin accumulation of non-phosphorylated RNA polymerase II" the authors examine how the cohesin complex component (and RNA pol III associated factor) TFIIIC interacts with MYCN and controls transcription. They confirm that TFIIIC co-purifies with MYCN, dependent on its amino terminus, as shown in previous work. The authors also find that TFIIIC and MYCN are both found in promoter hubs and suggest that TFIIIC inhibits MYCN association with these hubs. Finally, the authors indicate that TFIIIC/MYCN alter exosome function, and BRCA1 dependent effects, at MYCN regulated loci.

      In the revised manuscript the authors have adequately addressed or responded to our questions and comments. The exception concerns point #2 in our initial review:

      (2) The authors indicate in Figure 2 that TF3C has essentially no effect on MYCN- dependent gene expression and/or transcription elongation. Yet a previous study (PMID: 29262328) associated with several of the same authors concluded that TF3C positively affects transcription elongation. The authors to not attempt to reconcile these disparate results and the point still needs to clarified.

      Authors' Response<br /> We agree that the data in this manuscript do not support the role on transcription elongation. This point was also raised by Reviewer 3. Comparing our new results to the data published previously we can summarize that the data sets in the two studies show three key results: First, the traveling ratio of RNAPII changes upon induction of MYCN. Second, RNAPII decreases at the transcription start side and third, it increases towards the end side.

      We agree that in the previous study we linked the traveling ratio directly to elongation. However performing ChIP-seq with different RNAPII antibodies showed us that for example RNAPII (N20), which is unfortunately discontinued, gives different results compared to RNAPII (A10). Combining our new results using the RNAPII (8WG16) antibody shows that the traveling ratio is not only reflecting transcription elongation but also includes that the RNAPII is kicked-off chromatin at the start side.

      Reviewer revised response:<br /> The explanation for the change in interpretation of the previous study (Buchel, et. al., 2017) in light of the differing results using different RNA pol2 antibodies used in the present study seems reasonable. However the final manuscript may well result in some confusion in the literature in regards to TF3C and elongation. This is because, while the authors refer to the earlier paper frequently, they do not directly discuss the re-interpretation of the elongation conclusion of the earlier paper. It seems likely that a reader of the present paper will find this issue confusing when trying to reconcile the results of the two papers.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This is a nice paper taking a broad range of aspects and endpoints into account. The effect of GAHT in girls has been nicely worked out. Changes in Sertoli and peritubular cells appear valid, less strong evidence is provided for Leydig cell development. The recovery of SSCs appears an overjudgement and should be rephrased. The multitude and diversity of datasets appear a strength and a weakness as some datasets were not sufficiently critically reviewed and a selection of highlights provides a certain bias to the interpretation and conclusion of the study.

      The authors need to indicate that the subset of data on SSCs has been reported previously (Human Reprod 36: 5-15 (2021) and is simply re-incorporated in the present paper. as Fig. 1C. There are sufficient new results to publish the remaining datasets as a separate paper. Authors could refer to the SSC data with reference to the previous publication.

      Strengths:

      The patient cohort is impressive and is nicely characterized. Here, histological endpoints and endocrine profiles were analyzed appropriately for most endpoints. The paper is well-written and has many new findings.

      Weaknesses:

      The patients and controls are poorly separated in regard to pubertal status. Here additional endpoints (e.g. Tanner status) would have been helpful especially as the individual patient history is unknown. Pre- and peri-puberty is a very rough differentiation. The characterization and evaluation of Leydig cells is the weakest histological endpoint. Here, additional markers may be required. Fig. 1 suffers from suboptimal micrograph quality.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this study, Gholamalamdari et al. described various aspects of genome organization in relation to nuclear speckles, the nuclear lamina, and nucleoli. Their findings were drawn from the analysis of genomic data sourced from four distinct human cell types. The authors observed significant variation in genome positioning at the lamina and nucleoli across different cell types, whereas contacts with nuclear speckles showed less variability. The data revealed a correlation between gene expression levels and proximity to nuclear speckles, with regions in contact with these speckles coinciding with DNA replication initiation zones. Additionally, the results indicated that the loss of Lamin A and LBR leads to a redistribution of H3K9me3-enriched LADs from the lamina to the nucleolus. Furthermore, a portion of H3K27me3-enriched, partially repressed intergenic LADs (iLADs) was observed to relocate from the nucleolus to the lamina. The study also proposed that these repressed iLADs may compete with LADs for attachment to the nuclear lamina.

      Strengths:

      The datasets have been thoroughly integrated and exhibit various features of genomic domains interacting with nuclear speckles, the nuclear lamina, and nucleoli, which will be of interest to the field.

      Weaknesses:

      The weakness of this study lies in the fact that many of the genomic datasets originated from novel methods that were not validated with orthogonal approaches, such as DNA-FISH. Therefore, the detailed correlations described in this work are based on methodologies whose efficacy is not clearly established. Specifically, the authors utilized two modified protocols of TSA-seq for the detection of NADs (MKI67IP TSA-seq) and LADs (LMNB1-TSA-seq). Although these methods have been described in a bioRxiv manuscript by Kumar et al., they have not yet been published. Moreover, and surprisingly, Kumar et al., work is not cited in the current manuscript, despite its use of all TSA-seq data for NADs and LADs across the four cell lines. Moreover, Kumar et al. did not provide any DNA-FISH validation for their methods. Therefore, the interesting correlations described in this work are not based on robust technologies.<br /> An attempt to validate the data was made for SON-TSA-seq of human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF) using multiplexed FISH data from IMR90 fibroblasts (from the lung) by the Zhuang lab (Su et al., 2020). However, the comparability of these datasets is questionable. It might have been more reasonable for the authors to conduct their analyses in IMR90 cells, thereby allowing them to utilize MERFISH data for validating the TSA-seq method and also for mapping NADs and LADs.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this study from Belato, Knight, and co-workers, the authors investigated the Rec domain of a thermophilic Cas9 from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (GeoCas9). The authors investigated three constructs, two individual subdomains of Rec (Rec1 and Rec2) and the full Rec domain. This domain is involved in binding to the guide RNA of Cas9, as well as the RNA-DNA duplex that is formed upon target binding. The authors performed RNA binding and relaxation experiments using NMR for the wild-type domain as well as two-point mutants. They observed differences in RNA binding activities as well as the flexibility of the domain. The authors also performed experiments on full-length GeoCas9 to determine whether these biophysical differences affect the RNA binding or cleavage activity. Although the authors observed some changes in the thermal stability of the mutant GeoCas9-gRNA complex, they did not observe substantial differences in the cleavage activities of the mutant GeoCas9 variants.

      Overall, this manuscript provides a detailed biophysical analysis of the GeoCas9 Rec domain. The NMR assignments for this construct should prove very useful, and the results may provide the grounds for future engineering of higher fidelity variants of GeoCas9. While the NMR results are generally well presented, it is unclear how the results on the isolated Rec domain related to the overall function of full-length GeoCas9. In addition, some conclusions are overstated and not fully supported by the evidence provided. The following major points should be addressed by the authors.

      (1) Many of the results rely on the backbone resonance assignments of the three constructs that were used, and the authors have done an excellent job of assigning the Rec1 and Rec2 constructs. However, it is unclear from the descriptions in the text how the full-length Rec construct was assigned. Were these assignments made based on assignments for the individual domains? The authors state that the spectra of individual domains and RecFL overlay very well, but there appear to be many resonances that have chemical shift differences or are only present in one construct. As it stands, it is unclear how the resonances were assigned for residues whose chemical shifts were perturbed, making it difficult to interpret many of the results.

      (2) The minimal gRNA that was used for the Rec-gRNA binding experiments is unlikely to be a good mimic for the full-length gRNA, as it lacks any of the secondary structure that is most specifically recognized by the REC lobe and the rest of the Cas9 protein. The majority of this RNA is a "spacer" sequence, but spacers are variable, so this sequence is arbitrary. Thus, the interactions that the authors are observing most likely represent non-specific interactions between the Rec domains and RNA. The authors also map chemical shift perturbations and line broadening on structural models with an RNA-DNA duplex bound, but this is not an accurate model for how the Rec domain binds to a single-stranded RNA (for which there is no structural model). Thus, many of the conclusions regarding the RNA binding interface are overstated.

      (3) The authors include microscale thermophoresis (MST) data for the Rec constructs binding to the minimal gRNA. These data suggest that all three Rec variants have very similar Kd's for the RNA. Given these similarities, it is unclear why the RNA titration experiments by NMR yielded such different results. Moreover, in the Discussion, the authors state that the NMR titration data are consistent with the MST-derived Kd values. This conclusion appears to be overstated given the very small differences in affinities measured by MST.

      (4) While the authors have performed some experiments to help place their findings on the isolated Rec domain in the context of the full-length protein, these experiments do not fully support the conclusions that the authors draw about the meaning of their NMR results. The two Cas9 variants that were explored via NMR have no effect on Cas9 cleavage activity, and it is unclear from the data provided whether they have any effect on GeoCas9 binding to the full sgRNA. This makes it difficult to determine whether the observed differences in RNA binding and dynamics of the isolated Rec domain have any consequence in the context of the full protein.

      (5) The authors state in multiple places that the K267E/R332A mutant enhanced GeoCas9 specificity. Improved specificity refers to a situation in which the efficiency of cleavage of a perfectly matched target improves in comparison to a mismatched target. This is not what the authors observed for the double mutant. Instead, the cleavage of the perfect target was drastically reduced, in some cases to a larger degree than for the mismatched target. The double mutant does not appear to have improved specificity, it has simply decreased cleavage efficiency of the enzyme.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors generated a DNA methylation score in cord blood for detecting exposure to cigarette smoke during pregnancy. They then asked if it could be used to predict height, weight, BMI, adiposity and WHR throughout early childhood.

      Strengths:

      The study included two cohorts of European ancestry and one of South Asian ancestry.

      Weaknesses:

      (1) Numbers of mothers who self-reported any smoking was very low likely resulting in underpowered analyses.

      (2) Although it was likely that some mothers were exposed to second-hand smoke and/or pollution, data on this was not available.

      (3) One of the European cohorts and half of the South Asian cohort had DNA methylation measured on only 2500 CpG sites including only 125 sites previously linked to prenatal smoking.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors use fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) and tmFRET to resolve resting vs. active conformational heterogeneity and free energy differences driven by cGMP and cAMP in a tetrameric arrangement of CNBDs from a prokaryotic CNG channel.

      Strengths:

      The excellent data provide detailed measures of the probability of adopting resting vs. activated conformations with and without bound ligands.

      Weaknesses:

      Limitations are that only the cytosolic fragments of the channel were studied, and the current manuscript does not do a good job of placing the results in the context of what is already known about CNBDs from other methods that yield similar information.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Experiments in model organisms have revealed that the effects of genes on heritable traits are often mediated by environmental factors---so-called gene-by-environment (or GxE) interactions. In human genetics, however, where indirect statistical approaches must be taken to detect GxE, limited evidence has been found for pervasive GxE interactions. The present manuscript argues that the failure of statistical methods to detect GxE may be due to how GxE is modelled (or not modelled) by these methods.

      The authors show, via re-analysis of an existing dataset in Drosophila, that a polygenic 'amplification' model can parsimoniously explain patterns of differential genetic effects across environments. (Work from the same lab had previously shown that the amplification model is consistent with differential genetic effects across the sexes for several traits in humans.) The parsimony of the amplification model allows for powerful detection of GxE in scenarios in which it pertains, as the authors show via simulation.

      Before the authors consider polygenic models of GxE, however, they present a very clear analysis of a related question around GxE: When one wants to estimate the effect of an individual allele in a particular environment, when is it better to stratify one's sample by environment (reducing sample size, and therefore increasing the variance of the estimator) versus using the entire sample (including individuals not in the environment of interest, and therefore biasing the estimator away from the true effect specific to the environment of interest)? Intuitively, the sample-size cost of stratification is worth paying if true allelic effects differ substantially between the environment of interest and other environments (i.e., GxE interactions are large), but not worth paying if effects are similar across environments. The authors quantify this trade-off in a way that is both mathematically precise and conveys the above intuition very clearly. They argue on its basis that, when allelic effects are small (as in highly polygenic traits), single-locus tests for GxE may be substantially underpowered.

      The paper is an important further demonstration of the plausibility of the amplification model of GxE, which, given its parsimony, holds substantial promise for the detection and characterization of GxE in genomic datasets. However, the empirical and simulation examples considered in the paper (and previous work from the same lab) are somewhat "best-case" scenarios for the amplification model, with only two environments, and with these environments amplifying equally the effects of only a single set of genes. It would be an important step forward to demonstrate the possibility of detecting amplification in more complex scenarios, with multiple environments each differentially modulating the effects of multiple sets of genes. This could be achieved via simulations similar to those presented in the current manuscript.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Tu et al investigated how LFPs recorded simultaneously with rsfMRI explain the spatiotemporal patterns of functional connectivity in sedated and awake rats. They find that connectivity maps generated from gamma band LFPs (from either area) explain very well the spatial correlations observed in rsfMRI signals, but that the temporal variance in rsfMRI data is more poorly explained by the same LFP signals. The authors excluded the effects of sedation in this effect by investigating rats in the awake state (a remarkable feat in the MRI scanner), where the findings generally replicate. The authors also performed a series of tests to assess multiple factors (including noise, outliers, etc., and nonlinearity of the data...) in their analysis.

      This apparent paradox is then explained by a hypothetical model in which LFPs and neurovascular coupling are generated in some sense "in parallel" by different neuron types, some of which drive LFPs and are measured by ePhys, while others (nNOS, etc.) have an important role in neurovascular coupling but are less visible in Ephys data. Hence the discrepancy is explained by the spatial similarity of neural activity but the more "selective" LFPs picked up by Ephys account for the different temporal aspects observed.

      This is a deep, outstanding study that harnesses multidisciplinary approaches (fMRI and ephys) for observing brain activity. The results are strongly supported by the comprehensive analyses done by the authors, that ruled out many potential sources for the observed findings. The study's impact is expected to be very large.

      There are very few weaknesses in the work, but I'd point out that the 1-second temporal resolution may have masked significant temporal correlations between LFPs and spontaneous activity, for instance, as shown by Cabral et al Nature Communications 2023, and even in earlier QPP work from the Keilholz Lab. The synchronization of the LFPs may correlate more with one of these modes than the total signal. Perhaps a kind of "dynamic connectivity" analysis on the authors' data could test whether LFPs correlate better with the activity at specific intervals. However this could purely be discussed and left for future work, in my opinion.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary

      In their manuscript, Ho and colleagues investigate the importance of thymic-imprinted self-reactivity in determining CD8 T cell pathogenicity in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. The authors describe pre-existing functional biases associated with naive CD8 T cell self-reactivity based on CD5 levels, a well-characterized proxy for T cell affinity to self-peptide. They find that naive CD5hi CD8 T cells are poised to respond to antigen challenge; these findings are largely consistent with previously published data on the B6 background. The authors go on to suggest that CD5hi CD8 T cells are more diabetogenic as 1) the CD5hi naive CD8 T cell receptor repertoire has features associated with autoreactivity and contains a larger population of islet-specific T cells, and 2) the autoreactivity of "CD5hi" monoclonal islet-specific TCR transgenic T cells cannot be controlled by phosphatase over-expression. Thus, they implicate CD8 T cells with relatively higher levels of basal self-reactivity in autoimmunity. However, the interpretation of some of the presented data is questioned and compromises some of the conclusions at this stage. A clearer explanation of the data and experimental methods as well as increased rigor in presentation is suggested.

      Specific comments

      (1) Figures 1 through 4 contain data that largely recapitulate published findings (Fulton et al., Nat. Immunol, 2015; Lee et al, Nat. Comm., 2024; Swee et al, Open Biol, 2016; Dong et al, Immunology & Cell Biology, 2021); it is noted that there is value in confirming phenotypic differences between naive CD5lo and CD5hi CD8 T cells in the NOD background. It is important to contextualize the data while being wary of making parallels with results obtained from CD5lo and CD5hi CD4 T cells. There should also be additional attention paid to the wording in the text describing the data (e.g, the authors assert that, in Figure 4C, the "CD5hi group exhibited higher percentages of CD8+ T cells producing TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-2" though there is no difference in IL-2 nor consistent differences in TNF-α between the CD5lo and CD5hi populations).

      (2) The comparison of a marker of self-reactivity, CD5 in this case, on broad thymocyte populations (DN/DP/CD8SP) is cautioned (Figure 5). CD5 is upregulated with signals associated with b-selection and positive selection; CD5 levels will thus vary even among subsets within these broad developmental intermediates. This is a particularly important consideration when comparing CD5 across thymic intermediates in polyclonal versus TCR transgenic thymocytes due to the striking differences in thymic selection efficiency, resulting in different developmental population profiles. The higher levels of CD5 noted in the DN population of NOD8.3 mice, for example, is likely due to the shift towards more mature DN4 post-b-selection cells (Figure 5E, Supplementary Figure 3A). Similarly, in the DP population, the larger population of post-positive selection cells in the NOD8.3 transgenic thymus may also skew CD5 levels significantly (Figure 5F, Supplementary Figure 3A). Overall, the reported differences between NOD and NOD8.3 thymocyte subsets could be due largely to differences in differentiation/maturation stage rather than affinity for self-antigen during T cell development. The lack of differences in CD5 levels of CD8 SP thymocytes (Fig. 5B) and CD8 T cells in the pancreas draining lymph nodes (Fig. 6B) from NOD vs NOD8.3 mice also raises questions about the relevance of this model to address the question of basal self-reactivity and diabetogenicity; the phenotype of the CD8 T cells that were analyzed in the pancreas draining lymph nodes is not clear (i.e., are these gated on naive T cells?). Furthermore, the rationale for the comparison with NOD-BDC2.5 mice that carry an MHC II-restricted TCR is unclear.

      (3) In reference to the conclusion that transgenic Pep phosphatase does not inhibit the diabetogenic potential of "CD5hi" CD8 T cells, there is some concern that comparing diabetes development in mice receiving polyclonal versus TCR transgenic T cells specific for an islet antigen is not appropriate. The increased frequency and number of antigen-specific T cells in the NOD8.3 mice may be responsible for some of the observed differences. Further justification for the comparison is suggested.

      (4) There is an interesting observation that TCR sequences from the CD5hi CD8 T cells may share some characteristics with diabetogenic T cells found in patients (e.g., CDR3 length) and that IGFP-specific T cells may be preferentially found within the CD5hi naive CD8 T cell population. However, there are questions about the reproducibility of the TCR sequencing data given the low number of replicates and sampling size. In particular, the TRAV, TRAJ, TRBV, and TRBJ frequency is variable across sequencing runs. Is this data truly representative of the overall TCR repertoire of CD5hi vs CD5lo CD8 T cells?

      (5) For clarity and transparency, please consider:<br /> ● Naïve T cell gating/sorting is not always clear.<br /> ● Additional controls should be considered for tetramer and cytokine stains/gating, in particular.<br /> ● The reporting of the percentage of cells expressing a certain marker (e.g., activation marker) and gMFI of this marker is often used interchangeably. Reporting gMFI is most appropriate for unimodal populations (normal distribution), but some of the populations for which gMFI is reported are bimodal (e.g., DN CD5 in Supplementary Figure 3D, etc.). The figure legends throughout the paper do not clearly explain the gating strategy when reporting gMFI. When reporting frequency, the reference population is often unclear (% of parent population, % of naive CD8 T cells, etc.).<br /> ● Several items are missing or incorrectly described in the methods section; for example:<br /> --EdU incorporation assay presented in Supplementary Figure 4.<br /> --Construction of the Overlapped Count Matrix in Figure 7G.<br /> --Clonality, Pielou's evenness, richness, and medium metrics, although reported in the methods, are not shown in any of the figures as far as noted.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors aimed to elucidate the cytological mechanisms by which conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) influence intramuscular fat deposition and muscle fiber transformation in pig models. Utilizing single-nucleus RNA sequencing (snRNA-seq), the study explores how CLA supplementation alters cell populations, muscle fiber types, and adipocyte differentiation pathways in pig skeletal muscles.

      Strengths:

      Innovative approach: The use of snRNA-seq provides a high-resolution insight into the cellular heterogeneity of pig skeletal muscle, enhancing our understanding of the intricate cellular dynamics influenced by nutritional regulation strategy.

      Robust validation: The study utilizes multiple pig models, including Heigai and Laiwu pigs, to validate the differentiation trajectories of adipocytes and the effects of CLA on muscle fiber type transformation. The reproducibility of these findings across different (nutritional vs genetic) models enhances the reliability of the results.

      Advanced data analysis: The integration of pseudotemporal trajectory analysis and cell-cell communication analysis allows for a comprehensive understanding of the functional implications of the cellular changes observed.

      Practical relevance: The findings have significant implications for improving meat quality, which is valuable for both the agricultural and food industry.

      Weaknesses:

      Model generalizability: While pigs are excellent models for human physiology, the translation of these findings to human health, especially in diverse populations, needs careful consideration.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The study investigates the impact of Clonal Hematopoiesis of Indeterminate Potential (CHIP) on Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor (ICI) therapy outcomes in NSCLC patients, analyzing blood samples from 100 patients pre- and post-ICI therapy for CHIP, and conducting single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of PBMCs in 63 samples, with validation in 180 more patients through whole exome sequencing. Findings show no significant CHIP influence on ICI response, but a higher CHIP prevalence in NSCLC compared to controls, and a notable CHIP burden in squamous cell carcinoma. Severely affected CHIP groups showed NF-kB pathway gene enrichment in myeloid clusters.

      Strengths:

      The study is commendable for analyzing a significant cohort of 100 patients for CHIP and utilizing scRNA-seq on 63 samples, showcasing the use of cutting-edge technology.

      The study tackles the vital clinical question of predicting ICI therapy outcomes in NSCLC.

      Weaknesses:

      The manuscript's comparison of CHIP prevalence between NSCLC patients and healthy controls could be strengthened by providing more detailed information on the control group. Specifically, details such as sex, smoking status, and comorbidities are needed to ensure the differences in CHIP are attributable to lung cancer rather than other factors. Including these details, along with a comparative analysis of demographics and comorbidities between both groups and clarifying how the control group was selected, would enhance the study's credibility and conclusions.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This research article by Nath et al. from the Lee Lab addresses how lipolysis under starvation is achieved by a transient receptor potential channel, TRPγ, in the neuroendocrine neurons to help animals survive prolonged starvation. Through a series of genetic analyses, the authors identify that TRPγ mutations specifically lead to a failure in lipolytic processes under starvation, thereby reducing animals' starvation resistance. The conclusion was confirmed through total triacylglycerol levels in the animals and lipid droplet staining in the fat bodies. This study highlights the importance of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in the fly brain to modulate energy homeostasis and combat metabolic stress. While the data is compelling and the message is easy to follow, several aspects require further clarification to improve the interpretation of the research and its visibility in the field.

      Strengths:

      This study identifies the biological meaning of TRPγ in promoting lipolysis during starvation, advancing our knowledge about TRP channels and the neural mechanisms to combat metabolic stress. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the potential of the TRP channel as a target to develop new therapeutic strategies for human metabolic disorders by showing that metformin and AMPK pathways are involved in its function in lipid metabolisms during starvation in Drosophila.

      Weaknesses:

      Some key results that might strengthen their conclusions were left out for discussion or careful explanation (see below). If the authors could improve the writing to address their findings and connect their findings with conclusions, the research would be much more appreciated and have a higher impact in the field.

      Here, I listed the major issues and suggestions for the authors to improve their manuscript:

      (1) Are the increased lipid droplet size and the upregulated total TAG level measured in the starved or sated mutant in Figure 1? This information might be crucial for readers to understand the physiological function of TRP in lipid metabolism. In other words, clarifying whether the upregulated lipid storage is observed only in the starved trp mutant will advance our knowledge of TRPγ. If the increase of total TAG level is only observed in the starved animals, TRP in the Dh44 neurons might serve as a sensor for the starvation state required to promote lipolysis in starvation conditions. On the other hand, if the total TAG level increases in both starved and sated animals, activation of Dh44 through TRPγ might be involved in the lipid metabolism process after food ingestion.

      (2) It is unclear how AMPK activation in Dh44 neurons reduces the total triacylglycerol (TAG) levels in the animals (Figure 3G). As AMPK is activated in response to metabolic stress, the result in Figure 3G might suggest that Dh44 neurons sense metabolic stress through AMPK activation to promote lipolysis in other tissues. Do Dh44 neurons become more active during starvation? Is activation of Dh44 neurons sufficient to activate AMPK in the Dh44 neurons without starvation? Is activation of AMPK in the Dh44 neurons required for Dh44 release and lipolysis during starvation? These answers would provide more insights into the conclusion in Lines 192-193.

      (3) It is unclear how the lipolytic gene brummer is further downregulated in the trpγ mutant during starvation while brummer is upregulated in the control group (Figure 6A). This result implies that the trpγ mutant was able to sense the starvation state but responded abnormally by inhibiting the lipolytic process rather than promoting lipolysis, which makes it more susceptible to starvation (Figure 3B).

      (4) There is an inconsistency of total TAG levels and the lipid droplet size observed in the Dh44 mutant but not in the Dh44-R2 mutant (Figures 7A and 7F). This inconsistency raises a possibility that the signaling pathway from Dh44 release to its receptor Dh44-R2 only accounts for part of the lipid metabolic process under starvation. Adding discussion to address this inconsistency may be helpful for readers to appreciate the finding.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      This work from Cui, Pan, Fan, et al explores memory impairment in chronic pain mouse models, a topic of great interest in the neurobiology field. In particular, the work starts from a very interesting observation, that WT mice can be divided into susceptible and unsusceptible to memory impairment upon modelling chronic pain with CCI. This observation represents the basis of the work where the authors identify the sphingosine receptor S1PR1 as down-regulated in the dentate gyrus of susceptible animals and demonstrate through an elegant range of experiments involving AAV-mediated knockdown or overexpression of S1PR1 that this receptor is involved in the memory impairment observed with chronic pain. Importantly for translational purposes, they also show that activation of S1PR1 through a pharmacological paradigm is able to rescue the memory impairment phenotype.

      The authors also link these defects to reduced dendritic branching and a reduced number of mature excitatory synapses in the DG to the memory phenotype.

      They then proceed to explore possible mechanisms downstream of S1PR1 that could explain this reduction in dendritic spines. They identify integrin α2 as an interactor of S1PR1 and show a reduction in several proteins involved in actin dynamic, which is crucial for dendritic spine formation and plasticity.

      They thus hypothesize that the interaction between S1PR1 and Integrin α2 is fundamental for the activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 and consequently for the polymerisation of actin; a reduction in this pathway upon chronic pain would thus lead to impaired actin polymerisation, synapse formation, and thus impaired memory.

      The work is of great interest and the experiments are of very good quality with results of great importance. I have however some concerns. The main concern I have relates to the last part of the work, namely Figures 8 and 9, which I feel are not at the same level as the results presented in the previous 7 Figures, which are instead outstanding.

      In particular:

      - In Figure 8, given the reduction in all the proteins tested, the authors need to check some additional proteins as controls. One good candidate could be RhoA, considering the authors say it is activated by S1PR2 and not by S1PR1;

      - In addition to the previous point, could the authors also show that the number of neurons is not grossly different between susceptible and unsusceptible mice? This could be done by simply staining for NeuN or performing a western blot for a neuronal-specific protein (e.g. Map2 or beta3-tubulin);

      - In Figure 8, the authors should also evaluate the levels of activated RAC1 and activated Cdc42, which are much more important than just basal levels of the proteins to infer an effect on actin dynamics. This is possible through kits that use specific adaptors to pulldown GTP-Rac1 and GTP-Cdc42;

      - In Figure 9C, the experiment is performed in an immortalised cell line. I feel this needs to be performed at least in primary hippocampal neurons;

      - In Figure 9D, the authors use a Yeast two-hybrid system to demonstrate the interaction between S1PR1 and Integrin α2. However, as the yeast two-hybrid system is based on the proximity of the GAL4 activating domain and the GAL4 binding domain, which are used to activate the transcription of reporter genes, the system is not often used when probing the interaction between transmembrane proteins. Could the authors use other transmembrane proteins as negative controls?;

      - In Figure 9E, the immunoblot is very unconvincing. The bands in the inputs are very weak for both ITGA2 and S1PR1, the authors do not show the enrichment of S1PR1 upon its immunoprecipitation and the band for ITGA2 in the IP fraction has a weird appearance. Were these experiments performed on DG lysates only? If so, I suggest the authors repeat the experiment using the whole brain (or at least the whole hippocampus) so as to have more starting material. Alternatively, if this doesn't work, or in addition, they could also perform the immunoprecipitation in heterologous cells overexpressing the two proteins;

      - About the point above, even if the results were convincing, the authors can't say that they demonstrate an interaction in vivo. In co-IP experiments, the interaction is much more likely to occur in the lysate during the incubation period rather than being conserved from the in vivo state. These co-IPs demonstrate the ability of proteins to interact, not necessarily that they do it in vivo. If the authors wanted to demonstrate this, they could perform a Proximity ligation assay in primary hippocampal neurons, using antibodies against S1PR1 and ITGA2.

      - In Figure 9H, could the authors increase the N to see if shItga2 causes further KD in the CCI?

      - To conclusively demonstrate that S1PR1 and ITGA2 participate in the same pathway, they could show that knocking down the two proteins at the same time does not have additive effects on behavioral tests compared to the knockdown of each one of them in isolation.

      Other major concerns:

      - Supplementary Figure 5: the image showing colocalisation between S1PR1 and CamKII is not very convincing. Is the S1PR1 antibody validated on Knockout or knockdown in immunostaining?;

      - It would be interesting to check S1PR2 levels as a control in CCI-chronic animals;

      - Figure 1: I am a bit concerned about the Ns in these experiments. In the chronic pain experiments, the N for Sham is around 8 whereas is around 20 for CCI animals. Although I understand higher numbers are necessary to see the susceptible and unsusceptible populations, I feel that then the same number of Sham animals should be used;

      - Figures 1E and 1G have much higher Ns than the other panels. Why is that? If they have performed this high number of animals why not show them in all panels?;

      - In the experiments where viral injection is performed, the authors should show a zoomed-out image of the brain to show the precision of the injection and how spread the expression of the different viruses was;

      - The authors should check if there is brain inflammation in CCI chronic animals. This would be interesting to explain if this could be the trigger for the effects seen in neurons. In particular, the authors should check astrocytes and microglia. This is of interest also because the pathways altered in Figure 8A are related to viral infection;

      - If the previous point shows increased brain inflammation, it would be interesting for the authors to check whether a prolonged anti-inflammatory treatment in CCI animals administered before the insurgence of memory impairment could stop it from happening;

      - In addition, the authors should speculate on what could be the signal that can induce these molecular changes starting from the site of injury;

      - Also, as the animals are all WT, the authors should speculate on what could render some animals prone to have memory impairments and others resistant.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      The paper proposes an interesting perspective on the spatio-temporal relationship between FC in fMRI and electrophysiology. The study found that while similar network configurations are found in both modalities, there is a tendency for the networks to spatially converge more commonly at synchronous than asynchronous time points. However, my confidence in the findings and their interpretation is undermined by an apparent lack of justification for the expected outcomes for each of the proposed scenarios, and in the analysis pipeline itself.

      Main Concerns

      (1) Figure 1 makes sense to me conceptually, including the schematics of the trajectories, i.e.<br /> Scenario 1: Temporally convergent, same trajectories through connectome state space<br /> Scenario 2: Temporally divergent, different trajectories through connectome state space

      However, based on my understanding I am concerned that these scenarios do not necessarily translate into the schematic CRP plots shown in Figure 2C, or the statements in the main text:

      For Scenario 1: "epochs of cross-modal spatial similarity should occur more frequently at on-diagonal (synchronous) than off-diagonal (asynchronous) entries, resulting in an on-/off-diagonal ratio larger than unity"<br /> For Scenario 2: "epochs of spatial similarity could occur equally likely at on-diagonal and off-diagonal entries (ratio≈1)"

      Where do the authors get these statements and the schematics in Figure 2C from? Are they based on previous literature, theory, or simulations?<br /> I am not convinced based on the evidence currently in the paper, that the ratio of off- to on-diagonal entries (and under what assumptions) is a definitive way to discriminate between scenarios 1 and 2.

      For example, what about the case where the same network configuration reoccurs in both modalities at multiple time points? It seems to me that one would get a CRP with entries occurring equally on the on-diagonal as on the off-diagonal, regardless of whether the dynamics are matched between the two modalities or not (i.e. regardless of scenario 1 or 2 being true).

      This thought experiment example might have a flaw in it, and the authors might ultimately be correct, but nonetheless, a systematic justification needs to be provided for using the ratio of off- to on-diagonal entries to discriminate between scenarios 1 and 2 (and under what assumptions it is valid).

      In the absence of theory, a couple of ways I can think of to gain insight into this key aspect are:

      (1) Use surrogate data for scenarios 1 and 2:<br /> a. For scenario 1: Run the CRP using a single modality. E.g. feed in the EEG into the analysis as both modality 1 AND modality 2. This should provide at least one example of CRP under scenario 1 (although it does not ensure that all CRPs under this scenario will look like this, it is at least a useful sanity check)<br /> b. For scenario 2: Run the CRP using a single modality plus a shuffled version. E.g. feed in the EEG into the analysis as both modality 1 AND a temporally shuffled version of the EEG as modality 2. The temporal shuffling of the EEG could be done by simply splitting the data into blocks of say ~10s and then shuffling them into a new order. This should provide a version of the CRP under scenario 2 (although it does not ensure that all CRPs under this scenario will look like this, it is at least a useful sanity check).

      (2) Do simulations, with clearly specified assumptions, for scenarios 1 and 2. One way of doing this is to use a simplified (state-space) setup and randomly simulate N spatially fixed networks that are independently switching on and off over time (i.e. "activation" is 0 or 1). Note that this would result in a N-dimensional connectome state space.

      The authors would only need to worry about simulating the network activation time courses, i.e. they would not need to bother with specifying the spatial configuration of each network, instead, they would make the implied assumption that each of these networks has the same spatial configuration in modality 1 and modality 2.

      With that assumption, the CRP calculation should simply correspond to calculating, at each time i in modality 1 and time j in modality 2, the number of networks that are activating in both modality 1 and modality 2, by using their activation time courses. Using this, one can simulate and compute the CRPs for the two scenarios:<br /> a. Scenario 1: where the simulated activation timecourses are set to be the same between both modalities<br /> b. Scenario 2: where the simulated activation timecourses are simulated separately for each of the modalities

      (2) Choices in the analysis pipeline leading up to the computation of FC in fMRI or EEG will affect the quality of information available in the FC. For example, but not only, the choice of parcellation (in the study, the number of parcels is very high given the number of EEG sensors). I think it is important that we see the impact of the chosen pipeline on the time-averaged connectomes, an output that the field has some idea about what is sensible. This would give confidence that the information being used in the main analyses in the paper is based on a sensible footing and relates to what the field is used to thinking about in terms of FC. This should be trivial to compute, as it is just a case of averaging the time-varying FCs being used for the CRP over all time points. Admittedly, this approach is less useful for the intracranial EEG.

      (3) Leakage correction. The paper states: "To mitigate this issue, we provide results from source-localized data both with and without leakage correction (supplementary and main text, respectively)." Given that FC in EEG is dominated by spatial leakage (see Hipp paper), then I cannot see how it can be justified to look at non-spatial leakage correction results at all, let alone put them up front as the main results. All main results/figures for the scalp EEG should be done using spatial leakage-corrected EEG data.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Shen et al. conducted three experiments to study the cortical tracking of the natural rhythms involved in biological motion (BM), and whether these involve audiovisual integration (AVI). They presented participants with visual (dot) motion and/or the sound of a walking person. They found that EEG activity tracks the step rhythm, as well as the gait (2-step cycle) rhythm. The gait rhythm specifically is tracked superadditively (power for A+V condition is higher than the sum of the A-only and V-only condition, Experiments 1a/b), which is independent of the specific step frequency (Experiment 1b). Furthermore, audiovisual integration during tracking of gait was specific to BM, as it was absent (that is, the audiovisual congruency effect) when the walking dot motion was vertically inverted (Experiment 2). Finally, the study shows that an individual's autistic traits are negatively correlated with the BM-AVI congruency effect.

      Strengths:

      The three experiments are well designed and the various conditions are well controlled. The rationale of the study is clear, and the manuscript is pleasant to read. The analysis choices are easy to follow, and mostly appropriate.

      Weaknesses:

      I only have one potential worry. The analysis for gait tracking (1 Hz) in Experiment 2 (Figures 3a/b) starts by computing a congruency effect (A/V stimulation congruent (same frequency) versus A/V incongruent (V at 1 Hz, A at either 0.6 or 1.4 Hz), separately for the Upright and Inverted conditions. Then, this congruency effect is contrasted between Upright and Inverted, in essence computing an interaction score (Congruent/Incongruent X Upright/Inverted). Then, the channels in which this interaction score is significant (by cluster-based permutation test; Figure 3a) are subselected for further analysis. This further analysis is shown in Figure 3b and described in lines 195-202. Critically, the further analysis exactly mirrors the selection criteria, i.e. it is aimed at testing the effect of Congruent/Incongruent and Upright/Inverted. This is colloquially known as "double dipping", the same contrast is used for selection (of channels, in this case) as for later statistical testing. This should be avoided, since in this case even random noise might result in a significant effect. To strengthen the evidence, either the authors could use a selection contrast that is orthogonal to the subsequent statistical test, or they could skip either the preselection step or the subsequent test. (It could be argued that the test in Figure 3b and related text is not needed to make the point - that same point is already made by the cluster-based permutation test.)

      Related to the above: the test for the three-way interaction (lines 211-216) is reported as "marginally significant", with a p-value of 0.087. This is not very strong evidence.

    1. Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In the paper, the authors study whether the number of deaths in cancer patients in the USA went up or down during the first year (2020) of the COVID-19 pandemic. They found that the number of deaths with cancer mentioned on the death certificate went up, but only moderately. In fact, the excess with-cancer mortality was smaller than expected if cancer had no influence on the COVID mortality rate and all cancer patients got COVID with the same frequency as in the general population. The authors conclude that the data are consistent with cancer not being a risk factor for COVID and that cancer patients were likely actively shielding themselves from COVID infections.

      Strengths:

      The paper studies an important topic and uses sound statistical and modeling methodology. It analyzes both, deaths with cancer listed as the primary cause of death, as well as deaths with cancer listed as one of the contributing causes. The authors argue, correctly, that the latter is a more important and reliable indicator to study relationships between cancer and COVID. The authors supplement their US-wide analysis with analysing three states separately.

      For comparison, the authors study excess mortality from diabetes and from Alzheimer's disease. They show that Covid-related excess mortality in these two groups of patients was expected to be much higher (than in cancer patients), and indeed that is what the data showed.