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    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this manuscript, the authors conduct a detailed analysis of the molecular cues that control guidance of bifurcated dorsal root ganglion axons in a key region of the spinal cord called the dorsal funiculus. This is a specific case of axon guidance that occurs in a precise way. The authors knew that Slit was important but many axons still target correctly in Slit knockouts, suggesting a role for other guidance factors. Netrin1 is also expressed in this region, so they looked at netrin mutants. The authors found axons outside the DREZ in the Ntn1 mutants, and they show by single neuron genetic labeling that many of these come from DRG neurons. Quantified axonal tracing studies in Slit1/2, Ntn1, or triple mutant embryos supports the idea that Slit and Ntr1 have distinct functions in guidance and that the effect of their loss is additive. Interestingly none of these knockouts affect bifurcation itself but rather the guidance of one or both of the bifurcated axon terminals. Knockout of the Slit receptors (Robo1/2) or the Netrin 1 receptor (DCC) in embryos causes similar guidance defects to loss of the ligands, providing an additional confirmation of the requirement for both guidance pathways. This study expands understanding of the role of the axon guidance factors Ntr1/DCC and Slit/Robo in a specific axon guidance decision. The strength of the study is the careful axonal labeling and quantification, which allows the authors to establish precise consequences of the loss of each guidance factor or receptor.

    1. Reviewer #3 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The receptor binding domain of SARS-Cov-2 spike protein contains two N-glycans which have been conserved the variants observed in these last 4 years. Through the use of extensive molecular dynamics, the authors demonstrate that even if glycosylation is conserved, the stabilization role of glycans at N343 differs among the strains. They also investigate the effect of this glycosylation on the binding of RBD towards sialylated gangliosides, also as a function of evolution

      Strengths:

      The molecular dynamics characterization is well performed and demonstrates differences on the effect of glycosylation as a factor of evolution. The binding of different strains to human gangliosides shows variations of strong interest. Analyzing structure function of glycans on SARS-Cov-2 surface as a function of evolution is important for the surveillance of novel variants, since it can influence their virulence.

      Weaknesses:

      The revised article does not hold significant weaknesses

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors aimed to explore the role of climbing fibers (CFs) in cerebellar learning, with a focus on optokinetic reflex (OKR) adaptation. Their goal was to understand how CF activity influences memory acquisition, memory consolidation, and memory retrieval by optogenetically suppressing CF inputs at various stages of the learning process.

      Strengths:

      The study addresses a significant question in the cerebellar field by focusing on the specific role of CFs in adaptive learning. The authors use optogenetic tools to manipulate CF activity. This provides a direct method to test the causal relationship between CF activity and learning outcomes.

      Weaknesses:

      Despite shedding light on the potential role of CFs in cerebellar learning, the study is hampered by significant methodological issues that question the validity of its conclusions. The absence of detailed evidence on the effectiveness of CF suppression and concerns over tissue damage from optogenetic stimulation weakens the argument that CFs are not essential for memory consolidation. These challenges make it difficult to confirm whether the study's objectives were fully met or if the findings conclusively support the authors' claims. The research commendably attempts to unravel the temporal involvement of CFs in learning but also underscores the difficulties in pinpointing specific neural mechanisms that underlie the phases of learning. Addressing these methodological issues, investigating other signals that might instruct consolidation, and understanding CFs' broader impact on various learning behaviors are crucial steps for future studies.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      This manuscript by Amen, Yoo, Fabra-Garcia et al describes a human monoclonal antibody B1E11K, targeting EENV repeats which are present in parasite antigens such as Pfs230, RESAs, and 11.1. The authors isolated B1E11K using an initial target agnostic approach for antibodies that would bind gamete/gametocyte lysate which they made 14 mAbs. Following a suite of highly appropriate characterization methods from Western blotting of recombinant proteins to native parasite material, use of knockout lines to validate specificity, ITC, peptide mapping, SEC-MALS, negative stain EM, and crystallography, the authors have built a compelling case that B1E11K does indeed bind EENV repeats. In addition, using X-ray crystallography they show that two B1E11K Fabs bind to a 16 aa RESA repeat in a head-to-head conformation using homotypic interactions and provide a separate example from CSP, of affinity-matured homotypic interactions.

      There are some minor comments and considerations identified by this reviewer, These include that one of the main conclusions in the paper is the binding of B1E11K to RESAs which are blood stage antigens that are exported to the infected parasite surface. It would have been interesting if immunofluorescence assays with B1E11K mAb were performed with blood-stage parasites to understand its cellular localization in those stages.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this work, Xiong and colleagues examine the relationship between the profile of the morphogen Shh and the resulting cell fate decisions in the zebrafish neural tube. For this, the authors combine high-resolution live imaging of an established Shh reporter with reporter lines for the different progenitor types arising in the forming neural tube. One of the key observations in this manuscript is that, while, on average, cells respond to differences in Shh activity to adopt distinct progenitor fates, at the single cell level there is strong heterogeneity between Shh response and fate choices. Further, the authors showed that this heterogeneity was particularly prominent for the pMN fate, with similar Shh response dynamics to those observed in neighboring LFP progenitors.

      Strengths:

      It is important to directly correlate Shh activity with the downstream TFs marking distinct progenitor types in vivo and with single cell resolution. This additional analysis is in line with previous observations from these authors, namely in Xiong, 2013. Further, the authors show that cells in different anterior-posterior positions within the neural tube show distinct levels of heterogeneity in their response to Shh, which is a very interesting observation and merits further investigation.

      Weaknesses:

      This is a convincing work, however, adding a few more analyses and clarifications would, in my view, strengthen the key finding of heterogeneity between Shh response and the resulting cell fate choices.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Zylberberg and colleagues show that food choice outcomes and BOLD signal in the vmPFC are better explained by algorithms that update subjective values during the sequence of choices compared to algorithms based on static values acquired before the decision phase. This study presents a valuable means of reducing the apparent stochasticity of choices in common laboratory experiment designs. The evidence supporting the claims of the authors is solid, although currently limited to choices between food items because no other goods were examined. The work will be of interest to researchers examining decision-making across various social and biological sciences.

      Strengths:

      The paper analyses multiple food choice datasets to check the robustness of its findings in that domain.

      The paper presents simulations and robustness checks to back up its core claims.

      Weaknesses:

      To avoid potential misunderstandings of their work, I think it would be useful for the authors to clarify their statements and implications regarding the utility of item ratings/bids (e-values) in explaining choice behavior. Currently, the paper emphasizes that e-values have limited power to predict choices without explicitly stating the likely reason for this limitation given its own results or pointing out that this limitation is not unique to e-values and would apply to choice outcomes or any other preference elicitation measure too. The core of the paper rests on the argument that the subjective values of the food items are not stored as a relatively constant value, but instead are constructed at the time of choice based on the individual's current state. That is, a food's subjective value is a dynamic creation, and any measure of subjective value will become less accurate with time or new inputs (see Figure 3 regarding choice outcomes, for example). The e-values will change with time, choice deliberation, or other experiences to reflect the change in subjective value. Indeed, most previous studies of choice-induced preference change, including those cited in this manuscript, use multiple elicitations of e-values to detect these changes. It is important to clearly state that this paper provides no data on whether e-values are more or less limited than any other measure of eliciting subjective value. Rather, the paper shows that a static estimate of a food's subjective value at a single point in time has limited power to predict future choices. Thus, a more accurate label for the e-values would be static values because stationarity is the key assumption rather than the means by which the values are elicited or inferred.

      There is a puzzling discrepancy between the fits of a DDM using e-values in Figure 1 versus Figure 5. In Figure 1, the DDM using e-values provides a rather good fit to the empirical data, while in Figure 5 its match to the same empirical data appears to be substantially worse. I suspect that this is because the value difference on the x-axis in Figure 1 is based on the e-values, while in Figure 5 it is based on the r-values from the Reval algorithm. However, the computation of the value difference measure on the two x-axes is not explicitly described in the figures or methods section and these details should be added to the manuscript. If my guess is correct, then I think it is misleading to plot the DDM fit to e-values against choice and RT curves derived from r-values. Comparing Figures 1 and 5, it seems that changing the axes creates an artificial impression that the DDM using e-values is much worse than the one fit using r-values.

      Relatedly, do model comparison metrics favor a DDM using r-values over one using e-values in any of the datasets tested? Such tests, which use the full distribution of response times without dividing the continuum of decision difficulty into arbitrary hard and easy bins, would be more convincing than the tests of RT differences between the categorical divisions of hard versus easy.

      Revaluation and reduction in the imprecision of subjective value representations during (or after) a choice are not mutually exclusive. The fact that applying Reval in the forward trial order leads to lower deviance than applying it in the backwards order (Figure 7) suggests that revaluation does occur. It doesn't tell us if there is also a reduction in imprecision. A comparison of backwards Reval versus no Reval would indicate whether there is a reduction in imprecision in addition to revaluation. Model comparison metrics and plots of the deviance from the logistic regression fit using e-values against backward and forward Reval models would be useful to show the relative improvement for both forms of Reval.

      Did the analyses of BOLD activity shown in Figure 9 orthogonalize between the various e-value- and r-value-based regressors? I assume they were not because the idea was to let the two types of regressors compete for variance, but orthogonalization is common in fMRI analyses so it would be good to clarify that this was not used in this case. Assuming no orthogonalization, the unique variance for the r-value of the chosen option in a model that also includes the e-value of the chosen option is the delta term that distinguishes the r and e-values. The delta term is a scaled count of how often the food item was chosen and rejected in previous trials. It would be useful to know if the vmPFC BOLD activity correlates directly with this count or the entire r-value (e-value + delta). That is easily tested using two additional models that include only the r-value or only the delta term for each trial.

      Please confirm that the correlation coefficients shown in Figure 11 B are autocorrelations in the MCMC chains at various lags. If this interpretation is incorrect, please give more detail on how these coefficients were computed and what they represent.

      The paper presents the ceDDM as a proof-of-principle type model that can reproduce certain features of the empirical data. There are other plausible modifications to bounded evidence accumulation (BEA) models that may also reproduce these features as well or better than the ceDDM. For example, a DDM in which the starting point bias is a function of how often the two items were chosen or rejected in previous trials. My point is not that I think other BEA models would be better than the ceDDM, but rather that we don't know because the tests have not been run. Naturally, no paper can test all potential models and I am not suggesting that this paper should compare the ceDDM to other BEA processes. However, it should clearly state what we can and cannot conclude from the results it presents.

      This work has important practical implications for many studies in the decision sciences that seek to understand how various factors influence choice outcomes. By better accounting for the context-specific nature of value construction, studies can gain more precise estimates of the effects of treatments of interest on decision processes. That said, there are limitations to the generalizability of these findings that should be noted.

      These limitations stem from the fact that the paper only analyzes choices between food items and the outcomes of the choices are not realized until the end of the study (i.e., participants do not eat the chosen item before making the next choice). This creates at least two important limitations. First, preferences over food items may be particularly sensitive to mindsets/bodily states. We don't yet know how large the choice deltas may be for other types of goods whose value is less sensitive to satiety and other dynamic bodily states. Second, the somewhat artificial situation of making numerous choices between different pairs of items without receiving or consuming anything may eliminate potential decreases in the preference for the chosen item that would occur in the wild outside the lab setting. It seems quite probable that in many real-world decisions, the value of a chosen good is reduced in future choices because the individual does not need or want multiples of that item. Naturally, this depends on the durability of the good and the time between choices. A decrease in the value of chosen goods is still an example of dynamic value construction, but I don't see how such a decrease could be produced by the ceDDM.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Takemura et al. achieved a milestone in connectomics with their dense reconstruction of the Male Adult Nerve Cord (MANC) in Drosophila, revealing the neural circuitry of the primary premotor and motor domains in the CNS of the fruit fly. The team meticulously reconstructed neuron morphologies and synaptic connections and registered these data with light microscopy datasets (of driver lines for example), made neuronal lineage annotations and neurotransmitter predictions, providing the basis for new hypotheses about motor control. A description of the dataset and methods are presented here, while cell type annotations and characterisation of connectivity between brain descending neurons and motor neurons are provided in two companion papers, Marin et al. and Cheong, Eichler, Stürner et al., respectively. This dataset and analysis will provide a rich resource for future neuroscientific exploration.

      Strengths:

      The authors fully utilise a wealth of tools and techniques developed over the course of over a decade to produce a new publicly available dataset with an impressive number of reconstructed neurons and synapses. The precision and recall of connections are as high or higher than past datasets (e.g. the Hemibrain), pointing to the reliability of any downstream analyses performed on this connectome. These data are augmented with neurotransmitter identities, providing essential information for modelling and computational analysis. The MANC connectome can also be linked to genetic tools through registration to pre-existing light microscopy datasets, allowing experimentalists to test hypotheses made based on the connectome.

      Weaknesses:

      This dataset presents the nerve cord connectome of just a single animal, so connectivity variability and validity will be hard to assess. However, it is bilaterally reconstructed, which does allow comparison between bilaterally symmetrical neurons on the left and right sides of the nerve cord, increasing confidence in connections observed on both sides. Damage occurred to the nerves during sample preparation, which will have to be considered when analysing sensory connectivity.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      This paper explores the importance of zinc metabolism in host defense against the intracellular pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium. Using conditional mice with a deletion of the Slc30a1 zinc exporter, the authors show a critical role for zinc homeostasis in the pathogenesis of Salmonella. Specifically, mice deficient in Slc30a1 gene in LysM+ myeloid cells are hypersusceptible to Salmonella infection, and their macrophages show alter phenotypes in response to Salmonella. The study adds important new information on the role metal homeostasis plays in microbe host interactions. Despite the strengths, the manuscript has some weaknesses. The authors conclude that lack of slc30a1 in macrophages impairs nos2-dependent anti-Salmonella activity. However, this idea is not tested experimentally. In addition, the research presented on Mt1 is preliminary. The text related to Figure 7 could be deleted without affecting the overall impact of the findings.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      The manuscript by Chan et al reports results of a systematic mutagenesis approach to study the surface expression and APP+ transport mechanism of serotonin transporter. They complement this experimental evidence with large-scale molecular simulations of the transporter in the presence of APP+. The use of deep mutagenesis and large-scale adaptive sampling simulations is impressive and could be very exciting contributions to the field.

      On the whole, the results appear to provide a fascinating insight into the effects of mutations on transport mechanisms, and how those interrelate with the structural fold and biophysical properties of a dynamic protein and its substrate pathways. A weakness of the conclusions based on the molecular simulation is that it relies on comparison with previously-published work involving non-identical simulation systems (i.e. different protonation states).

      Conclusions in this work about the origins of the sodium:serotonin 1:1 stoichiometry should also be considered in the context of the fact that there are two sodium ions bound in the structures of SERT, and more work is needed to explain why this ion is not also released/co-transported.

      Some of the methods require additional information to be provided to be reproducible, for example, for the Transition Path Theory results, and so it is not possible to assess these conclusions with the manuscript in its current form.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      The manuscript describes the genome assembly and analysis of Xenoturbella bocki, a worm that bears many morphological features ascribed to basal bilateria. The authors aim to analyse this genome in an attempt to determine the phylogenetic position of X. bocki as a representative of Xenacoelomorpha and its associated acoelomorphs. In doing so, they want to inform the debate as to whether xenacoelomorph belong among, or is in fact paraphyletic to all bilaterians.

      This paper presents a high-quality assembly of the X. bocki genome. By virtue of the phylogenetic position of this species, this genome has considerable scientific interest. This assembly appears to be highly complete and is a strength of the paper. The further characterisation of the genome is well executed and presented. Solid results from this paper include a comprehensive description of the Hox genes, miRNA and neruopeptide repertoire, as well as a description of the linkage group and how they relate to the ancestral linkage groups.

      Where this paper is weaker is that for the central claims and questions of this paper, i.e,. the question of the phylogenetic position of xenacoelomorph and whether X. bocki is a slowly evolving, but otherwise representative member of this clade, remains insufficiently resolved.

      The authors have achieved the goal of describing the X. bocki genome very well. By contrast, it is unclear, based on the presented evidence, whether xenacoelomorph is truly a monophyletic group. The balance of the evidence seems to suggest that the X. bocki genome belongs within the bilateria group. However, it is unclear as to what is driving the position of the other acoels. Assumign that X. bocki and the other two species in that group are monophyletic, then the evidence will favour the authors' conclusion (but without clearly rejecting the alternatives).

      This paper will likely further animate the debate regarding this basal species, and also questions related to the ancestral characters of bilateria as a whole. In particular the results from the HOX and paraHOX clusters, may provide an interesting counterpoint to the previous results based on the acoels.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      The origin and function of proliferative chondrocyte columns in the growth plate that are generally aligned with predicted longitudinal growth vectors have been robustly debated since the implementation of clonal analysis and live cell imaging techniques more than a decade ago. In particular, live cell imaging demonstrated that in the proliferative zone, most daughter pairs rotate fully or partially after division to form columns of stacked cells and a minority of pairs fail to rotate. These observations and others led to a mechanistic model of column formation, but limitations in the live cell imaging methods that only visualize a single round of division and rotation left open an important question - what is the effect of different rotation profiles on column formation, bone growth, and morphology?

      This manuscript describes the use of an inducible lineage tracing system in the mouse combined with a novel image analysis pipeline to analyze column formation over multiple cell divisions. The main conclusion is that many clones generate single columns in postnatal mice (as expected), but clones in embryonic growth plate cartilage form clusters distributed laterally, not aligned with longitudinal growth. These findings are interpreted to suggest that column formation is not required for long bone growth in the embryo and that lateral expansion of proliferative chondrocyte clusters may drive an increase in bone width.

      Although these findings are intriguing and potentially impactful, there are important caveats to the approach that generate significant uncertainty in both the measurements and the conclusions. (1) The claim that embryonic growth plate chondrocytes do not form columns conflicts with the observation of columnar stacks in the clusters. (2) Interpretation of nuclear elevation data is based on the unproven assumption that nuclei should be stacked in cell columns. (3) Clonal analysis of proliferative chondrocyte cell division and stacking behaviors is only valid if clone labeling is initiated in a proliferative chondrocyte, not when the founder cell is a resting chondrocyte. The data are insufficient to validate this absolute requirement.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:<br /> In this study, the authors have used virtual transneuronal tracing technology to identify for the first time the central sympathetic nervous system outflow sites that innervate bone.

      Strengths:<br /> The study provides a comprehensive atlas of the brain regions that potentially play a role in coding and decoding sympathetic nervous system signals to bone.

      Weaknesses:<br /> While the study provides compelling evidence for the brain-bone sympathetic nervous system neuroaxis, it is unclear if diseases that affect bone (e.g. diabetes, osteoporosis, kidney failure) disrupt brain-bone sympathetic neural circuits.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      This is a valuable study of the relationships between aspects of white matter structure in the brain and the accuracy of tapping performance on auditory and visual versions of a synchronization-continuation task. The authors find brain-behaviour relationships between absolute asynchrony (precision of phase alignment between taps and stimulus events), but only for certain temporal rates (650 and 750 ms ISI, not 550, 850, or 950 ms ISI). Other behavioural metrics do not significantly correlate with white matter measures, and no visual condition behavioural metrics correlate either. The methodology and findings are solid, and of interest to those studying the neural mechanisms of timing.

      The question is interesting, as the neural mechanisms of timing, and the nature of how modality differences in timing arise, are important, given that certain modality differences in timing accuracy (e.g., auditory benefits relative to visual) are less striking in our closest evolutionary relatives. Overall, the methods are well-presented and both behavioural and neural measures are appropriate.

      The results are generally well-reported, although there is a lack of clarity about multiple comparison corrections for the number of separate behavioural metrics, different interval lengths examined, and the two sensory modalities.

      Some weaknesses:<br /> The use of absolute (unsigned) asynchrony as a measure of 'predictive' ability is not fully justified. Signed asynchrony may be a more informative measure of predictive ability, as (small) negative asynchronies (taps prior to event onset) are often interpreted as indicating prediction, whereas positive asynchronies (taps after the event onset) are not.<br /> The work may benefit from considering the 'phase' and 'period' nature of the different behavioural measures, as they may tap different aspects of timing. Separating the behavioural metrics into those reflecting phase synchrony versus period matching may be a useful distinction, as the period-related metrics are the ones that do not have evidence of correlation with brain metrics.<br /> The manuscript does not present a very clear framework for why certain measures might be predicted to correlate with white matter structure and others not, and the pattern of results is also not easily interpretable. This may just be the nature of the data, but it would help clarify if more justification for the selection of task and stimulus rates was presented, along with an idea of the predictions made by different theoretical approaches for what relationships between this particular set of behavioural and brain data might exist. Similarly, a more nuanced discussion might further explore the potential reasons for the lack of evidence for a relationship at shorter and longer auditory interval lengths, as well as for any of the visual condition measures.

      Overall, the authors find white-matter structure relationships with absolute asynchrony measures during auditory (but not visual) synchronization-continuation at certain rates. These findings appear reasonably justified.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      This study assesses how inputs from primary motor cortex layer 5 (M1L5), basal ganglia output nuclei (GPi and SNr), and cerebellum (Cb) converge onto motor thalamus nuclei (VA/VL).

      Methodology includes anatomical tracing, optogenetics and electrophysiological recordings in mouse brain slices.

      The major findings are:<br /> - Some motor thalamic neurons receive input from both cerebellar and basal ganglia. This is contrary to the common belief that assumes these two inputs are segregated in the motor thalamus.

      - Some motor thalamus neurons receive converging input from both motor cortex (M1L5) and basal ganglia.

      - Both M1L5 and Cb inputs to the motor thalamus have driver-type synaptic properties, indicating a strong influence on thalamic relay neurons.

      Functional implications are:<br /> - Given the inhibitory nature of basal ganglia output neurons, the converging inputs can allow for basal ganglia to gate information flow through the motor thalamus. This applies to transthalamic information, ie information conveyed through the thalamus across cortical regions, as well as cerebellar information flow to motor cortex.

      - The direct projection from M1L5 to motor thalamus suggests that motor cortex can affect motor thalamic activity not only indirectly, through the traditional cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop, but also through direct projections.

      The study is convincing and has important implications for the field. Methodology involves elegant viral techniques.

      The main weakness is that there is no direct functional demonstration of all the 3 inputs from motor cortex, cerebellum, and basal ganglia, converging onto the same cells in motor thalamus. All the recordings concern dual area stimulations, and the anatomical studies show a very small overlap of all the 3 inputs onto motor thalamus.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      This manuscript used DC-iDEP, a technology previously used on other organelle preparations to isolate insulin secretory granules from INS1 cells based on differences in dielectrophoretic and electrokinetic properties of synaptotagmin V positive insulin granules.

      The major motivation presented for this work is to provide a methodology to allow for more sensitive isolation of subpopulations of granules allowing better understanding of the biochemical composition of these populations. This manuscript clearly demonstrates the ability of this technology to separate these subpopulations which will allow for future biochemical characterizations of insulin granules in future studies.

      After proving these subpopulations can be observed, this method was then utilized to show there are shifts in these subpopulations when granules are isolated from glucose stimulated cells. Overall the method of isolation is novel and could provide a tool for further characterization of purified secretory granules.

      The observation of glucose stimulation causing shifts in subpopulations is unsurprising. Glucose stimulation could cause a depletion of insulin and other secretory content from a subset of granules. It would be expected that this loss of content would cause a shift in electrochemical properties of the granules, but this is a nice confirmation that the isolation method has the sensitivity to delineate these changes.

      Major comments:

      (1) It is unclear what Synaptotagmin isoform is being looked at. Synaptotagmin V and IX have been repetitively interchanged in the literature. See note in syt IX section of "Moghadam and Jackson 2013 Front. Endocrinology" or read "Fukuda and Sagi-Eisenberg Calcium Bind Proteins 2008".

      The 386 aa. isoform that is abundant in PC12 cells has been robustly observed in INS1 cells in multiple studies and has been frequently referred to as syt IX. The sequence the antibody was raised against should be determined from the company where this was purchased and then this should be mapped to to which isoform of Synaptotagmin by sequence and clarified in the text.

      (2) Immunofluorescence of insulin and syt V is confusing. The example images do not appear to show robust punctate structures that are characteristic of secretory granules (in both the insulin and syt V stain).

      (3) In the discussion it says, "Finally, this method provides a mechanism for the isolation and concentration of fractions which show the largest difference between the two population patterns for further bioanalysis (imaging, proteomics, lipidomics, etc.) that otherwise would not be possible given the low-abundance components of these subpopulations."

      It would help to elaborate more on the yield and concentrations of isolated granules. This would give a better sense of what level of biochemical characterization could be performed on sub-populations of granules.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Xu et al. introduce a cellular automaton model to investigate the spatiotemporal spreading of viral infection. In this study, the author first analyzes the single-cell RNA sequencing data from experiments and identifies four clusters of cells at 48 hours post-viral infection, including susceptible cells (O), infected cells (V), IFN-secreting cells (N), and antiviral cells (A). Next, a cellular automaton model (NOVAa model) is introduced by assuming the existence of a transient pre-antiviral state (a). The model consists of an LxL lattice; each site represents one cell. The cells change their state following the rules depending on the interaction of neighboring cells. The model introduces a key parameter, p_a, representing the fraction of pre-antiviral state cells. Cell apoptosis is omitted in the model. Model simulations show a threshold-like behavior of the final attack rate of the virus when p_a changes continuously. There is a critical value p_c, so that when p_a < p_c, infections typically spread to the entire system, while at a higher p_a > p_c, the propagation of the infected state is inhibited. Moreover, the radius R that quantifies the diffusion range of N cells may affect the critical value p_c; a larger R yields a smaller value of the critical value p_c. The authors further examine the result with stochastic version dynamics, and the main findings are unchanged upon stochastic dynamics. The structure of clusters is different for different values of R; greater R leads to a different microscopic structure with fewer A and N cells in the final state. Compared with the single-cell RNA seq data, which implies a low fraction of IFN-positive cells of around 1.7%, the model simulation suggests R=5. The authors also explored a simplified version of the model, the OVA model, with only three states. The OVA model also has an outbreak size. The OVA model shows dynamics similar to the NOVAa model. However, the change in microstructure as a function of the IFN range R observed in the NOVAa model is not observed in the OVA model.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this manuscript, the authors present a comparison of two models of cancer evolution with advantageous drivers and deleterious passengers: a fixed-population "Moran" model, and a "Branching Process" (BP) model with dynamic population size. The Moran model is more mathematically-tractable, but since cancer is a disease of uncontrolled growth, it is unclear to me how clinically-relevant it is to consider a model with constant population size. Intriguingly, both models can explain observed Site Frequency Spectrums (SFSs) in three breast cancers, which suggests that the Moran model may have some value. This distinction between the two models is addressed well.

      Strengths:

      The comparisons of the various BP models (extinction/non-extinction, and balanced/supercritical) are very interesting. The survivability of rare, fitness-disadvantaged clones has huge implications for treatment resistance in general - drug resistant clones are very often disadvantaged in the absence of drug. Clinical sequencing is, most decidedly, investigating population dynamics conditioned on non-extinction, however most published models do not condition on non-extinction - an unfortunate community oversight that this publication rectifies.

      Site Frequency Spectrums in three breast cancers are measured with unprecedented resolution to my knowledge (allele abundances below one in a thousand).

      Detailed description of the behavior of the various models.

      Weaknesses:

      I do not believe Moran B is a useful theoretical distinction between Moran A. Incorporating fitness effects into the birth process, instead of the death process, is generally mathematically equivalent when time is measured in generations (or cell divisions). Visible differences in the two models in Figures 2-6 by all accounts seem to be due to the fact that Moran B experiences more evolution in the balanced/driver-dominated case, and less evolution in the passenger dominated case. We generally do not use arbitrary time steps for this reason - we quantify time in 'generations'.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      How dynamics of gene expression accompany cell fate and cellular morphological changes is important for our understanding of molecular mechanisms that govern development and diseases. The phenomenon is particularly prominent during spermatogenesis, the process which spermatogonia stem cells develop into sperm through a series of steps of cell division, differentiation, meiosis, and cellular morphogenesis. The intricacy of various aspects of cellular processes and gene expression during spermatogenesis remains to be fully understood. In this study, the authors found that testis-specific actin-related proteins (which usually participate in modifying cells' cytoskeletal systems) ACTL7A and ACTL7B were expressed and localized in the nuclei of mouse spermatocytes and spermatids. Based on this observation, the authors analyzed protein sequence conservations of ACTL7B across dozens of species and identified a putative nuclear localization sequence (NLS) that is often responsible for the nuclear import of proteins that carry them. Using molecular biology experiments in a heterologous cell system, the authors verified the potential role of this internal NLS and found it indeed could facilitate the nuclear localization of marker proteins when expressed in cells. Using gene-deleted mouse models they generated previously, the authors showed that deletion of Actl7b caused changes in gene expression and mis-localization of nucleosomal histone H3 and chromatin regulator histone deacetylase HDAC1 and 2, supporting their proposed roles of ACTL7B in regulating gene expression. The authors further used alpha-Fold 2 to model the potential protein complexes that could be formed between the ARPs (ACTL7A and ACTL7B) and known chromatin modifiers, such as INO80 and SWI/SNF complexes and found that consistent with previous findings, it is likely that ACTL7A and ACTL7B interact with the chromatin-modifying complexes through binding to their alpha-helical HSA domain cooperatively. These results suggest that ACTL7B possesses novel functions in regulating chromatin structure and thus gene expression beyond conventional roles of cytoskeleton regulation, providing alternative pathways for understanding how gene expression is regulated during spermatogenesis and the etiology of relevant infertility diseases.

      Strengths:

      The authors provided sufficient background to the study and discussions of the results. Based on their previous research, this study utilized numerous methods, including protein complex structural modeling method alpha-fold 2 Multimers, to further investigate the functional roles of ACTL7B. The results presented here are in general of good quality. The identification of a potential internal NLS in ACTL7B is mostly convincing, in line with the phenotypes presented in the gene deletion model.

      Weaknesses:

      While the study offered an interesting new look at the functions of ARP proteins during spermatogenesis, some of the study is mainly theoretical speculations, including the protein complex formation. Some of the results may need further experimental verifications, for example, differentially expressed genes that were found in potentially spermatogenic cells at different developmental stages, in order to support the conclusions and avoid undermining the significance of the study.

    1. Reviewer #3 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Raudales et al. aimed at providing an insight into the brain-wide distribution and synaptic connectivity of bona fide GABAergic inhibitory interneuron subtypes focusing on the axo-axonic cell (AAC), one of the most distinctive interneuron subtypes, which innervates the axon initial segments of glutamatergic projection neurons. They establish intersectional genetic strategies that enable them to specifically and comprehensively capture AACs based on their lineage (Nkx2.1) and marker expression (Unc5b, Pthlh). They find that AACs are deployed across essentially all the pallium-derived brain structures as well as anterior olfactory nucleus, taenia tecta, and lateral septum. They show that AACs in distinct areas and layers of the neocortex as well as different subregions of the hippocampal formation display unique soma and synaptic density and morphological variations. Rabies virus-based retrograde monosynaptic input tracing reveals that AACs in the neocortex, the hippocampus, and the basolateral amygdala receive synaptic inputs from common as well as specific brain regions and supports the utility of this novel genetic approach. This study elucidates brain-wide neuroanatomical features and morphological variations of AACs with solid techniques and analysis. Their novel AAC-targeting strategies will facilitate the study of their development and function in different brain regions. The conclusions in this paper are well supported by the data. However, there are a few minor comments.

      (1) The authors added a description about validation of ChCs in the method section: "Validation was conducted with high-magnification confocal microscopy and defined by a cell exhibiting at least two RFP-labelled axons colocalized with AIS labelled by AnkryinG or Phospho-IκBα". However, this does not clearly define pAACs themselves. If they follow this criteria, an RFP-labeled cell exhibiting only one synaptic cartridge that is colocalized with an AIS should be a pAAC. Is this what the authors are triying to say?

      On the other hand, in the response to reviewers, the authors apparently define pAACs in a different way, in which they more focus on the number of cells exhibiting cartridges that are associated with AISs in a certain anatomical region rather than the number of cartridges per cell.

      "For BNST we did not positively identify more than a few exhibiting overlap with AnkryinG/IκBα, so we currently leave them as pAACs"<br /> "Putative AAC (pAACs) refers to populations in which relatively few single cell examples of AACs exhibiting co-localized cartridges were found"

      The authors need to directly define pAACs.

      (2) In the response to reviewers, the authors claimed that both Pthlh and Unc5b mice are useful for studying developing AACs. It would be nice if they include this content in the text (e.g. Discussion).

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This study focused on using strictly the slope of the power spectral density (PSD) to perform automated sleep scoring and evaluation of the durations of sleep cycles. The method appears to work well because the slope of the PSD is highest during slow-wave sleep, and lowest during waking and REM sleep. Therefore, when smoothed and analyzed across time, there are cyclical variations in the slope of the PSD, fit using an IRASA (Irregularly resampled auto-spectral analysis) algorithm proposed by Wen & Liu (2016).

      Strengths:

      The main novelty of the study is that the non-fractal (oscillatory) components of the PSD that are more typically used during sleep scoring can be essentially ignored because the key information is already contained within the fractal (slope) component. The authors show that for the most part, results are fairly consistent between this and conventional sleep scoring, but in some cases show disagreements that may be scientifically interesting.

      Weaknesses:

      One weakness of the study, from my perspective, was that the IRASA fits to the data (e.g. the PSD, such as in Figure 1B), were not illustrated. One cannot get a sense of whether or not the algorithm is based entirely on the fractal component or whether the oscillatory component of the PSD also influences the slope calculations. This should be better illustrated, but I assume the fits are quite good.

      The cycles detected using IRASA are called fractal cycles. I appreciate the use of a simple term for this, but I am also concerned whether it could be potentially misleading? The term suggests there is something fractal about the cycle, whereas it's really just that the fractal component of the PSD is used to detect the cycle. A more appropriate term could be "fractal-detected cycles" or "fractal-based cycle" perhaps?

      The study performs various comparisons of the durations of sleep cycles evaluated by the IRASA-based algorithm vs. conventional sleep scoring. One concern I had was that it appears cycles were simply identified by their order (first, second, etc.) but were not otherwise matched. This is problematic because, as evident from examples such as Figure 3B, sometimes one cycle conventionally scored is matched onto two fractal-based cycles. In the case of the Figure 3B example, it would be more appropriate to compare the duration of conventional cycle 5 vs. fractal cycle 7, rather than 5 vs. 5, as it appears is currently being performed.

      There are a few statements in the discussion that I felt were either not well-supported. L629: about the "little biological foundation" of categorical definitions, e.g. for REM sleep or wake? I cannot agree with this statement as written. Also about "the gradual nature of typical biological processes". Surely the action potential is not gradual and there are many other examples of all-or-none biological events.

      The authors appear to acknowledge a key point, which is that their methods do not discriminate between awake and REM periods. Thus their algorithm essentially detected cycles of slow-wave sleep alternating with wake/REM. Judging by the examples provided this appears to account for both the correspondence between fractal-based and conventional cycles, as well as their disagreements during the early part of the sleep cycle. While this point is acknowledged in the discussion section around L686. I am surprised that the authors then argue against this correspondence on L695. I did not find the "not-a-number" controls to be convincing. No examples were provided of such cycles, and it's hard to understand how positive z-values of the slopes are possible without the presence of some wake unless N1 stages are sufficient to provide a detected cycle (in which case, then the argument still holds except that its alterations between slow-wave sleep and N1 that could be what drives the detection).

      To me, it seems important to make clear whether the paper is proposing a different definition of cycles that could be easily detected without considering fractals or spectral slopes, but simply adjusting what one calls the onset/offset of a cycle, or whether there is something fundamentally important about measuring the PSD slope. The paper seems to be suggesting the latter but my sense from the results is that it's rather the former.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      The manuscript by Okholm and colleagues identified an interesting new instance of ceRNA involving a circular RNA. The data are clearly presented and support the conclusions. Quantification of the copy number of circRNA and quantification of the protein were performed, and this is important to support the ceRNA mechanism.

      This is the second rebuttal and the authors further improved the manuscript. The data are of interest for the large spectrum of readers of the journal.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      The authors characterized activity of the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) - basolateral amygdala (BLA) circuit. They show that BLA cells that are activated by dPAG stimulation are also more likely to be activated by a robot predator. These same cells are also more likely to display synchronous firing.

      The authors also replicate prior results showing that dPAG stimulation evokes fear and the dPAG is activated by a predator.

      Lastly, the report performs anatomical tracing to show that the dPAG may act on the BLA via the paraventricular thalamus (PVT). Indeed, the PVT receives dPAG projections and also projects to the BLA. However, the authors do not show if the PVT mediates dPAG to BLA communication with any functional behavioral assay. Furthermore, the authors also do not thoroughly characterize the activity of BLA cells during the predatory assay.

      The major impact in the field would be to add evidence to their prior work, strengthening the view that the BLA can be downstream of the dPAG.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Secretion of the prototypical F-associated filamentous phage (Ff) of E. coli depends on the selective binding of a hairpin (the packaging signal, PS) by two phage encoded protein, pVII and pIX. PVII and pIX target the PS to IM channels formed by pI and pIV. However, integrative filamentous phages lack a homologue of pIX and pIV, and many of them also lack a homologue of pVII, raising questions on the assembly and secretion of new phages. In the manuscript, Yueh et al. present the identification of a phage-encoded protein, PSB15, which binds to the PS signal of a Xanthomonas integrative filamentous phage, ΦLf-UK. They showed that PSB15 is required for viral assembly and is conserved in several other integrative filamentous phages. They further analyzed how PSB15 binds to PS and demonstrated that it associates to the IM, which targets phage DNA to it. Finally, they show that thioredoxin, the only host protein that was found to be essential for Ff secretion, interacts with PSB15 and releases the PSB15-PS complex from the IM. These results are important because they elucidate a major step in the secretion of integrative filamentous phage, and the role of thioredoxin on filamentous phage secretion in general.

      I found the data and interpretation convincing. However, the presentation and description are confusing in places because the reader has to juggle between figures. A scheme depicting what is known and unknown in the integration of Ff phages and interactive filamentous phages in the introduction would be useful to the general reader.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      General comment:

      This is a very valuable and unique comparative study. An excellent combination of scanning and histological data from three different species is presented. Obtaining the material for such a comparative study is never trivial. The study presents new data and thus provides the basis for an in-depth discussion about chondrichthyan mineralised skeletal tissues. I have, however, some comments. Some information is lacking and should be added to the manuscript text. I also suggest changes in the result and the discussion section of the manuscript.

      Introduction:

      The reader gets the impression almost no research on chondrichthyan skeletal tissues was done before the 2010 ("last 15 years", L45). I suggest to correct that and to cite also previous studies on chondrichthyan skeletal tissues, this includes studies from before 1900.

      Material and Methods:

      Please complete L473-492: Three different Micro-CT scanners were used for three different species? ScyScan 117 for the skate samples. Catshark different scanner, please provide full details. Chimera Scncrotron Scan? Please provide full details for all scanning protocols.

      TMD is established in the same way in all three scanners? Actually not possible. Or, all specimens were scanned with the same scanner to establish TMD? If so please provide the protocol.

      Please complete L494 ff: Tissue embedding medium and embedding protocol is missing. Specimens have been decalcified, if yes how? Have specimens been sectioned non-decalcified or decalcified?

      Please complete L506 ff: Tissue embedding medium and embedding protocol is missing. Description of controls are missing.

      Results:

      L147: It is valuable and interesting to compare the degree of mineralisation in individuals from the three different species. It appears, however, not possible to provide numerical data for Tissue Mineral Density (TMD). First requirement, all specimens must be scanned with the same scanner and the same calibration values. This in not stated in the M&M section. But even if this was the case, all specimens derive from different sample locations and have, been preserved differently. Type of fixation, extension of fixation time in formalin, frozen, unfrozen, conditions of sample storage, age of the samples, and many more parameters, all influence TMD values. Likewise the relative age of the animals (adult is not the same as adult) influences TMD. One must assume different sampling and storage conditions and different types of progression into adulthood. Thus, the observation of different degrees of mineralisation is very interesting but I suggest not to link this observation to numerical values.

      Parts of the results are mixed with discussion. Sometimes, a result chapter also needs a few references but this result chapter is full of references.

      Based on different protocols, the staining characteristics of the tissue are analysed. This is very good and provides valuable additional data. The authors should inform the not only about the staining (positive of negative) abut also about the histochemical characters of the staining. L218: "fast green positive" means what? L234: "marked by Trichrome acid fuchsin" means what? And so on, see also L237, L289, L291<br /> Discussion

      Please completely remove figure 7, please adjust and severely downsize the discussion related to figure 7. It is very interesting and valuable to compare three species from three different groups of elasmobranchs. Results of this comparison also validate an interesting discussion about possible phylogenetic aspects. This is, however, not the basis for claims about the skeletal tissue organisation of all extinct and extant members of the groups to which the three species belong. The discussion refers to "selected representatives" (L364), but how representative are the selected species? Can there be a extant species that represents the entire large group, all sharks, rays or chimeras? Are the three selected species basal representatives with a generalist life style?

      Please completely remove the discussion about paedomorphosis in chimeras (already in the result section). This discussion is based on a wrong idea about the definition of paedomorphosis. Paedomorphosis can occur in members of the same group. Humans have paedormorphic characters within the primates, Ambystoma mexicanum is paedormorphic within the urodeals. Paedomorphosis does not extend to members of different vertebrate branches. That elasmobranchs have a developmental stage that resembles chimera vertebra mineralisation does not define chimera vertebra centra as paedomorphic. Teleost have a herocercal caudal fin anlage during development, that does not mean the heterocercal fins in sturgeons or elasmobranchs are paedomorphic characters.

      L432-435: In times of Gadow & Abott (1895) science had completely wrong ideas bout the phylogenic position of chondrichthyans within the gnathostomes. It is curious that Gadow & Abott (1895) are being cited in support of the paedomorphosis claim.

      The SCPP part of the discussion is unrelated to the data obtained by this study. Kawaki & WEISS (2003) describe a gene family (called SCPP) that control Ca-binding extracellular phosphoproteins in enamel, in bone and dentine, in saliva and in milk. It evolved by gene duplication and differentiation. They date it back to a first enamel matrix protein in conodonts (Reif 2006). Conodonts, a group of enigmatic invertebrates have mineralised structures but these structure are neither bone nor mineralised cartilage. Cat fish (6 % of all vertebrate species) on the other hand, have bone but do not have SCPP genes (Lui et al. 206). Other calcium binding proteins, such as osteocalcin, were initially believed to be required for mineralisation. It turned out that osteocalcin is rather a mineralisation inhibitor, at best it regulates the arrangement collagen fiber bundles. The osteocalcin -/- mouse has fully mineralised bone. As the function of the SCPP gene product for bone formation is unknown, there is no need to discuss SCPP genes. It would perhaps be better to finish the manuscript with summery that focuses on the subject and the methodology of this nice study.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      The authors showed that CRISP1 and CRISP3, secreted proteins in the epididymis, are required for early embryogenesis after fertilization through DNA integrity in cauda epididymal sperm. This paper is the first report showing that the epididymal proteins are required for embryogenesis after fertilization. However, some data in this paper (Table 1 and Figure 2A) are overlapped in a published paper (Curci et al., FASEB J, 34,15718-15733, 2020; PMID: 33037689). Furthermore, the authors did not address why the disruption of CRISP1/3 leads to these phenomena (the increased level of the intracellular Ca2+ level and impaired DNA integrity in sperm) with direct evidence. Therefore, if the authors can address the following comments to improve the paper's novelty and clarification, this paper may be worthwhile to readers.

    1. for - recombination of proteins in higher level proteins - from - youtube - Evolution 2 podcast interview - book - Understanding Living Systems - Denis Noble - Ray Noble

      from - youtube - Evolution 2 podcast interview - book - Understanding Living Systems - Denis Noble - Ray Noble - https://hyp.is/OttWABYFEe--gLNFyeNyTw/docdrop.org/video/oHZI1zZ_BhY/

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Chang et al. investigated neuronal activity firing patterns across various cortical regions in an interesting context-dependent tactile vs visual detection task, developed previously by the authors (Chevee et al., 2021; doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2021.11.013). The authors report the important involvement of a medial frontal cortical region (MM, probably a similar location to wM2 as described in Esmaeili et al., 2021 & 2022; doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2021.05.005; doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.3001667) in mice for determining task rules.

      Strengths:

      The experiments appear to have been well carried out and the data well analysed. The manuscript clearly describes the motivation for the analyses and reaches clear and well-justified conclusions. I find the manuscript interesting and exciting!

      Weaknesses:

      I did not find any major weaknesses.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Goldstein et al. provide a thorough characterization of the interaction of attention and eye movement planning. These processes have been thought to be intertwined since at least the development of the Premotor Theory of Attention in 1987, and their relationship has been a continual source of debate and research for decades. Here, Goldstein et al. capitalize on their novel urgent saccade task to dissociate the effects of endogenous and exogenous attention on saccades towards and away from the cue. They find that attention and eye movements are, to some extent, linked to one another but that this link is transient and depends on the nature of the task. A primary strength of the work is that the researchers are able to carefully measure the timecourse of the interaction between attention and eye movements in various well-controlled experimental conditions. As a result, the behavioral interplay of two forms of attention (endogenous and exogenous) is illustrated at the level of tens of milliseconds as they interact with the planning and execution of saccades towards and away from the cued location. Overall, the results allow the authors to make meaningful claims about the time course of visual behavior, attention, and the potential neural mechanisms at a timescale relevant to everyday human behavior.

    1. Reviewer #3 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The receptor tyrosine kinase Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) in humans is nervous system expressed and plays an important role as an oncogene. A number of groups have been studying ALK signalling in flies to gain mechanistic insight into its various roles. In flies, ALK plays a critical role in development, particularly embryonic development and axon targeting. In addition, ALK was also shown to regulate adult functions including sleep and memory. In this manuscript, Sukumar et al., used a suite of molecular techniques to identify downstream targets of ALK signalling. They first used targeted DamID, a technique that involves a DNA methylase to RNA polymerase II, so that GATC sites in close proximity to PolII binding sites are marked. They performed these experiments in wild type and ALK loss of function mutants (using an Alk dominant negative ALkDN), to identify Alk responsive loci. Comparing these loci with a larval single cell RNAseq dataset identified neuroendocrine cells as an important site of Alk action. They further combined these TaDa hits with data from RNA seq in Alk Loss and Gain of Function manipulations to identify a single novel target of Alk signalling - a neuropeptide precursor they named Sparkly (Spar) for its expression pattern. They generated a mutant allele of Spar, raised an antibody against Spar, and characterised its expression pattern and mutant behavioural phenotypes including defects in sleep and circadian function.

      Strengths:

      The molecular biology experiments using TaDa and RNAseq were elegant and very convincing. The authors identified a novel gene they named Spar. They also generated a mutant allele of Spar (using CrisprCas technology) and raised an antibody against Spar. These experiments are lovely, and the reagents will be useful to the community. The paper is also well written, and the figures are very nicely laid out making the manuscript a pleasure to read.

      Weaknesses:

      The manuscript has improved very substantially in revision. The authors have clearly taken the comments on board in good faith.

      Editors' note: The authors have satisfactorily addressed the concerns raised in the previous rounds of review. These were related to the unconventional analysis of the TaDa data, the addition of other means of down regulated gene function, and the nature of analyses of behavioural data.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Hall et al describe the superiority of ONT sequencing and deep learning-based variant callers to deliver higher SNP and Indel accuracy compared to previous gold-standard Illumina short-read sequencing. Furthermore, they provide recommendations for read sequencing depth and computational requirements when performing variant calling.

      Strengths:

      The study describes compelling data showing ONT superiority when using deep learning-based variant callers, such as Clair3, compared to Illumina sequencing. This challenges the paradigm that Illumina sequencing is the gold standard for variant calling in bacterial genomes. The authors provide evidence that homopolymeric regions, a systematic and problematic issue with ONT data, are no longer a concern in ONT sequencing.

      Weaknesses:

      (1) The inclusion of a larger number of reference genomes would have strengthened the study to accommodate larger variability (a limitation mentioned by the authors).

      (2) In Figure 2, there are clearly one or two samples that perform worse than others in all combinations (are always below the box plots). No information about species-specific variant calls is provided by the authors but one would like to know if those are recurrently associated with one or two species. Species-specific recommendations could also help the scientific community to choose the best sequencing/variant calling approaches.

      (3) The authors support that a read depth of 10x is sufficient to achieve variant calls that match or exceed Illumina sequencing. However, the standard here should be the optimal discriminatory power for clinical and public health utility (namely outbreak analysis). In such scenarios, the highest discriminatory power is always desirable and as such an F1 score, Recall and Precision that is as close to 100% as possible should be maintained (which changes the minimum read sequencing depth to at least 25x, which is the inflection point).

      (4) The sequencing of the samples was not performed with the same Illumina and ONT method/equipment, which could have introduced specific equipment/preparation artefacts that were not considered in the study. See for example https://academic.oup.com/nargab/article/3/1/lqab019/6193612.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This is a tour de force study that aims to understand the genetic basis of male germ cell development across three animal species (human, mouse, and flies) by performing a genetic program conservation analysis (using phylostratigraphy and network science) with a special emphasis on genes that peak or decline during mitosis-to-meiosis. This analysis, in agreement with previous findings, reveals that several genes active during and before meiosis are deeply conserved across species, suggesting ancient regulatory mechanisms. To identify critical genes in germ cell development, the investigators integrated clinical genetics data, performing gene knockdown and knockout experiments in both mice and flies. Specifically, over 900 conserved genes were investigated in flies, with three of these genes further studied in mice. Of the 900 genes in flies, ~250 RNAi knockdowns had fertility phenotypes. The fertility phenotypes for the fly data can be viewed using the following browser link: https://pages.igc.pt/meionav. The scope of target gene validation is impressive. Below are a few minor comments.

      (1) In Supplemental Figure 2, it is notable that enterocyte transcriptomes are predominantly composed of younger genes, contrasting with the genetic age profile observed in brain and muscle cells. This difference is an intriguing observation and it would be curious to hear the author's comments.

      (2) Regarding the document, the figures provided only include supplemental data; none of the main text figures are in the full PDF.

      (3) Lastly, it would be great to section and stain mouse testis to classify the different stages of arrest during meiosis for each of the mouse mutants in order to compare more precisely to flies.

      This paper serves as a vital resource, emphasizing that only through the analysis of hundreds of genes can we prioritize essential genes for germ cell development. its remarkable that about 60% of conserved genes have no apparent phenotype during germ cell development.

      Strengths:

      The high-throughput screening was conducted on a conserved network of 920 genes expressed during the mitosis-to-meiosis transition. Approximately 250 of these genes were associated with fertility phenotypes. Notably, mutations in 5 of the 250 genes have been identified in human male infertility patients. Furthermore, 3 of these genes were modeled in mice, where they were also linked to infertility. This study establishes a crucial groundwork for future investigations into germ cell development genes, aiming to delineate their essential roles and functions.

      Weaknesses:

      The fertility phenotyping in this study is limited, yet dissecting the mechanistic roles of these proteins falls beyond its scope. Nevertheless, this work serves as an invaluable resource for further exploration of specific genes of interest.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      A large number of ovarian experiments have been conducted - especially in morphological and molecular biology studies - specifically removing the ovarian membrane. This experiment is a good supplement to existing knowledge and plays an important role in early ovarian development and the regulation of ovarian homeostasis during the estrous cycle. There are also innovations in research ideas and methods, which will meet the requirements of experimental design and provide inspiration for other researchers.

      This reviewer did not identify any major issues with the article. However, the following points could be further clarified:

      (1) Is there any comparative data on the proteomics of RO and rete testis in early development? With some molecular markers also derived from rete testis, it would be better to provide the data or references.

      (2) Although the size of RO and its components is quite small and difficult to operate, the researchers in this article had already been able to perform intracavitary injection of EOR and extract EOR or CR for mass spectrometry analysis. Therefore, can EOR, CR, or IOR be damaged or removed, providing further strong evidence of ovarian development function?

      (3) Although IOR is shown on the schematic diagram, it cannot be observed in the immunohistochemistry pictures in Figure 1 and Figure 3. The authors should provide a detailed explanation.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This manuscript described the second earliest known winged ovule without a capule in the Famennian of Late Devonian. Using Mathematical analysis, the authors suggest that the integuments of the earliest ovules without a cupule, as in the new taxon and Guazia, evolved functions in wind dispersal.

      Strengths:

      The new ovule taxon's morphological part is convincing. It provides additional evidence for the earliest winged ovules, and the mathematical analysis helps to understand their function.

      Weaknesses:

      The discussion should be enhanced to clarify the significance of this finding. What is the new advance compared with the Guazia finding? The authors can illustrate the character transformations using a simplified cladogram. The present version of the main text looks flat.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This paper develops an under-flow migration tracker to evaluate all the steps of the extravasation cascade of immune cells across the BBB. The algorithm is useful and has important applications.

      Strengths:

      Algorithm is almost as accurate as manual tracking and importantly saves time for researchers.

      Weaknesses:

      Applicability can be questioned because the device used is 2D and physiological biology is in 3D. Comparisons to other automated tools was not performed by the authors.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      The document "Mapping spatial patterns to energetic benefits in groups of flow-coupled swimmers" by Heydari et al. uses several types of simulations and models to address aspects of stability of position and power consumption in few-body groups of pitching foils. I think the work has the potential to be a valuable and timely contribution to an important subject area. The supporting evidence is largely quite convincing, though some details could raise questions, and there is room for improvement in the presentation. My recommendations are focused on clarifying the presentation and perhaps spurring the authors to assess additional aspects:

      (1) Why do the authors choose to set the swimmers free only in the propulsion direction? I can understand constraining all the positions/orientations for investigating the resulting forces and power, and I can also understand the value of allowing the bodies to be fully free in x, y, and their orientation angle to see if possible configurations spontaneously emerge from the flow interactions. But why constrain some degrees of freedom and not others? What's the motivation, and what's the relevance to animals, which are fully free?

      (2) The model description in Eq. (1) and the surrounding text is confusing. Aren't the authors computing forces via CFD or the VS method and then simply driving the propulsive dynamics according to the net horizontal force? It seems then irrelevant to decompose things into thrust and drag, and it seems irrelevant to claim that the thrust comes from pressure and the drag from viscous effects. The latter claim may in fact be incorrect since the body has a shape and the normal and tangential components of the surface stress along the body may be complex.

      (3) The parameter taudiss in the VS simulations takes on unusual values such as 2.45T, making it seem like this value is somehow very special, and perhaps 2.44 or 2.46 would lead to significantly different results. If the value is special, the authors should discuss and assess it. Otherwise, I recommend picking a round value, like 2 or 3, which would avoid distraction.

      (4) Some of the COT plots/information were difficult to interpret because the correspondence of beneficial with the mathematical sign was changing. For example, DeltaCOT as introduced on p. 5 is such that negative indicates bad energetics as compared to a solo swimmer. But elsewhere, lower or more negative COT is good in terms of savings. Given the many plots, large amounts of data, and many quantities being assessed, the paper needs a highly uniform presentation to aid the reader.

      (5) I didn't understand the value of the "flow agreement parameter," and I didn't understand the authors' interpretation of its significance. Firstly, it would help if this and all other quantities were given explicit definitions as complete equations (including normalization). As I understand it, the quantity indicates the match of the flow velocity at some location with the flapping velocity of a "ghost swimmer" at that location. This does not seem to be exactly relevant to the equilibrium locations. In particular, if the match were perfect, then the swimmer would generate no relative flow and thus no thrust, meaning such a location could not be an equilibrium. So, some degree of mismatch seems necessary. I believe such a mismatch is indeed present, but the plots such as those in Figure 4 may disguise the effect. The color bar is saturated to the point of essentially being three tones (blue, white, red), so we cannot see that the observed equilibria are likely between the max and min values of this parameter.

      (6) More generally, and related to the above, I am favorable towards the authors' attempts to find approximate flow metrics that could be used to predict the equilibrium positions and their stability, but I think the reasoning needs to be more solid. It seems the authors are seeking a parameter that can indicate equilibrium and another that can indicate stability. Can they clearly lay out the motivation behind any proposed metrics, and clearly present complete equations for their definitions? Further, is there a related power metric that can be appropriately defined and which proves to be useful?

      (7) Why do the authors not carry out CFD simulations on the larger groups? Some explanations should be given, or some corresponding CFD simulations should be carried out. It would be interesting if CFD simulations were done and included, especially for the in-line case of many swimmers. This is because the results seem to be quite nuanced and dependent on many-body effects beyond nearest-neighbor interactions. It would certainly be comforting to see something similar happen in CFD.

      (8) Related to the above, the authors should discuss seemingly significant differences in their results for long in-line formations as compared to the CFD work of Peng et al. [48]. That work showed apparently stable groups for numbers of swimmers quite larger than that studied here. Why such a qualitatively different result, and how should we interpret these differences regarding the more general issue of the stability of tandem groups?

      (9) The authors seem to have all the tools needed to address the general question about how dynamically stable configurations relate to those that are energetically optimal. Are stable solutions optimal, or not? This would seem to have very important implications for animal groups, and the work addresses closely related topics but seems to miss the opportunity to give a definitive answer to this big question.

      (10) Time-delay particle model: This model seems to construct a simplified wake flow. But does the constructed flow satisfy basic properties that we demand of any flow, such as being divergence-free? If not, then the formulation may be troublesome.

    1. Reviewer #3 (Public Review):

      This article is the first report to study the effects of T. pallidum on the neural development of an iSPC-derived brain organoid model. The study indicates that T. pallidum inhibits the differentiation of subNPC1B neurons into hindbrain neurons, hence affecting brain organoid neurodevelopment. Additionally, the TCF3 and notch signaling pathways may be involved in the inhibition of the subNPC1B-hindbrain neuron differentiation axis. While the majority of the data in this study support the conclusions, there are still some questions that need to be addressed and data quality needs to be improved. The study provides valuable insights for future investigations into the mechanisms underlying congenital neurodevelopment disability.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors study through theory and simulations the diffusion of microscopic particles, and aim to account for the effects of inhomogeneous viscosity and diffusion - in particular regarding the intracellular environment. They propose a mechanism, termed "Diffusive lensing", by which particles are attracted towards low-diffusivity regions where they remain trapped. To obtain these results, the authors rely on agent-based simulations using custom rules performed within the Ito stochastic calculus convention, without drift. They acknowledge the fact that this convention does not describe equilibrium systems, and that their results would not hold at equilibrium - and discard these facts by invoking the facts that cells are out-of-equilibrium. Finally, they show some applications of their findings, in particular enhanced clustering in the low-diffusivity regions. The authors conclude that as inhomogeneous diffusion is ubiquitous in life, so must their mechanism be, and hence it must be important.

      Strengths:

      The article is well-written, clearly intelligible, its hypotheses are stated relatively clearly and the models and mathematical derivations are compatible with these hypotheses. In the appendices, the authors connect their findings to known results for classic stochastic differential equation formalisms.

      Weaknesses:

      This study is, in my opinion, deeply flawed. The main problem lies in the hypotheses, in particular the choice of considering drift-less dynamics in the Ito convention. It is regrettable that the authors choose to use agent-based custom simulations with little physical motivation, rather than a well-established stochastic differential equations framework.

      Indeed, stochastic conventions are a notoriously tricky business, but they are both mathematically and physically well-understood and do not result in any "dilemma" [some citations in the article, such as (Lau and Lubensky) and (Volpe and Wehr), make an unambiguous resolution of these]. In the continuous-time limit, conventions are not an intrinsic, fixed property of a system, but a choice of writing; however, whenever going from one to another, one must include a corresponding "spurious drift" that compensates the effect of this change - a mathematical subtlety that is omitted in the article (except in a quick note in the appendix): in the presence of diffusive gradients, if the drift is zero in one convention, it will thus be non-zero in another. It is well established that for equilibrium systems obeying fluctuation-dissipation, the spurious drift vanishes in the anti-Ito stochastic convention; more precisely one can write in the anti-Ito convention

      dx/dt = - D(x)/kT grad U(x) + sqrt(2D(x)) dW

      with D(x) the diffusion, kT the thermal energy (which is space-independent at equilibrium), and dW a d-dimensional Wiener process. Equivalently one can write in the Ito convention:

      dx/dt = - D(x)/kT grad U(x) + sqrt(2D(x)) dW + div D(x) (*)

      where the latter term is the spurious drift arising from convention change. This ensures that the diffusion gradients do not induce currents and probability gradients, and thus that the steady-state PDF is the Gibbs measure (this form has been confirmed experimentally, for instance, for colloidal particles near walls, that have strong diffusivity gradients despite not having significant forces). It generalizes to near-equilibrium systems with non-conservative forces and/or temperature gradient in the form:

      dx/dt = F(x) + sqrt(2D(x)) dW + div D(x) (**)

      where the drift field F(x) encodes these forces. In some cases, it has been shown through careful microscopic analysis that one can have effectively a different form for the last term, namely

      dx/dt = F(x) + sqrt(2D(x)) dW + alpha div D(x)

      where alpha is a "convention parameter" that would be =1 at equilibrium. For instance, in the Volpe and Wehr review this can occur through memory effects in robotic dynamics, or through strong fluctuation-dissipation breakdown. In a near-equilibrium system, this should be strongly justified, as the continuous-time dynamics with alpha \neq 1 and drift F would be indistinguishable from one with alpha = 1 and drift F + (1-alpha) div D: the authors would have the burden of proving that the observed (absence of) drift is indeed due to alpha\neq 1, rather than to much more common force fields F(x).

      Here, without further motivation than the statement that cells are out-of-equilibrium, drifts are arbitrarily set to zero in the Ito convention, which is in (**) the equivalent to adding a force with drift $-div D$ exactly compensating the spurious drift. It is the effects of this arbitrary force that are studied in the article. The fact that it results in probability gradients is trivial once formulated this way (and in no way is this new - many of the references, for instance Volpe and Wehr, mention this). Enhanced clustering is also a trivial effect of this probability gradient (the local concentration is increased by this force field, so phase separation can occur). As a side note the "neighbor sensing" scheme to describe interactions is itself very peculiar and not physically motivated - it violates stochastic thermodynamics laws too, as detailed balance is apparently not respected. There again, the authors have chosen to disregard a century of stochastic thermodynamics in favor of a non-justified unphysical custom rule.

      The authors make no further justification of their choice of driftless Ito simulations than the fact that cells are out-of-equilibrium, leaving the feeling that this is a detail. They make mentions of systems (eg glycogen, prebiotic environment) for which (near-)equilibrium physics should mostly prevail, and of fluctuation dissipation ("Diffusivity varies inversely with viscosity", in the introduction). Yet the "phenomenon" they discuss is entirely reliant on an undiscussed mechanism by which these assumptions would be completely violated (the citations they make for this - Gnesotto '18 and Phillips '12 - are simply discussions of the fact that cells are out-of-equilibrium, not on any consequences on the convention).

      Finally, while inhomogeneous diffusion is ubiquitous, the strength of this effect in realistic conditions is not discussed. Even in the most "optimistic" case where alpha=0 would make sense (knowing that in the cellular context we are discussing thermal systems immersed in water and if energy consumption and metabolism were stopped alpha would relax back to 1), the equation (*) above shows that having zero ito drift is equivalent to having a potential countering the spurious drift, with value

      U(x) = kT log(D(x) / D0 )

      [I have assumed isotropic diffusion for simplicity here, so the div is replaced by a grad]. This means that the diffusion contrasts logarithmically compare to the chemical potential ones -- for instance a major diffusion difference of 100x is equivalent to 4.6kT in potential energy, a relatively modest effect. To prove that the authors' effect of "diffusive lensing" is involved in such a system, one would thus have to<br /> 1) observe strong spatial variations of the diffusion coefficient (this is doable, and was done before), AND<br /> 2) show that there is an enrichment of the diffusing species in the low-diffusion region inversely proportional to the diffusion, AND<br /> 3) show that this enrichment cannot be attributed to mild differences in potential energy, for instance by showing that if nonequilibrium energy consumption stops, the concentration fully homogenizes while the diffusion gradients remain.

      If the authors were to successfully show all that in an experimental system, or design a theoretical framework where these effects convincingly emerge from physically realistic microscopic dynamical rules, they would have indeed discovered a new phenomenon. In contrast, the current article only demonstrates the well-known fact that when using arbitrary dynamical rules in heterogeneous diffusion simulations, one can get concentration gradients.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      This work aggregates data across 5 openly available stopping studies (3 at 7 tesla and 2 at 3 tesla) to evaluate activity patterns across the common contrasts of Failed Stop (FS) > Go, FS > stop success (SS), and SS > Go. Previous work has implicated a set of regions that tend to be positively active in one or more of these contrasts, including the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, preSMA, and multiple basal ganglia structures. However, the authors argue that upon closer examination, many previous papers have not found subcortical structures to be more active on SS than FS trials, bringing into question whether they play an essential role in (successful) inhibition. In order to evaluate this with more data and power, the authors aggregate across five datasets and find many areas that are *more* active for FS than SS, including bilateral preSMA, GPE, thalamus, and VTA. They argue that this brings into question the role of these areas in inhibition, based upon the assumption that areas involved in inhibition should be more active on successful stop than failed stop trials, not the opposite as they observed.

      Since the initial submission, the authors have improved their theoretical synthesis and changed their SSRT calculation method to the more appropriate integration method with replacement for go omissions. They have also done a better job of explaining how these fMRI results situate within the broader response inhibition literature including work using other neuroscience methods.

      They have also included a new Bayes Factor analysis. In the process of evaluating this new analysis, I recognized the following comments that I believe justify additional analyses and discussion:

      First, if I understand the author's pipeline, for the ROI analyses it is not appropriate to run FSL's FILM method on the data that were generated by repeating the same time series across all voxels of an ROI. FSL's FILM uses neighboring voxels in parts of the estimation to stabilize temporal correlation and variance estimates and was intended and evaluated for use on voxelwise data. Instead, I believe it would be more appropriate to average the level 1 contrast estimates over the voxels of each ROI to serve as the dependent variables in the ROI analysis.

      Second, for the group-level ROI analyses there seems to be inconsistencies when comparing the z-statistics (Figure 3) to the Bayes Factors (Figure 4) in that very similar z-statistics have very different Bayes Factors within the same contrast across different brain areas, which seemed surprising (e.g., a z of 6.64 has a BF of .858 while another with a z of 6.76 has a BF of 3.18). The authors do briefly discuss some instances in the frequentist and Bayesian results differ, but they do not ever explain by similar z-stats yield very different bayes factors for a given contrast across different brain areas. I believe a discussion of this would be useful.

      Third, since the Bayes Factor analysis appears to be based on repeated measures ANOVA and the z-statistics are from Flame1+2, the BayesFactor analysis model does not pair with the frequentist analysis model very cleanly. To facilitate comparison, I would recommend that the same repeated measures ANOVA model should be used in both cases. My reading of the literature is that there is no need to be concerned about any benefits of using Flame being lost, since heteroscedasticity does not impact type I errors and will only potentially impact power (Mumford & Nichols, 2009 NeuroImage).

      Fourth, though frequentist statistics suggest that many basal ganglia structures are significantly more active in the FS > SS contrast (see 2nd row of Figure 3), the Bayesian analyses are much more equivocal, with no basal ganglia areas showing Log10BF > 1 (which would be indicative of strong evidence). The authors suggest that "the frequentist and Bayesian analyses are monst in line with one another", but in my view, this frequentist vs. Bayesian analysis for the FS > SS contrast seems to suggest substantially different conclusions. More specifically, the frequentist analyses suggest greater activity in FS than SS in most basal ganglia ROIs (all but 2), but the Bayesian analysis did not find *any* basal ganglia ROIs with strong evidence for the alternative hypothesis (or a difference), and several with more evidence for the null than the alternative hypothesis. This difference between the frequentist and Bayesian analyses seems to warrant discussion, but unless I overlooked it, the Bayesian analyses are not mentioned in the Discussion at all. In my view, the frequentist analyses are treated as the results, and the Bayesian analyses were largely ignored.

      Overall, I think this paper makes a useful and mostly solid contribution to the literature. I have made some suggestions for adjustments and clarification of the neuroimaging pipeline and Bayesian analyses that I believe would strengthen the work further.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      This work clarifies neural mechanisms that can lead to a phenomenology consistent with motor preparation in its broader sense. In this context, motor preparation refers to activity that occurs before the corresponding movement. Another property often associated with preparatory activity is a correlation with global movement characteristics such as reach speed (Churchland et al., Neuron 2006), reach angle (Sun et al., Nature 2022), or grasp type (Meirhaeghe et al., Cell Reports 2023). Such activity has notably been observed in premotor and primary motor cortices, and it has been hypothesized to serve as an input to a motor execution circuit. The timing and mechanisms by which such 'preparatory' inputs are made available to motor execution circuits remain however unclear in general, especially in light of the presence of a 'trigger-like' signal that appears to relate to the transition from preparatory dynamics to execution activity (Kaufman et al. eNeuron 2016, Iganaki et al., Cell 2022, Zimnik and Churchland, Nature Neuroscience 2021).

      The preparatory inputs have been hypothesized to fulfill one or several (non-mutually-exclusive) possible objectives. Two notable hypotheses are that these inputs could be shaped to maximize output accuracy under regularization of the input magnitude; or that they may help the flexible re-use of the neural machinery involved in the control of movements in different contexts.

      Here, the authors investigate in detail how the former hypothesis may be compatible with the presence of early inputs in recurrent network models driving arm movements, and compare models to data.

      Strengths:

      The authors are able to deploy an in-depth evaluation of inputs that are optimized for producing an accurate output at a pre-defined time while using a regularization term on the input magnitude, in the case of movements that are thought to be controlled in a quasi-open loop fashion such as reaches.

      First, the authors have identified that optimal control theory is a great framework to study this question as it provides methods to find and analyze exact solutions to this cost function in the case of models with linear dynamics. The authors not only use this framework to get an exact assessment of how much pre-movement input arises in large recurrent networks, but also give insight into the mechanisms by which it happens by dissecting in detail low-dimensional networks. The authors find that two key network properties - observability of the readout's nullspace and limited controllability - give rise to optimal inputs that are large before the start of the movement (while the corresponding network activity lies in the nullspace of the readout). Further, the authors numerically investigate the timing of optimized inputs in models with nonlinear dynamics, and find that pre-movement inputs can also arise in these more general networks. The authors also explore how some variations on their model's constraints - such as penalizing the input roughness or changing task contingencies about the go cue timing - affect their results. Finally, the authors point out some coarse-grained similarities between the pre-movement activity driven by the optimized inputs in some of the models they studied, and the phenomenology of preparation observed in the brain during single reaches and reach sequences. Overall, the authors deploy an impressive arsenal of tools and a very in-depth analysis of their models.

      Limitations:

      (1) Though the optimal control theory framework is ideal to determine inputs that minimize output error while regularizing the input norm or other simple input features, it cannot easily account for some other varied types of objectives - especially those that may lead to a complex optimization landscape. For instance, the reusability of parts of the circuit, sparse use of additional neurons when learning many movements, and ease of planning (especially under uncertainty about when to start the movement), may be alternative or additional reasons that could help explain the preparatory activity observed in the brain. It is interesting to note that inputs that optimize the objective chosen by the authors arguably lead to a trade-off in terms of other desirable objectives. Specifically, the inputs the authors derive are time-dependent, so a recurrent network would be needed to produce them and it may not be easy to interpolate between them to drive new movement variants. In addition, these inputs depend on the desired time of output and therefore make it difficult to plan, e.g. in circumstances when timing should be decided depending on sensory signals. Finally, these inputs are specific to the full movement chain that will unfold, so they do not permit reuse of the inputs e.g. in movement sequences of different orders. Of note, the authors have pointed out in the discussion how their framework may be extended in future work to account for some additional objectives, such as inputs' temporal smoothness or some strategies for dealing with go cue timing uncertainty.

      (2) Relatedly, if the motor circuits were to balance different types of objectives, the activity and inputs occurring before each movement may be broken down into different categories that may each specialize into their own objective. For instance, previous work (Kaufman et al. eNeuron 2016, Iganaki et al., Cell 2022, Zimnik and Churchland, Nature Neuroscience 2021) has suggested that inputs occurring before the movement could be broken down into preparatory inputs 'stricto sensu' - relating to the planned characteristics of the movement - and a trigger signal, relating to the transition from planning to execution - irrespective of whether the movement is internally timed or triggered by an external event. The current work does not address which type(s) of early input may be labeled as 'preparatory' or may be thought of as a part of 'planning' computations, or whether these inputs may come from several different source circuits.

      (3) While the authors rightly point out some similarities between the inputs that they derive and observed preparatory activity in the brain, notably during motor sequences, there are also some differences. For instance, while both the derived inputs and the data show two peaks during sequences, the data reproduced from Zimnik and Churchland show preparatory inputs that have a very asymmetric shape that really plummets before the start of the next movement, whereas the derived inputs have larger amplitude during the movement period - especially for the second movement of the sequence. In addition, the data show trigger-like signals before each of the two reaches. Finally, while the data show a very high correlation between the pattern of preparatory activity of the second reach in the double reach and compound reach conditions, the derived inputs appear to be more different between the two conditions. Note that the data would be consistent with separate planning of the two reaches even in the compound reach condition, as well as the re-use of the preparatory input between the compound and double reach conditions. Therefore, different motor sequence datasets - notably, those that would show even more coarticulation between submovements - may be more promising to find a tight match between the data and the author's inputs. Further analyses in these datasets could help determine whether the coarticulation could be due to simple filtering by the circuits and muscles downstream of M1, planning of movements with adjusted curvature to mitigate the work performed by the muscles while permitting some amount of re-use across different sequences, or - as suggested by the authors - inputs fully tailored to one specific movement sequence that maximize accuracy and minimize the M1 input magnitude.

      (4) Though iLQR is a powerful optimization method to find inputs optimizing the author's cost function, it also has some limitations. First, given that it relies on a linearization of the dynamics at each timestep, it has a limited ability to leverage potential advantages of nonlinearities in the dynamics. Second, the iLQR algorithm is not a biologically plausible learning rule and therefore it might be difficult for the brain to learn to produce the inputs that it finds. Therefore, when observing differences between model and data, this can confound the question of whether it comes from a difference of assumed objective or a difference of optimization procedure. It remains unclear whether using alternative algorithms with different limitations - for instance, using variants of BPTT to train a separate RNN to produce the inputs in question - could impact some of the results.

      (5) Under the objective considered by the authors, the amount of input occurring before the movement might be impacted by the presence of online sensory signals for closed-loop control. Even if considering that the inputs could include some sensory activity and/or that the RNN activity could represent general variables whose states can be decoded from M1, the model would not include mechanisms that process imperfect (delayed, noisy) sensory feedback to adapt the output in a trial-specific manner. It is therefore an open question whether the objective and network characteristics suggested by the authors could also explain the presence of preparatory activity before e.g. grasping movements that are thought to be more sensory-driven (Meirhaeghe et al., Cell Reports 2023).

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      In this work, Dasgupta et al. investigate the role of Sema7a in the formation of peripheral sensory circuit in the lateral line system of zebrafish. They show that Sema7a protein is present during neuromast maturation and localized, in part, to the base of hair cells (HCs). This would be consistent with pre-synaptic Sema7a mediating formation and/or stabilization of the synapse. They use sema7a loss-of-function strain to show that lateral line sensory terminals display abnormal arborization. They provide highly quantitative analysis of the lateral line terminal arborization to show that a number of specific topological parameters are affected in mutants. Next, they ectopically express a secreted form of Sema7a to show that lateral line terminals can be ectopically attracted to the source. Finally, they also demonstrate that the synaptic assembly is impaired in the sema7a mutant. Overall, the data are of high quality and properly controlled. The availability of Sema7a antibody is a big plus, as it allows to address the endogenous protein localization as well to show the signal absence in the sema7a mutant. The quantification of the arbor topology should be useful to people in the field who are looking at the lateral line as well as other axonal terminals.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      In this paper, Boi et al. thoroughly classified the electrophysiological and morphological characteristics of serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons in the DRN and examined the alterations of these neurons in the 6-OHDA-induced mouse PD model. Using whole-cell patch clamp recording, they found that 5-HT and dopamine (DA) neurons in the DRN are electrophysiologically distinct from each other. Additionally, they characterized distinct morphological features of 5-HT and DA neurons in the DRN. Notably, these specific features of 5-HT and DA neurons in the DRN exhibited different changes in the 6-OHDA-induced PD model. Then the authors utilized desipramine (DMI) to separate the effects of nigrostriatal DA depletion and noradrenaline (NA) depletion induced by 6-OHDA. Interestingly, protection from NA depletion by DMI pretreatment reversed the changes in 5-HT neurons, while having a minor impact on the changes in DA neurons in the DRN. These data indicate that the role of NA lesion in the altered properties of DRN 5-HT neurons by 6-OHDA is more critical than that of DA lesions.

      Overall, this study provides foundational data on the 5-HT and DA neurons in the DRN and their potential involvement in PD symptoms. Given the deficits of the DRN in PD, this paper may offer insights into the cellular mechanisms underlying non-motor symptoms associated with PD.

    1. Reviewer #3 (Public Review):

      The authors presented point light displays of human walkers to children (mean = 9 years) with and without ADHD to compare their biological motion perception abilities, and relate them to IQ, social responsiveness scale (SRS) scores and age. They report that children with ADHD were worse at all three biological motion tasks, but that those loading more heavily on local processing related to social interaction skills and global processing to age. The valuable and solid findings are informative for understanding this complex condition, as well as biological motion processing mechanisms in general. However, the correlations present a pattern that needs further examination in future studies because many of the differences between correlations are not significant.

      Strengths:

      The authors present differences between ADHD and TD children in biological motion processing, and this question has not received as much attention as equivalent processing capabilities in autism. They use a task that appears well controlled. They raise some interesting mechanistic possibilities for differences in local and global motion processing, which are distinctions worth exploring. The group differences will therefore be of interest to those studying ADHD, as well as other developmental conditions, and those examining biological motion processing mechanisms in general.

      Weaknesses:

      The data are not strong enough to support claims about differences between global and lobal processing wrt social communication skills and age. The mechanistic possibilities for why these abilities may dissociate in such a way are interesting, but the crucial tests of differences between correlations do not present a clear picture. Further empirical work would be needed to test this further. Specifics:

      The authors state frequently that it was the local BM task that related to social communication skills (SRS) and not the global tasks. However, the results section shows a correlation between SRS and all three tasks. The only difference is that when looking specifically within the ADHD group, the correlation is only significant for the local task. The supplementary materials demonstrate that tests of differences between correlations present an incomplete picture. Currently they have small samples for correlations, so this is unsurprising.

      Theoretical assumptions. The authors make some statements about local vs global biological motion processing that may have been made in previous studies, but would appear controversial and not definitive. E.g., that local BM processing does not improve with age and is uninfluenced by attention.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      The paper presents a novel approach to expand iPSC-derived pdx1+/nkx6.1+ pancreas progenitors, making them potentially suitable for GMP-compatible protocols. This advancement represents a significant breakthrough for diabetes cell replacement therapies, as one of the current bottlenecks is the inability of expanding PP without compromising their differentiation potential. The study employs a robust dataset and state-of-the-art methodology, unveiling crucial signaling pathways (eg TGF, Notch...) responsible for sustaining pancreas progenitors while preserving their differentiation potential in vitro.

      The current version of the paper has improved, increasing the clarity and providing clear explanations to the comments raised regarding quantifications, functionality of the cells in vivo etc...

      The discussion on challenges adds depth to the study and encourages future research to build upon these important findings

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Nagy et al investigated the role of volume increase and swelling in neutrophils in response to the chemoattractant. Authors show that following chemoattractant response cells lose their volume slightly owing to the cell spreading phase and then have a relatively rapid increase in the cell volume that is concomitant with cell migration. Authors performed an impressive genome-wide CRISPR screen and buoyant density assay to identify the regulators of neutrophil swelling. This assay showed that stimulating cells with chemoattractant fMLP lead to an increase in the cell volume that was abrogated with the FPR1 receptor knockout. The screen revealed a cascade that could potentially be involved cell swelling including NHE1 (sodium-proton antiporter) and PI3K. NHE1 and PI3K is required for chemoattractant-induced swelling in human primary neutrophils. Authors also suggest slightly different functions of NHE1 and PI3K activity where PI3K is also required for maintain chemoattractant-induced cell shape changes. Authors convincingly show that chemoattractant induced cell swelling is linked to cell migration and NHE1 is required for swelling at the later stages of swelling since the cells at the early point work on low-volume and low-velocity regime. Interesting authors also show that lack of swelling in NHE1 inhibited cells could be rescued by mild hypo-osmotic swelling strengthening the argument that water influx followed chemoattractant stimulation is important for potentiation for migration.

      The conclusions of this paper are mostly well supported by data and is pretty convincing

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This manuscript seeks to reconcile observations in multisensory perception - from behavior and neural responses. It is intuitively obvious that perceiving a stimulus via two senses results in better performance than one alone. In fact, it is not uncommon to observe that for a perceptual task, the percentage of correct responses seen with two senses is higher than the sum of the percentage correct obtained with each modality individually. i.e. the gains are "superadditive". The gains of adding a second sense are typically larger when the performance with the first sense is relatively poor - this effect is often called the principle of inverse effectiveness. More generally, what this tells us is that performance in a multisensory perceptual task is a non-linear sum of performance for each sensory modality alone.

      Despite this abundant evidence of behavioral non-linearity in multisensory integration, evoked responses (EEG) to such sensory stimuli often show little evidence of it - and this is the problem this manuscript tackles. The key assertion made is that univariate analysis of the EEG signal is likely to average out the non-linear effects of integration. This is a reasonable assertion, and their analysis does indeed provide evidence that a multivariate approach can reveal non-linear interactions in the evoked responses.

      Strengths:

      It is of great value to understand how the process of multisensory integration occurs, and despite a wealth of observations of the benefits of perceiving the world with multiple senses, we still lack a reasonable understanding of how the brain integrates information. For example - what underlies the large individual differences in the benefits of two senses over one? One way to tackle this is via brain imaging, but this is problematic if important features of the processing - such as non-linear interactions are obscured by the lack of specificity of the measurements. The approach they take to the analysis of the EEG data allows the authors to look in more detail at the variation in activity across EEG electrodes, which averaging across electrodes cannot.

      This version of the manuscript is well-written and for the most part clear. It shows a good understanding of the non-linear effects described above (where many studies show a poor understanding of "superadditivity" of perceptual performance) and the report of non-linear summation of neural responses is convincing.

      A particular strength of the paper is their use of a statistical model of multisensory integration as their "null" model of neural responses, and the "inverted-encoder" which infers an internal representation of the stimulus which can explain the EEG responses. This encoder generates a prediction of decoding performance, which can be used to generate predictions of multisensory decoding from unisensory decoding, or from a sum of the unisensory internal representations.

      In behavioural performance, it is frequently observed that the performance increase from two senses is close to what is expected from the optimal integration of information across the senses, in a statistical sense. It can be plausibly explained by assuming that people are able to weigh sensory inputs according to their reliability - and somewhat optimally. Critically the apparent "superadditive" effect on performance described above does not require any non-linearity in the sum of information across the senses but can arise from correctly weighting the information according to reliability.

      The authors apply a similar model to predict the neural responses expected to audiovisual stimuli from the neural responses to audio and visual stimuli alone, assuming optimal statistical integration of information. The neural responses to audiovisual stimuli exceed the predictions of this model and this is the main evidence supporting their conclusion, and it is convincing.

      Weaknesses:

      The main weakness of the manuscript is that their behavioural data show no evidence of performance that exceeds the predictions of these statistical models. In fact, the models predict multisensory performance from unisensory performance pretty well. So this manuscript presents the opposite problem to that which motivated the study - neural interactions across the senses which appear to be more non-linear than perception. This makes it hard to interpret their results, as surely if these nonlinear neural interactions underlie the behaviour, then we should be able to see evidence of it in the behaviour? I cannot offer an easy explanation for this.

      Overall, therefore, I applaud the motivation and the sophistication of the analysis method and think it shows great promise for tackling these problems, but the manuscript unfortunately brushes over an important problem specific to the results. It appeals to the higher-level reasoning - that non-linearity is a behavioural hallmark of integration and therefore we should see it in neural responses. Yet it ignores the fact that the behaviour observed here does not exceed the predictions of the "null" model applied to the neural response.

      Part of the problem, I think, is that the authors never explain the difference between superadditivity of perceptual performance (proportion correct) and superadditivity of the underlying processing, which is implied by the EEG results but not their behavior. This is of course a difficult matter to describe succinctly or clearly (I somehow doubt I have). It is however worth addressing. The literature is full of confusing claims of superadditivity. I believe these authors understand this distinction and have an opportunity to represent it clearly for the benefit of all.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this work, Duan and Curtis addressed an important issue related to the nature of working memory representations. This work is motivated by findings illustrating that orientation decoding performance for perceptual representations can be biased by the stimulus aperture (modulator). Here, the authors examined whether the decoding performance for working memory representations is similarly influenced by these aperture biases. The results provide convincing evidence that working memory representations have a different representational structure, as the decoding performance was not influenced by the type of stimulus aperture.

      Strengths:

      The strength of this work lies in the direct comparison of decoding performance for perceptual representations with working memory representations. The authors take well-motivated approach and illustrate that perceptual and working memory representations do not share a similar representational structure. The authors test a clear question, with a rigorous approach and provide compelling evidence. First, the presented oriented stimuli are carefully manipulated to create orthogonal biases introduced by the stimulus aperture (radial or angular modulator), regardless of the stimulus carrier orientation. Second, the authors implement advanced methods to decode the orientation information, in visual and parietal cortical regions, when directly perceiving or holding an oriented stimulus in memory. The data illustrates that working memory decoding is not influenced by the type of aperture, while this is the case in perception. In sum, the main claims are important and shed light on the nature of working memory representations.

      Weaknesses:

      After the authors revised the original manuscript, a few of my initial concerns remain.

      (1) Theoretical framing in the introduction. The introduction proposes that decoding of orientation information during perception does not reflect orientation selectivity, and it is instead driven by coarse scale biases. This is an overstatement. Recent work shows that orientation decoding is indeed influenced by coarse biases, but also reflects orientation selectivity (Roth, Kay & Merriam, 2022).

      (2) The description of the image computable V1 model remains incomplete. The steerable pyramid is a model that simulates the responses of V1 neurons. To do so, it incorporates a set of linear receptive fields with varying orientation and spatial frequency tuning. However, the information that is lacking in the Methods is whether the implemented pyramid also included two quadrature phase pairs (odd and even phase Gabor filters making the output phase invariant). The sum of the squares of the responses to these offset phase filters computes the stimulus energy within each orientation and spatial frequency channel. Without this description, it is unclear what the model output represents.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this manuscript, Alam et al. sought to understand how memory interacts with incoming visual information to effectively guide human behavior by using a task that combines spatial contexts (houses) with objects of one or multiple semantic categories. Three additional datasets (all from separate participants) were also employed: one that functionally localized regions of interest (ROIs) based on subtractions of different visually presented category types (in this case, scenes, objects, and scrambled objects); another consisting of resting-state functional connectivity scans, and a section of the Human Connectome Project that employed DTI data for structural connectivity analysis. Across multiple analyses, the authors identify dissociations between regions preferentially activated during scene or object judgments, between the functional connectivity of regions demonstrating such preferences, and in the anatomical connectivity of these same regions. The authors conclude that the processing streams that take in visual information and support semantic or spatial processing are largely parallel and distinct.

      Strengths:

      (1) Recent work has reconceptualized the classic default mode network as two parallel and interdigitated systems (e.g., Braga & Buckner, 2017; DiNicola et al., 2021). The current manuscript is timely in that it attempts to describe how information is differentially processed by two streams that appear to begin in visual cortex and connect to different default subnetworks. Even at a group level where neuroanatomy is necessarily blurred across individuals, these results provide clear evidence of stimulus-based dissociation.

      (2) The manuscript contains a large number of analyses across multiple independent datasets. It is therefore unlikely that a single experimenter choice in any given analysis would spuriously produce the overall pattern of results reported in this work.

      Weaknesses:

      (1) Throughout the manuscript, a strong distinction is drawn between semantic and spatial processing. However, given that only objects and spatial contexts were employed in the primary experiment, it is not clear that a broader conceptual distinction is warranted between "semantic" and "spatial" cognition. There are multiple grounds for concern regarding this basic premise of the manuscript.<br /> a. One can have conceptual knowledge of different types of scenes or spatial contexts. A city street will consistently differ from a beach in predictable ways, and a kitchen context provides different expectations than a living room. Such distinctions reflect semantic knowledge of scene-related concepts, but in the present work spatial and "all other" semantic information are considered and discussed as distinct and separate.<br /> b. As a related question, are scenes uniquely different from all other types of semantic/category information? If faces were used instead of scenes, could one expect to see different regions of the visual cortex coupling with task-defined face > object ROIs? The current data do not speak to this possibility, but as written the manuscript suggests that all (non-spatial) semantic knowledge should be processed by the FT-DMN.<br /> c. Recent precision fMRI studies characterizing networks corresponding to the FT-DMN and MTL-DMN have associated the former with social cognition and the latter with scene construction/spatial processing (DiNicola et al., 2020; 2021; 2023). This is only briefly mentioned by the authors in the current manuscript (p. 28), and when discussed, the authors draw a distinction between semantic and social or emotional "codes" when noting that future work is necessary to support the generality of the current claims. However, if generality is a concern, then emphasizing the distinction between object-centric and spatial cognition, rather than semantic and spatial cognition, would represent a more conservative and better-supported theoretical point in the current manuscript.

      (2) Both the retrosplenial/parieto-occipital sulcus and parahippocampal regions are adjacent to the visual network as defined using the Yeo et al. atlas, and spatial smoothness of the data could be impacting connectivity metrics here in a way that qualitatively differs from the (non-adjacent) FT-DMN ROIs. Although this proximity is a basic property of network locations on the cortical surface, the authors have several tools at their disposal that could be employed to help rule out this possibility. They might, for instance, reduce the smoothing in their multi-echo data, as the current 5 mm kernel is larger than the kernel used in Experiment 2's single-echo resting-state data. Spatial smoothing is less necessary in multi-echo data, as thermal noise can be attenuated by averaging over time (echoes) instead of space (see Gonzalez-Castillo et al., 2016 for discussion). Some multi-echo users have eschewed explicit spatial smoothing entirely (e.g., Ramot et al., 2021), just as the authors of the current paper did for their RSA analysis. Less smoothing of E1 data, combined with a local erosion of either the MTL-DMN and VIS masks (or both) near their points of overlap in the RSFC data, would improve confidence that the current results are not driven, at least in part, by spatial mixing of otherwise distinct network signals.

      (3) The authors identify a region of the right angular gyrus as demonstrating a "potential role in integrating the visual-to-DMN pathways." This would seem to imply that lesion damage to right AG should produce difficulties in integrating "semantic" and "spatial" knowledge. Are the authors aware of such a literature? If so, this would be an important point to make in the manuscript as it would tie in yet another independent source of information relevant to the framework being presented. The closest of which I am aware involves deficits in cued recall performance when associates consisted of auditory-visual pairings (Ben-Zvi et al., 2015), but that form of multi-modal pairing is distinct from the "spatial-semantic" integration forwarded in the current manuscript.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      The authors attempt to establish presaccadic pupil size as an index of 'saccade effort' and propose this index as one new predictor of saccade target selection. They only partially achieved their aim: When choosing between two saccade directions, the less costly direction, according to preceding pupil size, is preferred. However, the claim that with increased cognitive demand participants would especially cut costly directions is not supported by the data. I would have expected to see a negative correlation between saccade effort and saccade direction 'change' under increased load. Yet participants mostly cut upwards saccades, but not other directions that, according to pupil size, are equally or even more costly (e.g. oblique saccades).

      Strengths:

      The paper is well-written, easy to understand, and nicely illustrated.

      The sample size seems appropriate, and the data were collected and analyzed using solid and validated methodology.

      Overall, I find the topic of investigating factors that drive saccade choices highly interesting and relevant.

      Weaknesses:

      The authors obtain pupil size and saccade preference measures in two separate tasks. Relating these two measures is problematic because the computations that underly saccade preparation differ. In Experiment 1, the saccade is cued centrally, and has to be delayed until a "go-signal" is presented; In Experiment 2, an immediate saccade is executed to an exogenously cued peripheral target. The 'costs' in Experiment 1 (computing the saccade target location from a central cue; withholding the saccade) do not relate to Experiment 2. It is unfortunate, that measuring presaccadic pupil size directly in the comparatively more 'natural' Experiment 2 (where saccades did not have to be artificially withheld) does not seem to be possible. This questions the practical application of pupil size as an index of saccade effort

      The authors claim that the observed direction-specific 'saccade costs' obtained in Experiment 1 "were not mediated by differences in saccade properties, such as duration, amplitude, peak velocity, and landing precision (Figure 1e,f)". Saccade latency, however, was not taken into account here but is discussed for Experiment 2.

      The apparent similarity of saccade latencies and pupil size, however, is striking. Previous work shows shorter latencies for cardinal than oblique saccades, and shorter latencies for horizontal and upward saccades than downward saccades - directly reflecting the pupil sizes obtained in Experiment 1 as well as in the authors' previous study (Koevoet et al., 2023, PsychScience).

      -

      The authors state that "from a costs-perspective, it should be efficient to not only adjust the number of saccades (non-specific), but also by cutting especially expensive directions the most (specific)". However, saccade targets should be selected based on the maximum expected information gain. If cognitive load increases (due to an additional task) an effective strategy seems to be to perform less - but still meaningful - saccades. How would it help natural orienting to selectively cut saccades in certain (effortful) directions? Choosing saccade targets based on comfort, over information gain, would result in overall more saccades to be made - which is non-optimal, also from a cost perspective.

      Overall, I am not sure what practical relevance the relation between pupil size (measured in a separate experiment) and saccade decisions has for eye movement research/vision science. Pupil size does not seem to be a straightforward measure of saccade effort. Saccade latency, instead, can be easily extracted in any eye movement experiment (no need to conduct a separate, delayed saccade task to measure pupil dilation), and seems to be an equally good index.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this study, Vicaro et al. aimed to quantify and characterize mosaic mutations in human sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain samples. They focused on three broad classes of brain cells, neurons that express the marker NeuN, microglia that express the marker PU.1, and double-negative cells that presumably comprise all other brain cell types, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, and endothelial cells. The authors find an enrichment of potentially pathogenic somatic mutations in AD microglia compared to controls, with MAPK pathway genes being particularly enriched for somatic mutations in those cells. The authors report a striking enrichment for mutations in the gene CBL and use in vitro functional assays to show that these mutations indeed induce MAPK pathway activation.

      The current state of the AD and somatic mutation fields puts this work into context. First, AD is a devastating disease whose prevalence is only increasing as the population of the U.S. is aging, necessitating the investigation of novel features of AD to identify new therapeutic opportunities. Second, microglia have recently come into focus as important players in AD pathogenesis. Many AD risk genes are selectively expressed in microglia, and microglia from AD brain samples show a distinct transcriptional profile indicating an inflammatory phenotype. The authors' previous work shows that a genetic mouse model of mosaic BRAF activation in macrophages (including microglia) displays a neurodegenerative phenotype similar to AD (Mass et al., 2017, doi:10.1038/nature23672). Third, new technological developments have allowed for identifying mosaic mutations present in only a small fraction of or even single cells. Together, these data form a rationale for studying mosaic mutations in microglia in AD. In light of the authors' findings regarding MAPK pathway gene somatic mutations, it is also important to note that MAPK has previously been implicated in AD neuroinflammation in the literature.

      Strengths:

      The study demonstrated several strengths.

      Firstly, the authors used two methods to identify mosaic mutations:<br /> (1) deep (~1,100x) DNA sequencing of a targeted panel of 716 genes they hypothesized might, if mutated somatically, play a role in AD, and<br /> (2) deep (400x) whole-exome sequencing (WES) to identify clonal mosaics outside of those 716 genes.

      A second strength is the agreement between these experiments, where WES found many variants identified in the panel experiment, and both experiments revealed somatic mutations in MAPK pathway genes.

      Third, the authors demonstrated in several in vitro systems that many mutations they identified in MAPK genes activate MAPK signaling. Finally, the authors showed that in some human brain samples, single-cell gene expression analysis revealed that cells bearing a mosaic MAPK pathway mutation displayed dysregulated inflammatory signaling and dysregulation in other pathways. This single-cell analysis was in agreement with their in vitro analyses.

      Weaknesses:

      The study also showed some weaknesses. The sample size (45 AD donors and 44 controls) is small, reflected in the relatively modest effect sizes and p-values observed. This weakness is partially ameliorated by the authors' extensive molecular and functional validation of mutation candidates. Another weakness is the lack of discussion of whether the genes found to be mutated somatically in AD show any AD-risk alleles in the population. If they did, it would further support the authors' conclusions that they are playing a role in AD. Finally, as the authors point out, this study cannot conclude whether microglial mosaic mutations cause AD or are an effect of AD. Future studies may shed more light on this important question.

      Conclusions and Impact:

      Considering the study's aims, strengths, and weaknesses, I conclude that the authors achieved their goal of characterizing the role of mosaic mutations in human AD. Their data strongly suggest that mosaic MAPK mutations in microglia are associated with AD. The impacts of this study remain to be seen, but they could include attempts to target CBL or other mutated genes in the treatment of AD. This work also suggests a similar approach to identifying potentially causative somatic mutations in other neurodegenerative diseases.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This is a very interesting paper that leveraged several publicly available datasets: invasive cortical recording in epilepsy patients, functional and structural connectomic data, and PET data related to dopaminergic and gaba-ergic synapses. These were combined to create a unified hypothesis of beta band oscillatory activity in the human brain. They show that beta frequency activity is ubiquitous, not just in sensorimotor areas, and cortical regions where beta predominated had high connectivity to regions high in dopamine re-update.

      Strengths:

      The authors leverage and integrate three publicly available human brain datasets in a creative way. While these public datasets are powerful tools for human neuroscience, it is innovative to combine these three types of data into a common brain space to generate novel findings and hypotheses. Findings are nicely controlled by separately examining cortical regions where alpha predominates (which have a different connectivity pattern). GABA uptake from PET studies is used as a control for the specificity of the relationship between beta activity and dopamine uptake. There is much interest in synchronized oscillatory activity as a mechanism of brain function and dysfunction, but the field is short on unifying hypotheses of why particular rhythms predominate in particular regions. This paper contributes nicely to that gap. It is ambitious in generating hypotheses, particularly that modulation of beta activity may be used as a "proxy" for modulating phasic dopamine release.

      Weaknesses:

      As the authors point out, the use of normative data is excellent for exploring hypotheses but does not address or explore individual variations which could lead to other insights. It is also biased to resting state activity; maps of task-related activity (if they were available) might show different findings.

      The figures, results, introduction, and methods are admirably clear and succinct but the discussion could be both shorter and more convincing.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Recent studies have identified specific regions within the occipito-temporal cortex as part of a broader fronto-parietal, domain-general, or "multiple-demand" (MD) network that mediates fluid intelligence (gF). According to the abstract, the authors aim to explore the mechanistic roles of these occipito-temporal regions by examining GABA/glutamate concentrations. However, the introduction presents a different rationale: investigating whether area MT+ specifically, could be a core component of the MD network.

      Strengths:

      The authors provide evidence that GABA concentrations in MT+ and its functional connectivity with frontal areas significantly correlate with visuo-spatial intelligence performance. Additionally, serial mediation analysis suggests that inhibitory mechanisms in MT+ contribute to individual differences in a specific subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, which assesses visuo-spatial aspects of gF.

      Weaknesses:

      While the findings are compelling and the analyses robust, the study's rationale and interpretations need strengthening. For instance, Assem et al. (2020) have previously defined the core and extended MD networks, identifying the occipito-temporal regions as TE1m and TE1p, which are located more rostrally than MT+. Area MT+ might overlap with brain regions identified previously in Fedorenko et al., 2013, however the authors attribute these activations to attentional enhancement of visual representations in the more difficult conditions of their tasks. For the aforementioned reasons, It is unclear why the authors chose MT+ as their focus. A stronger rationale for this selection is necessary and how it fits with the core/extended MD networks.

      Moreover, although the study links MT+ inhibitory mechanisms to a visuo-spatial component of gF, this evidence alone may not suffice to position MT+ as a new core of the MD network. The MD network's definition typically encompasses a range of cognitive domains, including working memory, mathematics, language, and relational reasoning. Therefore, the claim that MT+ represents a new core of MD needs to be supported by more comprehensive evidence.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This study takes advantage of multiple methodological advances to perform layer-specific staining of cortical neurons and tracking of their axons to identify the pattern of their projections. This publication offers a mesoscale view of the projection patterns of neurons in the whisker primary and secondary somatosensory cortex. The authors report that, consistent with the literature, the pattern of projection is highly different across cortical layers and subtype, with targets being located around the whole brain. This was tested across 6 different mouse types that expressed a marker in layer 2/3, layer 4, layer 5 (3 sub-types) and layer 6.<br /> Looking more closely at the projections from primary somatosensory cortex into the primary motor cortex, they found that there was a significant spatial clustering of projections from topographically separated neurons across the primary somatosensory cortex. This was true for neurons with cell bodies located across all tested layers/types.

      Strengths:

      This study successfully looks at the relevant scale to study projection patterns, which is the whole brain. This is achieved thanks to an ambitious combination of mouse lines, immuno-histochemistry, imaging and image processing, which results in a standardized histological pipeline that processes the whole-brain projection patterns of layer-selected neurons of the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex.<br /> This standardization means that comparisons between cell-types projection patterns are possible and that both the large-scale structure of the pattern and the minute details of the intra-areas pattern are available.<br /> This reference dataset and the corresponding analysis code are made available to the research community.

      Weaknesses:

      One major question raised by this dataset is the risk of missing axons during the post-processing step. Indeed, it appears that the control and training efforts have focused on the risk of false positives (see Figure 1 supplementary panels). And indeed, the risk of overlooking existing axons in the raw fluorescence data id discussed in the article.

      Based on the data reported in the article, this is more than a risk. In particular, Figure 2 shows an example Rbp4-L5 mouse where axonal spread seems massive in Hippocampus, while there is no mention of this area in the processed projection data for this mouse line.

      Similarily, the Ntsr1-L6CT example shows a striking level of fluorescence in Striatum, that does not reflect in the amount of axons that are detected by the algorithms in the next figures.<br /> These apparent discrepancies may be due to non axonal-specific fluorescence in the samples. In any case, further analysis of such anatomical areas would be useful to consolidate the valuable dataset provided by the article.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors re-analyse MEG data from a speech production and perception study and extend their previous Granger causality analysis to a larger number of cortical-cortical and in particular cortical-subcortical connections. Regions of interest were defined by means of a meta-analysis using Neurosynth.org and connectivity patterns were determined by calculating directed influence asymmetry indices from the Granger causality analysis results for each pair of brain regions. Abbasi et al. report feedforward signals communicated via fast rhythms and feedback signals via slow rhythms below 40 Hz, particularly during speaking. The authors highlight one of these connections between the right cerebellum lobule VI and auditory association area A5, where in addition the connection strength correlates negatively with the strength of speech tracking in the theta band during speaking (significant before multiple comparison correction). Results are interpreted within a framework of active inference by minimising prediction errors.

      While I find investigating the role of cortical-subcortical connections in speech production and perception interesting and relevant to the field, I am not yet convinced that the methods employed are fully suitable to this endeavour or that the results provide sufficient evidence to make the strong claim of dissociation of bottom-up and top-down information flow during speaking in distinct frequency bands.

      Strengths:

      The investigation of electrophysiological cortical-subcortical connections in speech production and perception is interesting and relevant to the field. The authors analyse a valuable dataset, where they spent a considerable amount of effort to correct for speech production-related artefacts. Overall, the manuscript is well-written and clearly structured.

      Weaknesses:

      The description of the multivariate Granger causality analysis did not allow me to fully grasp how the analysis was performed and I hence struggled to evaluate its appropriateness.<br /> Knowing that (1) filtered Granger causality is prone to false positives and (2) recent work demonstrates that significant Granger causality can simply arise from frequency-specific activity being present in the source but not the target area without functional relevance for communication (Schneider et al. 2021) raises doubts about the validity of the results, in particular with respect to their frequency specificity. These doubts are reinforced by what I perceive as an overemphasis on results that support the assumption of specific frequencies for feedforward and top-down connections, while findings not aligning with this hypothesis appear to be underreported. Furthermore, the authors report some main findings that I found difficult to reconcile with the data presented in the figures. Overall, I feel the conclusions with respect to frequency-specific bottom-up and top-down information flow need to be moderated and that some of the reported findings need to be checked and if necessary corrected.

      Major points

      (1) I think more details on the multivariate GC approach are needed. I found the reference to Schaum et al., 2021 not sufficient to understand what has been done in this paper. Some questions that remained for me are:

      (i) Does multivariate here refer to the use of the authors' three components per parcel or to the conditioning on the remaining twelve sources? I think the latter is implied when citing Schaum et al., but I'm not sure this is what was done here?

      If it was not: how can we account for spurious results based on indirect effects?

      (ii) Did the authors check whether the GC of the course-target pairs was reliably above the bias level (as Schaum et. al. did for each condition separately)? If not, can they argue why they think that their results would still be valid? Does it make sense to compute DAIs on connections that were below the bias level? Should the data be re-analysed to take this concern into account?

      (iii) You may consider citing the paper that introduced the non-parametric GC analysis (which Schaum et al. then went on to apply): Dhamala M, Rangarajan G, Ding M. Analyzing Information Flow in Brain Networks with Nonparametric Granger Causality. Neuroimage. 2008; 41(2):354-362. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.02. 020

      (2) GC has been discouraged for filtered data as it gives rise to false positives due to phase distortions and the ineffectiveness of filtering in the information-theoretic setting as reducing the power of a signal does not reduce the information contained in it (Florin et al., 2010; Barnett and Seth, 2011; Weber et al. 2017; Pinzuti et al., 2020 - who also suggest an approach that would circumvent those filter-related issues). With this in mind, I am wondering whether the strong frequency-specific claims in this work still hold.

      (3) I found it difficult to reconcile some statements in the manuscript with the data presented in the figures:

      (i) Most notably, the considerable number of feedforward connections from A5 and STS that project to areas further up the hierarchy at slower rhythms (e.g. L-A5 to R-PEF, R-Crus2, L CB6 L-Tha, L-FOP and L-STS to R-PEF, L-FOP, L-TOPJ or R-A5 as well as R-STS both to R-Crus2, L-CB6, L-Th) contradict the authors' main message that 'feedback signals were communicated via slow rhythms below 40 Hz, whereas feedforward signals were communicated via faster rhythms'. I struggled to recognise a principled approach that determined which connections were highlighted and reported and which ones were not.

      (ii) "Our analysis also revealed robust connectivity between the right cerebellum and the left parietal cortex, evident in both speaking and listening conditions, with stronger connectivity observed during speaking. Notably, Figure 4 depicts a prominent frequency peak in the alpha band, illustrating the specific frequency range through which information flows from the cerebellum to the parietal areas." There are two peaks discernible in Figure 4, one notably lower than the alpha band (rather theta or even delta), the other at around 30 Hz. Nevertheless, the authors report and discuss a peak in the alpha band.

      (iii) In the abstract: "Notably, high-frequency connectivity was absent during the listening condition." and p.9 "In contrast with what we reported for the speaking condition, during listening, there is only a significant connectivity in low frequency to the left temporal area but not a reverse connection in the high frequencies."<br /> While Fig. 4 shows significant connectivity from R-CB6 to A5 in the gamma frequency range for the speaking, but not for the listening condition, interpreting comparisons between two effects without directly comparing them is a common statistical mistake (Makin and Orban de Xivry). The spectrally-resolved connectivity in the two conditions actually look remarkably similar and I would thus refrain from highlighting this statement and indicate clearly that there were no significant differences between the two conditions.

      (iv) "This result indicates that in low frequencies, the sensory-motor area and cerebellum predominantly transmit information, while in higher frequencies, they are more involved in receiving it."<br /> I don't think that this statement holds in its generality: L-CB6 and R-3b both show strong output at high frequencies, particularly in the speaking condition. While they seem to transmit information mainly to areas outside A5 and STS these effects are strong and should be discussed.

      (4) "However, definitive conclusions should be drawn with caution given recent studies raising concerns about the notion that top-down and bottom-up signals can only be transmitted via separate frequency channels (Ferro et al., 2021; Schneider et al., 2021; Vinck et al., 2023)."

      I appreciate this note of caution and think it would be useful if it were spelled out to the reader why this is the case so that they would be better able to grasp the main concerns here. For example, Schneider et al. make a strong point that we expect to find Granger-causality with a peak in a specific frequency band for areas that are anatomically connected when the sending area shows stronger activity in that band than the receiving one, simply because of the coherence of a signal with its own linear projection onto the other area. The direction of a Granger causal connection would in that case only indicate that one area shows stronger activity than the other in the given frequency band. I am wondering to what degree the reported connectivity pattern can be traced back to regional differences in frequency-specific source strength or to differences in source strength across the two conditions.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Han et al. present a manuscript focusing on difference metabolism and the regulatory circuits controlling it in C. elegans fed two bacterial diets. In the first three figures and a half figures, using a combination of methods, they investigate lipid levels, changes in gene expression and genetic assays to come to the conclusion that vitamin B12 acts through the S-adenosylmethioine synthase sams-1 to perturb phosphatidylcholine levels, which in turn stimulate the C. elegans ortholog of the SREBP transcription factors to activate fatty acid synthesis genes such as fat-7/SCD1. Thus, while connections between diet, metabolic pathways and gene regulation is of general interest, this study largely confirms the work of others without direct credit in many instances, then fails to develop a more novel cell non-autonomous link between the pathways in the last two figures. Thus, this study would be expected to have a useful impact on the field, if it can be placed in context of previously published work.

      Strengths:

      (1) Connections between diet, metabolic pathways and gene regulation is of general interest<br /> (2) Figures 1-4 confirm data/observations from previously published work from MacNeil, et al. Cell 2015; Walker, et al. Cell 2011; Svensk, et al. PLoS Genetics 2013; Smulan, et al. Cell Reports, 2016; Giese, et al. eLife 2020 and Qin, et al. Cell Reports 2022..<br /> (3) The data in figures 5 and 6 showing importance of non-cell autonomous effects on metabolism.

      Weaknesses:

      (1) In order to differentiate their study from previous work, it seems that the authors try to make the argument that PC is higher in Comomonas than E. coli, therefore they are looking at repression of SBP-1-dependent function, however, the pairing of the diets is arbitrary, and the comparisons could easily be reversed. They are simply comparing a higher to a lower level of PC, rather than a basal to a lower, thus the concepts are the same. In addition, they fail to cite the larger body of literature linking phospholipid balance to SREBP function. For example, multiple studies in mammalian models link phospholipid balance, not just lowered PC, to SREBP function: Lim, Genes and Dev 2011; Wang, et al. Cell Stem Cell, 2018; Rong, et al. J Clin Invest 2017; Smulan et al, Cell Reports, 2016; Dobrosotskaya, Science. 2002 and recently, Rong, et al. Cell Met 2024.

      (2) Figure 1: For example, the data in figure 1, shows measures of lipid content, RNA seq showing changes in metabolic enzymes such as fat-7/SCD-1 and lipid levels have already been shown in MacNeil, et al. Cell 2013 (lipid levels and gene expression changes) and the lipid levels in Comomonas vs E. coli were published in Ditot, et al. Nature Communications 2022 by Dr. Marian Walhout's lab.

      (3) Figure 2/3: In Figure 2 and 3, they use a genetic screen to find regulators of fat-7/scd1 expression, and unsurprisingly, pull out genes with known to regulate this pathway. The authors go on to show that changes in SAM lead to changes in PC, and affect SBP-1/SREBP-1-dependent lipogenesis. This is a well described pathway from publications by the Walhout lab, Dr. Amy Walker's lab and Dr. Marc Pilon's lab (Walker, et al. Cell 2011; Svensk, et al. PLoS Genetics 2013; Smulan, et al. Cell Reports, 2016; Giese, et al. eLife 2020) in addition to a recent publication, Qin, et al. Cell Reports 2022. While some of these studies are cited in other places in the manuscript, the authors describe their results as "discovery", then fail to cite the relevant studies at those points (selected examples below

      (4) Selected examples of citation issues:

      a) Selected example: pg 6: "To understand the mechanism underlying the regulation of host lipid content triggered by DA, we examined the gene expression changes elicited by the two different bacterial diets in young adult animals by RNA-seq...In particular, genes related to the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids showed a significant decrease in expression in DA-fed worms. For example, the delta-(9) fatty acid desaturases, fat-5 and fat-7, (which convert fatty acids 16:0 to 16:1n7 and 18:0 to 18:1n9, respectively32) decreased"

      MacNeil et al Cell 2013 published a transcriptomics comparing young adult DA and Op50, which demonstrated decreases in fat-5 and fat-7. While MacNeil is cited in other parts of the paper, since the authors have performed a highly similar experiment and obtained similar results, this should be described as confirming the MacNeil study rather than as new data.

      b) Selected Example: pg 10: "To determine whether PC levels have a causal effect on organismal lipid content, we supplemented worm diets with choline, the PC precursor, and uncovered a dose-dependent decrease in lipid content as measured by O.R.O staining (Figure 3B)."

      Addition of choline to supplement defects in PC synthesis was first shown by Brendza, et al. Biochem J 2007. It was confirmed in Walker, et al. 2011, and further confirmation of PC rescue show in Ding, et al. 2015. The Brendza study is not cited at all and while studies from the Walker lab are cited in other places, the authors omit that changes in the DA diet are the same as changes seen when choline rescues PC loss from other perturbations.

      c) Selected Example: pg 9: "Notably, DA has been reported as a B12-rich bacterium compared to OP16, hinting at the possibility that the DA diet might boost dietary B12 levels."

      Reference 16 is Watson, et al. Cell 2015 where the Walhout lab demonstrates that DA does in fact act through the diet to alter the Met/SAM cycle and other B12 dependent processes in C. elegans. This paper, along with MacNeil above broke ground in linking B12 and the Met/SAM cycle to specific phenotypes in C. elegans, which was followed up by extensive work from the Walhout lab on this cycle, thus, it seems odd that the authors describe their own data as "hinting" at this connection.

      d) Selected example: pg 17: "Indeed, this is further supported by our observation that mutants of histone methyltransferases SET-2 and SET-30 (which install H3K4me1 and H3K4me2, respectively) exhibited elevated lipid content on DA diet (data not shown). Notably, while both set-2 and set-30 mutants had this effect, only set-2 appears to control fat-7 expression (data not shown)". Extensive work from Dr. Anne Brunet's lab (Greer, et al. Nature 2010; Greer, et al. Nature 2011; Han, et al. Nature 2017) link set-2 and H3K4 methylation to lipid accumulation and fat-7. The authors fail to cite these studies.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The study by Li et al. aimed to demonstrate the role of the G𝛾13-mediated signal transduction pathway in tuft cell-driven inflammation resolution and repairing injured lung tissue. The authors showed the reduced number of tuft cells in the parenchyma of G𝛾13 null lungs following viral infection. Mice with a G𝛾13 null mutation showed increased lung damage and heightened macrophage infiltration when exposed to the H1N1 virus. Their further findings suggested that lung inflammation resolution, epithelial barrier and fibrosis were worsen in G𝛾13 null mutants.

      Strengths:

      The revised study carefully analyzed phenotypes in mice lacking G𝛾13 in response to viral infection, providing further support that G𝛾13+ tuft cells play a role in the resolution of inflammation and injury repair.

  2. May 2024
    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This manuscript shows detailed evidence about the role of cohesin regulator in rice meiosis and mitosis

      Strengths:

      There is a very clear mechanism for its role during replication

      Weaknesses:

      The authors did not consider to create heterozygous mutants for the replication fork.

      April 15. Revisions read.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      The authors identify a third component in the interaction between myosin Va and melanophilin- an interaction between a 32-residue sequence encoded by exon-g in myosin Va and melanophilin's actin binding domain. This interaction has implications for how melanosome motility may be regulated.

      The authors have now included some necessary controls that were requested. In terms of adding new information to increase the significance and impact of the paper, they added a single affinity measurement. Unfortunately, it did not involve Exon G specifically. Moreover, they did not add any new mechanistic or functional data to provide a more conceptual advance. For example, is the Exon G interaction regulated by phosphorylation? Is this what dictates the choice between Mlph's actin binding domain (ABD) binding to actin or to exon-G. How does local actin concentration influence this decision. What changes regarding melanosome dynamics in cells between these two alternatives? Do in vitro reconstitution assays show that binding to Exon-G instead of actin affects the processivity of a Rab27a/Myosin 5a/Mlph transport complex? Finally, while the authors make clear in the abstract and text that they are just identifying a third component that mediates the Melanophilin-dependent association of myosin-5a with melanosomes, the title gives the impression that they identified all three in this manuscript. I really think the title should be changed to something like Identification of a third component that mediates the Melanophilin-dependent association of myosin-5a with melanosomes, as this accurately reflects what is new in this work.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this new paper, the authors used biochemical, structural, and biophysical methods to elucidate the mechanisms by which IP4, the PIP3 headgroup, can induce an autoinhibit form of P-Rex1 and propose a model of how PIP3 can trigger long-range conformational changes of P-Rex1 to relieve this autoinhibition. The main findings of this study are that a new P-Rex1 autoinhibition is driven by an IP4-induced binding of the PH domain to the DH domain active site and that this autoinhibit form stabilized by two key interactions between DEP1 and DH and between PH and IP4P 4-helix bundle (4HB) subdomain. Moreover, they found that the binding of phospholipid PIP3 to the PH domain can disrupt these interactions to relieve P-Rex1 autoinhibition.

      Strengths:

      The study provides good evidence that binding of IP4 to the P-Rex1 PH domain can make the two long-range interactions between the catalytic DH domain and the first DEP domain, and between the PH domain and the C-terminal IP4P 4HB subdomain that generate a novel P-Rex1 autoinhibition mechanism. This valuable finding adds an extra layer of P-Rex1 regulation (perhaps in the cytoplasm) to the synergistic activation by phospholipid PIP3 and the heterotrimeric Gβγ subunits at the plasma membrane. Overall, this manuscript's goal sounds interesting, the experimental data were carried out carefully and reliably.

      Weakness:

      The set of experiments with the disulfide bond S235C/M244C caused a bit of confusion for interpretation, it should be moved into the supplement, and the text and Figure 4 were altered accordingly.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This study represents an ambitious endeavor to comprehensively analyze the role of miR-199a/b-5p and its networks in cartilage formation. By conducting experiments that go beyond in vitro MSC differentiation models, more robust conclusions can be achieved.

      Strengths:

      This research investigates the role of miR-199a/b-5p during chondrogenesis using bioinformatics and in vitro experimental systems. The significance of miRNAs in chondrogenesis and OA is crucial, warranting further research, and this study contributes novel insights.

      Weaknesses:

      While miR-140 and miR-455 are used as controls, these miRNAs have been demonstrated to be more relevant to Cartilage Homeostasis than chondrogenesis itself. Their deficiency has been genetically proven to induce Osteoarthritis in mice. Therefore, the results of this study should be considered in comparison with these existing findings.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This manuscript mainly studied the biological effect of tenascin XB (TNXB) on hemophilic arthropathy (HA) progression. Using bioinformatic and histopathological approaches, the authors identified the novel candidate gene TNXB for HA. Next, authors showed that TNXB knockdown lead to chondrocyte apoptosis, matrix degeneration and subchondral bone loss in vivo/vitro. Furthermore, AKT agonist promoted extracellular matrix synthesis and prevented apoptosis in TNXB knockdown chondrocytes.

      Strengths:

      In general, this study significantly advances our understanding of HA pathogenesis. The authors utilize comprehensive experimental strategies to demonstrate the role of TNXB in cartilage degeneration associated with HA. The results are clearly presented, and the conclusions appear appropriate.

      Weaknesses:

      Additional clarification is required regarding the gender of the F8-/- mouse in the study. Is the mouse male or female?

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This study takes a new approach to studying the role of corticofugal projections from auditory cortex to inferior colliculus. The authors performed two-photon imaging of cortico-recipient IC neurons during a click detection task in mice with and without lesions of auditory cortex. In both groups of animals, they observed similar task performance and relatively small differences in the encoding of task-response variables in the IC population. They conclude that non-cortical inputs to the IC provide can substantial task-related modulation, at least when AC is absent.

      Strengths:

      This study provides valuable new insight into big and challenging questions around top-down modulation of activity in the IC. The approach here is novel and appears to have been executed thoughtfully. Thus, it should be of interest to the community.

      Weaknesses:

      There are however, substantial concerns about the interpretation of the findings and limitations to the current analysis. In particular, Analysis of single unit activity is absent, making interpretation of population clusters and decoding less interpretable. These concerns should be addressed to make sure that the results can be interpreted clearly in an active field that already contains a number of confusing and possibly contradictory findings.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors' report describes a novel vaccine platform derived from a newly discovered organelle called a migrasome. First, the authors address a technical hurdle in using migrasomes as a vaccine platform. Natural migrasome formation occurs at low levels and is labor intensive, however, by understanding the molecular underpinning of migrasome formation, the authors have designed a method to make engineered migrasomes from cultured, cells at higher yields utilizing a robust process. These engineered migrasomes behave like natural migrasomes. Next, the authors immunized mice with migrasomes that either expressed a model peptide or the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Antibodies against the spike protein were raised that could be boosted by a 2nd vaccination and these antibodies were functional as assessed by an in vitro pseudoviral assay. This new vaccine platform has the potential to overcome obstacles such as cold chain issues for vaccines like messenger RNA that require very stringent storage conditions.

      Strengths:

      The authors present very robust studies detailing the biology behind migrasome formation and this fundamental understanding was used to form engineered migrasomes, which makes it possible to utilize migrasomes as a vaccine platform. The characterization of engineered migrasomes is thorough and establishes comparability with naturally occurring migrasomes. The biophysical characterization of the migrasomes is well done including thermal stability and characterization of the particle size (important characterizations for a good vaccine).

      Weaknesses:

      With a new vaccine platform technology, it would be nice to compare them head-to-head against a proven technology. The authors would improve the manuscript if they made some comparisons to other vaccine platforms such as a SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine or even an adjuvanted recombinant spike protein. This would demonstrate a migrasome-based vaccine could elicit responses comparable to a proven vaccine technology. Additionally, understanding the integrity of the antigens expressed in their migrasomes could be useful. This could be done by looking at functional monoclonal antibodies binding to their migrasomes in a confocal microscopy experiment.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The aim of the study was to understand how cells of the skin communicate across dermal layers. The research group has previously demonstrated that cellular connections called airinemes contribute to this communication. The current work builds upon this knowledge by showing that differentiated keratinocytes also use cytonemes, specialized signaling filopodia, to communicate with undifferentiated keratinocytes. They show that cytonemes are the more abundant type of cellular extension used for communication between the differentiated keratinocyte layer and the undifferentiated keratinocytes. Disruption of cytoneme formation led to the expansion of the undifferentiated keratinocytes into the periderm, mimicking skin diseases like psoriasis. The authors go on to show that disruption of cytonemes results in perturbations in Notch signaling between the differentiated keratinocytes of the periderm and the underlying proliferating undifferentiated keratinocytes. Further, the authors show that Interleukin-17, also known to drive psoriasis, can restrict the formation of periderm cytonemes, possibly through the inhibition of Cdc42 expression. This work suggests that cytoneme-mediated Notch signaling plays a central role in normal epidermal regulation. The authors propose that disruption of cytoneme function may be an underlying cause of various human skin diseases.

      Strengths:

      The authors provide strong evidence that periderm keratinocytes cytonemes contain the notch ligand DeltaC to promote Notch activation in the underlying intermediate layer to regulate accurate epidermal maintenance.

      Weaknesses:

      The impact of the study would be increased if the mechanism by which Interlukin-17 and Cdc42 collaborate to regulate cytonemes was defined. Experiments measuring Cdc42 activity, rather than just measuring expression, would strengthen the conclusions.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Juvenile hormone (JH) is a pleiotropic terpenoid hormone in insects that mainly regulates their development and reproduction. In particular, its developmental functions are described as the "status quo" action, as its presence in the hemolymph (the insect blood) prevents metamorphosis-initiating effects of ecdysone, another important hormone in insect development, and maintains the juvenile status of insects.

      While such canonical functions of JH are known to be mediated by its intracellular receptor complex composed of Met and Tai, there have been multiple reports suggesting the presence of cell membrane receptor(s) for JH, which mediate non-genomic effects of this terpenoid hormone. In particular, the presence of receptor tyrosine kinase(s) that phosphorylate Met/Tai in response to JH and thus indirectly affect the canonical JH signaling pathway has been strongly suggested. Given the importance of JH in insect physiology and the fact that the JH signaling pathway is a major target of insect growth regulators, elucidating the identification and functions of putative JH membrane receptors is of great significance from both basic and applied perspectives.

      In the present study, the authors identified candidate receptors for such cell membrane JH receptors, CAD96CA and FGFR1, in the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera.

      Strengths:

      Their in vitro analyses are conducted thoroughly using multiple methods, which overall supports their claim that these receptors can bind to JH and mediate their non-genomic effects.

      Weaknesses:

      Results of their in vivo experiments, particularly those of their loss-of-function analyses using CRISPR mutants are still preliminary, and the results rather indicate that these membrane receptors do not have any physiologically significant roles in vivo. More specifically, previous studies in lepidopteran species have clearly and repeatedly shown that precocious metamorphosis is the hallmark phenotype for all JH signaling-deficient larvae. In contrast, the present study showed that Cad96ca and Fgfr1 G0 mutants only showed a slight acceleration in their pupation timing, which is not a typical phenotype one would expect from JH signaling deficiency. This is inconsistent with their working model provided in Figure 6, which indicates that these cell membrane JH receptors promote the canonical JH signaling by phosphorylating Met/Tai.

      If the authors argue that this slight acceleration of pupation is indeed a major JH signaling-deficient phenotype in Helicoverpa, they need to provide more data to support their claim by analyzing CRISPR mutants of other genes involved in JH signaling, such as Jhamt and Met. An alternative explanation is that there is functional redundancy between CAD96CA and FGFR1 in mediating phosphorylation of Met/Tai. This possibility can be tested by analyzing double knockouts of these two receptors.

      Currently, the validity of their calcium imaging analysis in Figure 5 is also questionable. When performing calcium imaging in cultured cells, it is critically important to treat all the cells at the end of each experiment with a hormone or other chemical reagents that universally induce calcium increase in each particular cell line. Without such positive control, the validity of calcium imaging data remains unknown, and readers cannot properly evaluate their results.

    1. Bloomington, 16671

      DOI: 10.1038/s41467-023-43550-2

      Resource: BDSC_16671

      Curator: @maulamb

      SciCrunch record: RRID:BDSC_16671


      What is this?

    2. Bloomington, 9575

      DOI: 10.1038/s41467-023-43550-2

      Resource: (BDSC Cat# 9575,RRID:BDSC_9575)

      Curator: @maulamb

      SciCrunch record: RRID:BDSC_9575


      What is this?

    3. BDSC, 1309

      DOI: 10.1038/s41467-023-43550-2

      Resource: (BDSC Cat# 1309,RRID:BDSC_1309)

      Curator: @maulamb

      SciCrunch record: RRID:BDSC_1309


      What is this?

    4. BDSC, 27656

      DOI: 10.1038/s41467-023-43550-2

      Resource: (BDSC Cat# 27656,RRID:BDSC_27656)

      Curator: @maulamb

      SciCrunch record: RRID:BDSC_27656


      What is this?

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors carry out a careful and rigorous quantitative analysis of RecB transcript and protein levels at baseline and in response to DNA damage. Using single-molecule FISH and Halo-tagging in order to achieve sensitive measurements, they provide evidence that enhanced RecB protein levels in response to DNA damage are achieved through a post-transcriptional mechanism mediated by the Sm-like RNA binding protein, Hfq. In terms of biological relevance, the authors suggest that this mechanism provides a way to control the optimum level of RecB expression as both deletion and over-expression are deleterious. In addition, the proposed mechanism provides a new framework for understanding how transcriptional noise can be suppressed at the protein level.

      Strengths:

      Strengths of the manuscript include the rigorous approaches and orthogonal evidence to support the core conclusions, for example, the evidence that altering either Hhq or its recognition sequence on the RNA similarly enhance the protein to RNA ratio of RecB. The writing is clear and the experiments are well-controlled. The modeling approaches provide essential context to interpret the data, particularly given the small numbers of molecules per cell. The interpretations are careful and well supported.

      Weaknesses:

      The authors make a compelling case for the biological need to exquisitely control RecB levels, which they suggest is achieved by the pathway they have uncovered and described in this work. However, this conclusion is largely inferred as the authors only investigate the effect on cell survival in response to (high levels of) DNA damage and in response to two perturbations - genetic knock-out or over-expression, both of which are likely more dramatic than the range of expression levels observed in unstimulated and DNA damage conditions.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      The authors have done well to address the points raised in my previous review.

      The updated version of this manuscript retains the technical competence of the first, but with important changes that make the analysis more legible and results better contextualized. Specifically, the discussion is richer, the interpretation of the results is more nuanced, the terminology is more precise, and issues of clarity related to the methodology and results have been resolved.

      Broad caveats remain about the nature of authorship, and who we should expect to be quoted in science journalism. Namely, who is the lead author? Ideally, the corresponding author would be included as well, or else some bibliometric definition of the most senior author on the byline. However, the authors' approach here is certainly adequate, and they did well to incorporate discussion of authorship and the scholarly division of labour in their discussion.

      In sum, I find the article greatly improved and a competent analysis into the unequal use of quotations in scientific journalism.

    1. Reviewer #3 (Public Review):

      Liang and colleagues set out to test whether the human brain uses distance and grid-like codes in social knowledge using a design where participants had to navigate in a two-dimensional social space based on competence and warmth during an fMRI scan. They showed that participants were able to navigate the social space and found distance-based codes as well as grid-like codes in various brain regions, and the grid-like code correlated with behavior (reaction times).

      On the whole, the experiment is designed appropriately for testing for distant-based and grid-like codes, and is relatively well powered for this type of study, with a large amount of behavioral training per participant. They revealed that a number of brain regions correlated positively or negatively with distance in the social space, and found grid-like codes in the frontal polar cortex and posterior medial entorhinal cortex, the latter in line with prior findings on grid-like activity in entorhinal cortex. The current paper seems quite similar conceptually and in design to previous work, most notably Park et al., 2021, Nature Neuroscience.

      (1) The authors claim that this study provides evidence that humans use a spatial / grid code for abstract knowledge like social knowledge.

      This data does specifically not add anything new to this argument. As with almost all studies that test for a grid code in a similar "conceptual" space (not only the current study), the problem is that, when the space is not a uniform, square/circular space, and 2-dimensional then there is no reason the code will be perfectly grid like, i.e., show six-fold symmetry. In real world scenarios of social space (as well as navigation, semantic concepts), it must be higher dimensional - or at least more than two dimensional. It is unclear if this generalizes to larger spaces where not all part of the space is relevant. Modelling work from Tim Behrens' lab (e.g., Whittington et al., 2020) and Bradley Love's lab (e.g., Mok & Love, 2019) have shown/argued this to be the case. In experimental work, like in mazes from the Mosers' labs (e.g., Derdikman et al., 2009), or trapezoid environments from the O'Keefe lab (Krupic et al., 2015), there are distortions in mEC cells, and would not pass as grid cells in terms of the six-fold symmetry criterion.

      After revision, the authors now discuss some of this and the limitations and notes that future work is required to address the problem.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this study, the authors hypothesized that individuals with diabetes have elevated blood CTSL levels, which facilitates SARS-CoV-2 infection. The authors conducted in vitro experiments, revealing that elevated glucose levels promote SARS-CoV-2 infection in wild-type cells. In contrast, CTSL knockout cells show reduced susceptibility to high glucose-promoted effects. Additionally, the authors utilized lung tissue samples obtained from both diabetic and non-diabetic patients, along with db/db diabetic and control mice. Their findings indicate that diabetic conditions lead to an elevation in CTSL activity in both human and mice.

      Strengths:

      The authors have effectively met their research objectives, and their conclusions are supported by the data presented. Their findings suggest that high glucose levels promote CTSL maturation and translocation from the endoplasmic reticulum to the lysosome, potentially contributing to diabetic comorbidities and complications.

      Weaknesses:

      (1) In Figure 1e, the authors measured plasma levels of COVID-19 related proteins, including ACE2, CTSL, and CTSB, in both diabetic and non-diabetic COVID-19 patients. Notably, only CTSL levels exhibited a significant increase in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic patients, and these levels varied throughout the course of COVID-19. Given that the diabetes groups encompass both male and female patients, it is essential to ascertain whether the authors considered the potential impact of gender on CTSL levels. The diabetes groups comprised a higher percentage of male patients (61.3%) compared to the non-diabetes group, where males constituted only 38.7%.

      (2) lines145-149: "The results showed that WT Huh7 cell cultured in high glucose medium exhibited a much higher infective rate than those in low glucose medium. However, CTSL KO Huh7 cells maintained a low infective rate of SARS-CoV-2 regardless of glucose or insulin levels (Fig. 3f-h). Therefore, hyperglycemia enhanced SARS-CoV-2 infection dependent on CTSL." However, this evidence may be insufficient to support the claim that hyperglycemia enhances SARS-CoV-2 infection dependent on CTSL. The human hepatoma cell line Huh7 might not be an ideal model to validate the authors' hypothesis regarding high blood glucose promoting SARS-CoV-2 infection through CTSL.

      (3) The Abstract and Introduction sections lack effective organization.

      In this revised version of the study, the authors have addressed my concerns by providing additional experiments, references and discussing further the points of controversy. I think that the authors have made improvements to the manuscript.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Liu and colleagues describe the transcriptional changes observed during chloramphenicol-induced surface mobility of Bacillus subtilis. Practically, they describe that numerous transcriptional regulatory pathways are influenced by the subinhibitory concentration of a translational inhibitor and some of these regulatory changes might contribute to the induction of sliding. Nevertheless, how such translational stress is translated to induction of sliding remains undetermined. The authors clearly describe their aim (line 457): "Our goal for this study was to gain insight into how B. subtilis mobilizes a colony in response to subinhibitory exposure to translation inhibitors.", this is unfortunately not solved here, only the authors characterize the transcriptional landscape differences.

      Strengths:

      The very thorough analysis of transcriptional changes in the wild type and codY mutant strains is appreciated, and there are definitely a plethora of changes observed related to several global transcriptional regulators in B. subtilis. I compliment the authors for this very detailed and thorough description of transcriptional changes.

      Weaknesses:

      While the transcriptional changes are well and carefully described, the discussion practically interprets the correlations as causations. I am not disputing that the authors are not on the correct path with their assumptions, but their conclusions are not supported by direct experimental data, especially on (1) translational stress directly inducing mobility and (2) division of labor.

      Major 1:

      The authors conclude that their results point towards a putative mechanism, e.g. line 460 "which suggests translation stress is a trigger for colony mobilization"; however, no experiment demonstrates this aspect. The authors do not test ppGpp-related stress (mutants in ppGpp-related genes, or mutating the functional domain of CodY), nor do they directly connect ppGpp levels dynamics with induction of subsequent pathways. Again, I understand that the authors are on the right path to connect these pathways and identify what is causing mobility induction, but no direct data is represented, solely the transcriptional changes, therefore remains slightly descriptive.

      The statement in the chapter title (line 474) is not demonstrated directly and should be revised. Similarly, in line 476, the authors claim that their "data supports a model", but "support" would require direct experimental data on this aspect.

      The authors even clearly indicate in lines 504-506 that they do not reveal the direct mechanism, but the rest of the discussion delivers statements that do not consider the lack of direct data.

      Major 2:

      Line 427: "The results are consistent with a division of metabolic labor among cells in the expanding population" - the data shows heterogeneity, but the direct division of labor is not demonstrated.

      Line 442: So in this case, the proposed division of labor is disrupted in the codY mutant (no inner localisation), and hence expansion appears, suggesting a lack of a putative division of labor is not necessary for induced mobility. On the contrary, there could be heterogeneous gene expression, division of labor requires demonstration of fitness benefit from such interaction.

      Division of labor assumes that a mixture of mutants would complement full sliding dynamics, and this could be easily demonstrated by fluorescent labeled cells that should be organized in a similar fashion to those observed with luciferase reporters (pucA mutant on the outer ring, while pdhA mutant interior colony part). Without such experimental demonstration, the authors can only conclude spatially heterogeneous gene expresstion without clear functional contribution to subinhibitory chrolamphenociol-induced surface mobility.

      Again, the authors' statement in line 472 "reveal a regulated, spatiotemporal division of metabolism" is not demonstrated by experiment, but spatial heterogeneity is revealed here.<br /> The statement in the Discussion chapter (line 499) is also not demonstrated by experimental data: "Metabolic coordination enables surface expansion of mobilitzed B. subtilis"

      Line 550: while I agree with the authors' statement that these functions work cooperatively as demonstrated by van Gestel and colleagues (2015 PloS Biol), the exploitation of these shared goods is not quantitatively equivalent, see Jautzus et al 2022 ISME J (DOI: 10.1038/s41396-022-01279-8).

      In summary: the two major conclusions of the manuscript are unfortunately not demonstrated, the presented transcriptional data delivers suggestions, supported with specific mutants displaying certain phenotypes (lack of mobility induction or constitutive mobility without inducer), but it remains unclear how translational stress induces mobility and whether the transcriptional heterogeneity detected directly contributes to metabolic division of labor.

      The authors should present direct evidence on the major concerns: how translational stress induces surface mobility (using ppGpp synthesis and turnover mutants and specific CdoY mutant lacking ppGpp sensing) and whether the metabolic division of labor contributes to induced surface mobility (mixing mutants and following their distribution).

    1. Reviewer #3 (Public Review):

      In this study, Ruan et al. investigate the role of the IQCH gene in spermatogenesis, focusing on its interaction with calmodulin and its regulation of RNA-binding proteins. The authors examined sperm from a male infertility patient with an inherited IQCH mutation as well as Iqch CRISPR knockout mice. The authors found that both human and mouse sperm exhibited structural and morphogenetic defects in multiple structures, leading to reduced fertility in Ichq-knockout male mice. Molecular analyses such as mass spectrometry and immunoprecipitation indicated that RNA-binding proteins are likely targets of IQCH, with the authors focusing on the RNA-binding protein HNRPAB as a critical regulator of testicular mRNAs. The authors used in vitro cell culture models to demonstrate an interaction between IQCH and calmodulin, in addition to showing that this interaction via the IQ motif of IQCH is required for IQCH's function in promoting HNRPAB expression. In sum, the authors concluded that IQCH promotes male fertility by binding to calmodulin and controlling HNRPAB expression to regulate the expression of essential mRNAs for spermatogenesis. These findings provide new insight into molecular mechanisms underlying spermatogenesis and how important factors for sperm morphogenesis and function are regulated.

      The strengths of the study include the use of mouse and human samples, which demonstrate a likely relevance of the mouse model to humans; the use of multiple biochemical techniques to address the molecular mechanisms involved; the development of a new CRISPR mouse model; ample controls; and clearly displayed results. Assays are done rigorously and in a quantitative manner. Overall, the claims made by the authors in this manuscript are well-supported by the data provided.

    1. Reviewer #3 (Public Review):

      The work proposes a model of neural information processing based on a 'synergistic global workspace,' which processes information in three principal steps: a gatekeeping step (information gathering), an information integration step, and finally, a broadcasting step. They provided an interpretation of the reduced human consciousness states in terms of the proposed model of brain information processing, which could be helpful to be implemented in other states of consciousness. The manuscript is well-organized, and the results are important and could be interesting for a broad range of literature, suggesting interesting new ideas for the field to explore.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The main conclusion of the manuscript is that the presence of linker Histone H1 protects Arabidopsis pericentromeric heterochromatic regions and longer transposable elements from encroachment by other repressive pathways. The manuscript focuses on the RNA-dependent DNA-methylation (RdDM) pathway but indirectly finds that other pathways must also be ectopically enriched.

      Strengths:

      The authors present diverse sets of genomic data comparing Arabidopsis wild-type and h1 mutant background allowing an analysis of differential recruitment of RdDM component NPRE1, which is related to changes in DNA methylation and H1 coverage. The manuscript also contains recruitment data for SUVH1 in wild-type and h1 mutant backgrounds.<br /> Furthermore, the authors make use of a line that recruits NRPE1 ectopically to show that H1 occupancy is not altered because of this recruitment. These data clearly show that there is a hierarchy in which DNA-methylation is impacted by presence of H1 while H1 distribution is independent of DNA-methylation.

      Weaknesses:

      The manuscript is driven by a strong and reasonable hypothesis that absence of H1 results increased access of chromatin binding factors and that this explains how the RdDM machinery is restricted from encroaching heterochromatic regions, which are particularly enriched in H1. Indeed, increased binding of NPRE1 at pericentromeric sites is observed; however, the major DNA-methylation changes at these sites are symmetric and not related to the RdDM pathway. Thus, the authors propose that many factors redistribute, which is again reasonable. The authors show redistribution of SUVH1 and relate their data to a previous report showing redistribution of the PcG machinery in H1 depletion mutants (Teano et al. in Cell reports (Volume 42, Issue 8, 29 August 2023), but the manuscript provides limited mechanistic insight as to why there is a strong increase in heterochromatin symmetric DNA-methylation.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      This paper uses a novel maze design to explore mouse navigation behaviour in an automated analogue of the Barnes maze. A major strength is the novel and clever experimental design which rotates the floor and intramaze cues before the start of each new trial, allowing the previous goal location to become the next starting position. The modelling sampling a Markov chain of navigation strategies is elegant, appropriate and solid, appearing to capture the behavioural data well. This work provides a valuable contribution and I'm excited to see further developments, such as neural correlates of the different strategies and switches between them.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this manuscript, Jiang et al., explore the role of neurexins at glycinergic MNTB-LSO synapses. The authors utilize elegant and compelling ex vivo slice electrophysiology to assess how the genetic conditional deletion of Nrxns1-3 impacts inhibitory glycinergic synaptic transmission and found that TKO of neurexins reduced electrically and optically evoked IPSC amplitudes, slowed optically evoked IPSC kinetics and reduced presynaptic release probability. The authors use classic approaches including reduced [Ca2+] in ACSF and EGTA chelation to propose that changes in these evoked properties are likely driven by the loss of calcium channel coupling. Intriguingly, while evoked transmission was impaired, the authors reported that spontaneous IPSC frequency was increased, due to an increase in the number of synapses in LSO. Overall, this manuscript provides important insight into the role of neurexins at the glycinergic MNTB-LSO synapse and further emphasizes the need for continued study of both the non-redundant and redundant roles of neurexins.

      The authors have addressed all of my previous concerns.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Weng et al. perform a comprehensive study of gene expression changes in young and old animals, in wild-type and daf-2 insulin receptor mutants, in the whole animal and specifically in the nervous system. Using this data, they identify gene families that are correlated with neuronal ageing, as well as a distinct set of genes that are upregulated in neurons of aged daf-2 mutants. This is particularly interesting as daf-2 mutants show both extended lifespan and healthier neurons in aged animals, reflected by better learning/memory in older animals compared with wild-type controls. Indeed, knockdown of several of these upregulated genes resulted in poorer learning and memory. In addition, the authors showed that several genes upregulated during ageing in wild-type neurons also contribute to learning and memory; specifically, knockdown of these genes in young animals resulted in improved memory. This indicates that (at least in this small number of cases), genes that show increased transcript levels with age in the nervous system somehow suppress memory, potentially by having damaging effects on neuronal health.

      Finally, from a resource perspective, the neuronal transcriptome provided here will be very useful for C. elegans researchers as it adds to other existing datasets by providing the transcriptome of older animals (animals at day 8 of adulthood) and demonstrating the benefits of performing tissue-specific RNAseq instead of whole-animal sequencing.

      The work presented here is of high quality and the authors present convincing evidence supporting their conclusions. I only have a few comments/suggestions:

      (1) Do the genes identified to decrease learning/memory capacity in daf-2 animals (Figure 4d/e) also impact neuronal health? daf-2 mutant worms show delayed onset of age-related changes to neuron structure (Tank et al., 2011, J Neurosci). Does knockdown of the genes shown to affect learning also affect neuron structure during ageing, potentially one mechanism through which they modulate learning/memory?

      (2) The learning and memory assay data presented in this study uses the butanone olfactory learning paradigm, which is well established by the same group. Have the authors tried other learning assays when testing for learning/memory changes after knockdown of candidate genes? Depending on the expression pattern of these genes, they may have more or less of an effect on olfactory learning versus for e.g. gustatory or mechanosensory-based learning.

      (3) A comment on the 'compensatory vs dysregulatory' model as stated by the authors on page 7 - I understand that this model presents the two main options, but perhaps this is slightly too simplistic: gene expression that rises during ageing may be detrimental for memory (= dysregulatory), but at the same time may also be beneficial other physiological roles in other tissues (=compensatory).

      Comments on revised version:

      I am satisfied with how the authors have addressed all my comments/suggestions.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary

      The manuscript "Uncovering Protein Ensembles: Automated Multiconformer Model building for X-ray Crystallography and Cryo-EM" by Wankowicz et al. describes updates to qFit, an algorithm for the characterization of conformational heterogeneity of protein molecules based on X-ray diffraction of Cryo-EM data. The work provides a clear description of the algorithm used by qFit. The authors then proceed to validate the performance of qFit by comparing to deposited X-ray entries in the PDB in the 1.2-1.5 Å resolution range as quantified by Rfree, Rwork-Rfree, detailed examination of the conformations introduced by qFit, and performance on stereochemical measures (MolProbity scores). To examine the effect of experimental resolution of X-ray diffraction data, they start from an ultra high-resolution structure (SARS-CoV2 Nsp3 macrodomain) to determine how the loss of resolution (introduced artificially) degrades the ability of qFit to correctly infer the nature and presence of alternate conformations. The authors observe a gradual loss of ability to correctly infer alternate conformations as resolution degrades past 2 Å. The authors repeat this analysis for a larger set of entries in a more automated fashion and again observe that qFit works well for structures with resolutions better than 2 Å, with a rapid loss of accuracy at lower resolution. Finally, the authors examine the performance of qFit on cryo-EM data. Despite a few prominent examples, the authors find only a handful (8) of datasets for which they can confirm a resolution better than 2.0 Å. The performance of qFit on these maps is encouraging and will be of much interest because cryo-EM maps will, presumably, continue to improve and because of the rapid increase in the availability of such data for many supramolecular biological assemblies. As the authors note, practices in cryo-EM analysis are far from uniform, hampering the development and assessment of tools like qFit.

      Strengths

      qFit improves the quality of refined structures at resolutions better than 2.0 A, in terms of reflecting true conformational heterogeneity and geometry. The algorithm is well-designed and does not introduce spurious or unnecessary conformational heterogeneity. I was able to install and run the program without a problem within a computing cluster environment. The paper is well-written and the validation thorough.<br /> I found the section on cryo-EM particularly enlightening, both because it demonstrates the potential for discovery of conformational heterogeneity from such data by qFit, and because it clearly explains the hurdles towards this becoming common practice, including lack of uniformity in reporting resolution, and differences in map and solvent treatment.

      Weaknesses

      Due to limitations of past software engineering, the paper lacks a careful comparison to past versions of qFit. In light of the extensive assessment of the current version of qFit, this is a minor concern.

      Although qFit can handle supramolecular assemblies and bound organic molecules, analysis in the manuscript is limited to single-chain X-ray structures. I look forward to demonstration of its utility in such cases in future work.

      Appraisal & Discussion

      Overall, the authors convincingly demonstrate that qFit provides a reliable means to detect and model conformational heterogeneity within high-resolution X-ray diffraction datasets and (based on a smaller sample) in cryo-EM density maps. This represents the state of the art in the field and will be of interest to any structural biologist or biochemist seeking to attain an understanding of the structural basis of the function of their system of interest, including potential allosteric mechanisms-an area where there are still few good solutions. That is, I expect qFit to find widespread use.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Severe leptospirosis in humans and some mammals often meet death in the endpoint. In this article, authors explored the role of the gut microbiota in severe leptospirosis. They found that Leptospira infection promoted a dysbiotic gut microbiota with an expansion of Proteobacteria and LPS neutralization therapy synergized with antileptospiral therapy significantly improved the survival rates in severe leptospirosis. This study is well-organized and has potentially important clinical implications not only for severe leptospirosis but also for other gut-damaged infections.

    1. Reviewer #3 (Public Review):

      This study uses a range of methods to characterize heterogeneous neural populations within the nucleus incertus (NI). The authors focus on two major populations, expressing gsc2 and rln3a, and present convincing evidence that these cells have different patterns of connectivity, calcium activity and effects on behavior. Although the study does not go as far as clarifying the role of NI in any specific neural computation or aspect of behavioral control, the findings will be valuable in support of future endeavors to do so. In particular, the authors have made two beautiful knock-in lines that recapitulate endogenous expression pattern of gsc2 and rln3a which will be a powerful tool to study the roles of the relevant NI cells. Experiments are well done, data are high quality and most claims are well supported. In this revised version, the authors have added additional analysis that has clarified their results and strengthened some of the claims.

      Two points of note:

      • The data very clearly show different patterns of neurites for gsc2 and rln3a neurons in the IPN and the authors interpret these are being axonal arbors. However, they do not rule out the possibility that some of the processes might be dendritic in nature. Of relevance to this point, they cite a recent study (Petrucco et al. 2023) that confirmed that, as in other species, tegmental neurons in zebrafish extend spatially segregated dendritic as well as axonal arbors into IPN, and the authors speculate that these GABAergic tegmental cells might in fact be part of NI.

      • Although the gsc2 and rln3a populations show differences in calcium activity, there is not as clear a dichotomy as stated in the abstract. For example, both populations clearly respond to electric shocks, albeit with different response time courses.

    1. Reviewer #3 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      This study proposes visual homogeneity as a novel visual property that enables observers perform to several seemingly disparate visual tasks, such as finding an odd item, deciding if two items are same, or judging if an object is symmetric. In Exp 1, the reaction times on several objects were measured in human subjects. In Exp 2, visual homogeneity of each object was calculated based on the reaction time data. The visual homogeneity scores predicted reaction times. This value was also correlated with the BOLD signals in a specific region anterior to LO. Similar methods were used to analyze reaction time and fMRI data in a symmetry detection task. It is concluded that visual homogeneity is an important feature that enables observers to solve these two tasks.

      Strengths:

      (1) The writing is very clear. The presentation of the study is informative.<br /> (2) This study includes several behavioral and fMRI experiments. I appreciate the scientific rigor of the authors.

      Weaknesses:

      (1) My main concern with this paper is the way visual homogeneity is computed. On page 10, lines 188-192, it says: "we then asked if there is any point in this multidimensional representation such that distances from this point to the target-present and target-absent response vectors can accurately predict the target-present and target-absent response times with a positive and negative correlation respectively (see Methods)". This is also true for the symmetry detection task. If I understand correctly, the reference point in this perceptual space was found by deliberating satisfying the negative and positive correlations in response times. And then on page 10, lines 200-205, it shows that the positive and negative correlations actually exist. This logic is confusing. The positive and negative correlations emerge only because this method is optimized to do so. It seems more reasonable to identify the reference point of this perceptual space independently, without using the reaction time data. Otherwise, the inference process sounds circular. A simple way is to just use the mean point of all objects in Exp 1, without any optimization towards reaction time data.

      (2) Visual homogeneity (at least given the current from) is an unnecessary term. It is similar to distractor heterogeneity/distractor variability/distractor statics in literature. However, the authors attempt to claim it as a novel concept. The title is "visual homogeneity computations in the brain enable solving generic visual tasks". The last sentence of the abstract is "a NOVEL IMAGE PROPERTY, visual homogeneity, is encoded in a localized brain region, to solve generic visual tasks". In the significance, it is mentioned that "we show that these tasks can be solved using a simple property WE DEFINE as visual homogeneity". If the authors agree that visual homogeneity is not new, I suggest a complete rewrite of the title, abstract, significance, and introduction.

      (3) Also, "solving generic tasks" is another overstatement. The oddball search tasks, same-different tasks, and symmetric tasks are only a small subset of many visual tasks. Can this "quantitative model" solve motion direction judgment tasks, visual working memory tasks? Perhaps so, but at least this manuscript provides no such evidence. On line 291, it says "we have proposed that visual homogeneity can be used to solve any task that requires discriminating between homogeneous and heterogeneous displays". I think this is a good statement. A title that says "XXXX enable solving discrimination tasks with multi-component displays" is more acceptable. The phrase "generic tasks" is certainly an exaggeration.

      (4) If I understand it correctly, one of the key findings of this paper is "the response times for target-present searches were positively correlated with visual homogeneity. By contrast, the response times for target-absent searches were negatively correlated with visual homogeneity" (lines 204-207). I think the authors have already acknowledged that the positive correlation is not surprising at all because it reflects the classic target-distractor similarity effect. But the authors claim that the negative correlations in target-absent searches is the true novel finding.

      (5) I would like to make it clear that this negative correlation is not new either. The seminal paper by Duncan and Humphreys (1989) has clearly stated that "difficulty increases with increased similarity of targets to nontargets and decreased similarity between nontargets" (the sentence in their abstract). Here, "similarity between nontargets" is the same as the visual homogeneity defined here. Similar effects have been shown in Duncan (1989) and Nagy, Neriani, and Young (2005). See also the inconsistent results in Nagy& Thomas, 2003, Vicent, Baddeley, Troscianko&Gilchrist, 2009.<br /> More recently, Wei Ji Ma has systematically investigated the effects of heterogeneous distractors in visual search. I think the introduction part of Wei Ji Ma's paper (2020) provides a nice summary of this line of research.

      I am surprised that these references are not mentioned at all in this manuscript (except Duncan and Humphreys, 1989).

      (6) If the key contribution is the quantitative model, the study should be organized in a different way. Although the findings of positive and negative correlations are not novel, it is still good to propose new models to explain classic phenomena. I would like to mention the three studies by Wei Ji Ma (see below). In these studies, Bayesian observer models were established to account for trial-by-trial behavioral responses. These computational models can also account for the set-size effect, behavior in both localization and detection tasks. I see much more scientific rigor in their studies. Going back to the quantitative model in this paper, I am wondering whether the model can provide any qualitative prediction beyond the positive and negative correlations? Can the model make qualitative predictions that differ from those of Wei Ji's model? If not, can the authors show that the model can quantitatively better account for the data than existing Bayesian models? We should evaluate a model either qualitatively or quantitatively.

      (7) In my opinion, one of the advantages of this study is the fMRI dataset, which is valuable because previous studies did not collect fMRI data. The key contribution may be the novel brain region associated with display heterogeneity. If this is the case, I would suggest using a more parametric way to measure this region. For example, one can use Gabor stimuli and systematically manipulate the variations of multiple Gabor stimuli, the same logic also applies to motion direction. If this study uses static Gabor, random dot motion, object images that span from low-level to high-level visual stimuli, and consistently shows that the stimulus heterogeneity is encoded in one brain region, I would say this finding is valuable. But this sounds like another experiment. In other words, it is insufficient to claim a new brain region given the current form of the manuscript.

      REFERENCES<br /> - Duncan, J., & Humphreys, G. W. (1989). Visual search and stimulus similarity. Psychological Review, 96(3), 433-458. doi: 10.1037/0033-295x.96.3.433<br /> - Duncan, J. (1989). Boundary conditions on parallel processing in human vision. Perception, 18(4), 457-469. doi: 10.1068/p180457<br /> - Nagy, A. L., Neriani, K. E., & Young, T. L. (2005). Effects of target and distractor heterogeneity on search for a color target. Vision Research, 45(14), 1885-1899. doi: 10.1016/j.visres.2005.01.007<br /> - Nagy, A. L., & Thomas, G. (2003). Distractor heterogeneity, attention, and color in visual search. Vision Research, 43(14), 1541-1552. doi: 10.1016/s0042-6989(03)00234-7<br /> - Vincent, B., Baddeley, R., Troscianko, T., & Gilchrist, I. (2009). Optimal feature integration in visual search. Journal of Vision, 9(5), 15-15. doi: 10.1167/9.5.15<br /> - Singh, A., Mihali, A., Chou, W. C., & Ma, W. J. (2023). A Computational Approach to Search in Visual Working Memory.<br /> - Mihali, A., & Ma, W. J. (2020). The psychophysics of visual search with heterogeneous distractors. BioRxiv, 2020-08.<br /> - Calder-Travis, J., & Ma, W. J. (2020). Explaining the effects of distractor statistics in visual search. Journal of Vision, 20(13), 11-11.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Regalado et al. studied how an extended motivational state, necessary for maintaining behavioural drive despite unrewarding experiences, could be encoded in the ACC and its potential causal implications for learning discriminatory behaviour and avoiding unrewarding stimuli. They designed a self-initiated learning task and identified bulk neural responses tuned specifically to reward delivery as well as trial initiation. Interestingly, in both cases, neural activity precedes behavioural onset, indicating the encoding of a motivational signal. To investigate the neural encoding of motivational signals during unrewarded, distracting stimuli presentation, they created a discrimination task by introducing 'no reward' cues, during which animals need to learn not to reduce running speed and not engage in licking. Interestingly, with mice learning to increase running speed and reduce licking rates after 'no reward' cues, the preceding ACC activity also gradually increased. Importantly, only the increase in running speed after 'no reward' cues was impaired upon optogenetic inhibition of ACC activity during early training, linking the extended motivational signal in ACC and learning to maximise rewards by actively avoiding distracting and unrewarded stimuli. Such motivational signals could also be observed in OFC-ACC projecting neurons. Especially the continuous ramping of activity upon repeated 'non-reward' cues, which could be exclusively observed in the 'fast learner' subgroup, provides an interesting concept of how an extended motivational signal necessary for learning avoidance of unrewarded stimuli could be implemented in ACC. The shift in the temporal activity of initially reward-responsive neurons towards the preceding 'no reward' cue, provides a potential mechanism linking extended motivation to reward maximisation. This mechanism seems to be particularly important in periods of persistent 'non-reward' cues, as demonstrated in the impairment of running speed increase after two consecutive 'non-reward' cues.

      Appraisal:

      The authors provide convincing experimental evidence to support their claims of an extended motivational signal encoded in the ACC that is implemented by OFC-ACC signalling and critically involved in learning avoidance of unrewarded stimuli. The newly designed task seems appropriate to identify correlates of relevant cognitive and behavioural variables (e.g. sustained motivation). The combination of recording Ca2+ transients (bulk as well as longitudinal single neuron recordings) to identify potential neural responses and subsequent evaluation of their causal role in establishing and maintaining this persistent motivational state using opto- and pharmacogenetic manipulations is generally accepted.

      Impact:

      The findings will be valuable for further research on the impact of motivational states on behaviour and cognition. The authors provided a promising concept of how persistent motivational states could be maintained, as well as established a novel, reproducible task assay. While experimental methods used are currently state-of-the-art, theoretical analysis seems to be incomplete/not extensive.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors present a new model for animal pose estimation. The core feature they highlight is the model's stability compared to existing models in terms of keypoint drift. The authors test this model across a range of new and existing datasets. The authors also test the model with two mice in the same arena. For the single animal datasets the authors show a decrease in sudden jumps in keypoint detection and the number of undetected keypoints compared with DeepLabCut and SLEAP. Overall average accuracy, as measured by root mean squared error, generally shows similar but sometimes superior performance to DeepLabCut and better performance compared to SLEAP. The authors confusingly don't quantify the performance of pose estimation in the multi (two) animal case instead focusing on detecting individual identity. This multi-animal model is not compared with the model performance of the multi-animal mode of DeepLabCut or SLEAP.

      Strengths:

      The major strength of the paper is successfully demonstrating a model that is less likely to have incorrect large keypoint jumps compared to existing methods. As noted in the paper, this should lead to easier-to-interpret descriptions of pose and behavior to use in the context of a range of biological experimental workflows.

      Weaknesses:

      There are two main types of weaknesses in this paper. The first is a tendency to make unsubstantiated claims that suggest either model performance that is untested or misrepresents the presented data, or suggest excessively large gaps in current SOTA capabilities. One obvious example is in the abstract when the authors state ADPT "significantly outperforms the existing deep-learning methods, such as DeepLabCut, SLEAP, and DeepPoseKit." All tests in the rest of the paper, however, only discuss performance with DeepLabCut and SLEAP, not DeepPoseKit. At this point, there are many animal pose estimation models so it's fine they didn't compare against DeepPoseKit, but they shouldn't act like they did. Similar odd presentation of results are statements like "Our method exhibited an impressive prediction speed of 90{plus minus}4 frames per second (fps), faster than DeepLabCut (44{plus minus}2 fps) and equivalent to SLEAP (106{plus minus}4 fps)." Why is 90{plus minus}4 fps considered "equivalent to SLEAP (106{plus minus}4 fps)" and not slower? I agree they are similar but they are not the same. The paper's point of view of what is "equivalent" changes when describing how "On the single-fly dataset, ADPT excelled with an average mAP of 92.83%, surpassing both DeepLabCut and SLEAP (Figure 5B)" When one looks at Figure 5B, however, ADPT and DeepLabCut look identical. Beyond this, oddly only ADPT has uncertainty bars (no mention of what uncertainty is being quantified) and in fact, the bars overlap with the values corresponding to SLEAP and DeepPoseKit. In terms of making claims that seem to stretch the gaps in the current state of the field, the paper makes some seemingly odd and uncited statements like "Concerns about the safety of deep learning have largely limited the application of deep learning-based tools in behavioral analysis and slowed down the development of ethology" and "So far, deep learning pose estimation has not achieved the reliability of classical kinematic gait analysis" without specifying which classical gait analysis is being referred to. Certainly, existing tools like DeepLabCut and SLEAP are already widely cited and used for research.

      The other main weakness in the paper is the validation of the multi-animal pose estimation. The core point of the paper is pose estimation and anti-drift performance and yet there is no validation of either of these things relating to multi-animal video. All that is quantified is the ability to track individual identity with a relatively limited dataset of 10 mice IDs with only two in the same arena (and see note about train and validation splits below). While individual tracking is an important task, that literature is not engaged with (i.e. papers like Walter and Couzin, eLife, 2021: https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.64000) and the results in this paper aren't novel compared to that field's state of the art. On the other hand, while multi-animal pose estimation is also an important problem the paper doesn't engage with those results either. The two methods already used for comparison in the paper, SLEAP and DeepPoseKit, already have multi-animal modes and multi-animal annotated datasets but none of that is tested or engaged with in the paper. The paper notes many existing approaches are two-step methods, but, for practitioners, the difference is not enough to warrant a lack of comparison. The authors state that "The evaluation of our social tracking capability was performed by visualizing the predicted video data (see supplement Videos 3 and 4)." While the authors report success maintaining mouse ID, when one actually watches the key points in the video of the two mice (only a single minute was used for validation) the pose estimation is relatively poor with tails rarely being detected and many pose issues when the mice get close to each other.

      Finally, particularly in the methods section, there were a number of places where what was actually done wasn't clear. For example in describing the network architecture, the authors say "Subsequently, network separately process these features in three branches, compute features at scale of one-fourth, one-eight and one-sixteenth, and generate one-eight scale features using convolution layer or deconvolution layer." Does only the one-eight branch have deconvolution or do the other branches also? Similarly, for the speed test, the authors say "Here we evaluate the inference speed of ADPT. We compared it with DeepLabCut and SLEAP on mouse videos at 1288 x 964 resolution", but in the methods section they say "The image inputs of ADPT were resized to a size that can be trained on the computer. For mouse images, it was reduced to half of the original size." Were different image sizes used for training and validation? Or Did ADPT not use 1288 x 964 resolution images as input which would obviously have major implications for the speed comparison? Similarly, for the individual ID experiments, the authors say "In this experiment, we used videos featuring different identified mice, allocating 80% of the data for model training and the remaining 20% for accuracy validation." Were frames from each video randomly assigned to the training or validation sets? Frames from the same video are very correlated (two frames could be just 1/30th of a second different from each other), and so if training and validation frames are interspersed with each other validation performance doesn't indicate much about performance on more realistic use cases (i.e. using models trained during the first part of an experiment to maintain ids throughout the rest of it.)

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The paper from Li et al shows a mechanism by which axons can change direction during development. They use the sLNv neurons as a model. They find that the appearance of a new group of neurons (DNs) during post-embryonic proliferation secretes netrins and repels horizontally towards the midline, the axonal tip of the LNvs.

      Strengths:

      The experiments are well done and the results are conclusive.

      Weaknesses:

      The novelty of the study is overstated, and the background is understated. Both things need to be revised.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      Rashid and colleagues demonstrate a novel hippocampal lateral septal circuit that is important for social recognition and drives the exploration of novel conspecifics. Their study spans from neural tracing to close-loop optogenetic experiments with clever controls and conditions to provide compelling evidence for their conclusion. They demonstrate that downstream of the hippocampal septal circuit, septal projections to the ventral tegmental area are necessary for general novelty discrimination. The study opens an avenue to study these circuits further to uncover the plasticity and synaptic mechanisms regulating social novelty preference.

      Strengths:

      Chemogenetic and optogenetic experiments have excellent behavioral controls. The synaptic tracing provides important information that informs the narrative of experiments presented and invites future studies to investigate the effects of septal input on dopaminergic activity.

      Weaknesses:

      There are unclear methodological important details for circuit manipulation experiments and analyses where multiple measures are needed but missing. Based on the legends, the chemogenetic experiment is done in a within-animal design. That is the same mouse receives SAL and CNO. However, the data is not presented in a within-animal manner such that we can distinguish if the behavior of the same animal changes with drug treatment. Similarly, the methods specify that the optogenetic manipulations were done in three different conditions, but the analyses do not report within-animal changes across conditions nor account for multiple measures within subjects. Finally, it is unclear if the order of drug treatment and conditions were counterbalanced across subjects.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this work, the authors show that GABAergic neurons play a role in sensing mitochondrial stress and regulating organismal aging. Thus, disrupting the mitochondrial mitochondria function in GABAergic neurons induces resistance to thermal and paraquat stresses, promotes longevity, and affects reproduction. This mechanism is regulated by the iron-sulfur subunit of complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, ISP-1, and a mitochondrial quality control m-AAA protease, SPG-7, which in turn requires DAF-16/FoxO activity in GABAergic neurons.

      Strengths:

      A strength of this work is that the authors identify the specific site where mitochondrial stress promotes health and longevity, i.e., GABAergic neurons. In addition, the paper corroborates the findings with the appropriate experiments. How neuronal regulation of mitochondrial function impacts systemic health and aging is of interest to cell biology and neuroscience fields.

      Weaknesses:

      The entire paper is based on tissue-specific RNAi in GABAergic neurons, which was achieved using two different conditions of RNAi (although not for all experiments). However, multiple studies have shown deficiencies in the tissue-specific RNAi in C. elegans, especially for the rde-1(ne219) mutant used in this study. Therefore, it is necessary to repeat critical experiments by rescuing the isp-1 or spg-7 mutants in GABAergic neurons. Additionally, it is clear in the paper that perturbing mitochondrial function requires DAF-16/FoxO activity in GABAergic neurons to promote longevity, yet the downstream cellular pathways are not described.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In the manuscript, Xiang Mou and Daoyun JI investigate how ACC neurons activated by observational learning communicate with the hippocampus. They assess this line of communication through a complex behavioral technique, in vivo electrophysiology, pharmacological approaches, and data analytical techniques. Firstly, the authors find that observational performance is dependent on the ACC, and that the ACC possesses neurons that show side selectivity (trajectory-related) in both the observation box when shuttling to reward, and during subsequent maze running, shuttling to the corresponding same side for reward. The side-selective activation appears stronger for correct trials compared to error trials specifically during observation of Demo rats. They compare how the CA1 of the hippocampus encodes these two environments and find that ACC side-selective neurons show a correlation with side-selective CA1 ensembles during maze behavior, water consumption, and sharp-wave ripples.

      Strengths:

      Overall, the paper provides strong evidence that ACC neurons are activated by observational learning and that this activation seems to be correlated with CA1 activity.

      Weaknesses:

      Concerns, however, surround the strength of evidence that links ACC and CA1 activity during observational learning. Only weak correlations between the two regions are shown, and it is unclear if the ACC may lead to CA1 activity or vice versa. It is possible that these processes reflect two parallel pathways. Without manipulation of ACC, it is difficult to assess whether ACC activity influences hippocampal replay.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      In this study, the authors aim to identify the nuclear genome-encoded transcription factors that regulate mtDNA maintenance and mitochondrial biogenesis. They started with an RNAi screening in developing Drosophila eyes with reduced mtDNA content and identified a number of putative candidate genes. Subsequently, using ChIP-seq data, they built a potential regulatory network that could govern mitochondrial biogenesis. Next, they focused on a candidate gene, CG1603, for further characterization. Based on the expression of different markers, such as TFAM and SDHA, in the RNAi and OE clones in the midgut cells, they argue that CG1603 promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and the expression of ETC complex genes. Then, they used a mutant of CG1603 and showed that both mtDNA levels and mitochondrial protein levels were reduced. Using clonal analyses, they further show a reduction in mitochondrial biogenesis and membrane potential upon loss of CG1603. They made a reporter line of CG1603, showed that the protein is localized to the mitochondria, and binds to polytene chromosomes in the salivary gland. Based on the RNA-seq results from the mutants and the ChIP data, the authors argue that the nucleus-encoded mitochondrial genes that are downregulated >2 folds in the CG1603 mutants and that are bound by CG1603 are related to ETC biogenesis. Finally, they show that YL-1, another candidate in the network, is an upstream regulator of CG1603.

      Strengths:

      This is a valuable study, which identifies a potential regulator and a network of nucleus-encoded transcription factors that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis. Through in-vivo and in-vitro experimental evidence, the authors identify the role of CG1603 in this process. The screening strategy was smart, and the follow-up experiments were nicely executed.

      Weaknesses:

      Some additional experiments showing the effects of CG1603 loss on ETC integrity and functionality would strengthen the work.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      The study by Deganutti and co-workers is a methodological report on an adaptive sampling approach, multiple walker supervised molecular dynamics (mwSuMD), which represents an improved version of the previous SuMD.

      Case-studies concern complex conformational transitions in a number of G protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) involving long time-scale motions such as binding-unbinding and collective motions of domains or portions. GPCRs are specialized GEFs (guanine nucleotide exchange factors) of heterotrimeric Gα proteins of the Ras GTPase superfamily. They constitute the largest superfamily of membrane proteins and are of central biomedical relevance as privileged targets of currently marketed drugs.

      MwSuMD was exploited to address:<br /> (1) Binding and unbinding of the arginine-vasopressin (AVP) cyclic peptide agonist to the V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R);<br /> (2) Molecular recognition of the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) and heterotrimeric GDP-bound Gs protein;<br /> (3) Molecular recognition of the A1-adenosine receptor (A1R) and palmitoylated and geranylgeranylated membrane-anchored heterotrimeric GDP-bound Gi protein;<br /> (4) The whole process of GDP release from membrane-anchored heterotrimeric Gs following interaction with the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R), converted to the active state following interaction with the orthosteric non-peptide agonist danuglipron;<br /> (5) The heterodimerization of D2 dopamine and A2A adenosine receptors (D2R and A2AR, respectively) and binding to a bi-valent ligand.

      The mwSuMD method is solid and valuable, has wide applicability, and is compatible with the most world-widely used MD engines. It may be of interest to the computational structural biology community.

      The huge amount of high-resolution data on GPCRs makes those systems suitable, although challenging, for method validation and development.

      While the approach is less energy-biased than other enhanced sampling methods, knowledge, at the atomic detail, of binding sites/interfaces and conformational states is needed to define the supervised metrics, the higher the resolution of such metrics is the more accurate the outcome is expected to be. The definition of the metrics is a user- and system-dependent process.

      The too many and ambitious case-studies undermine the accuracy of the output and reduce the important details needed for a methodological report. In some cases, the available CryoEM structures could have been exploited better.

      The most consistent example concerns AVP binding/unbinding to V2R. The consistency with CryoEM data decreases with an increase in the complexity of the simulated process and involved molecular systems (e.g. receptor recognition by membrane-anchored G protein and the process of nucleotide exchange starting from agonist recognition by an inactive-state receptor). The last example, GPCR hetero-dimerization, and binding to a bi-valent ligand, is the most speculative one as it does not rely on high-resolution structural data for metrics supervision.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The current article presents a new type of analytical approach to the sequential organisation of whale coda units.

      Strengths:

      The detailed description of the internal temporal structure of whale codas is something that has been thus far lacking.

      Weaknesses:

      It is unclear how the insight gained from these analyses differs or adds to the voluminous available literature on how codas varies between whale groups and populations. It provides new details, but what new aspects have been learned, or what features of variation seem to be only revealed by this new approach?<br /> The theoretical basis and concepts of the paper are problematical and indeed, hamper potentially the insights into whale communication that the methods could offer. Some aspects of the results are also overstated.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The manuscript by Djebar et al investigated the role and the underlying mechanism of the ciliary transition zone protein Rpgrip1l in zebrafish spinal alignment. They showed that rpgrip1l mutant zebrafish develop a nearly full penetrance of body curvature at juvenile stages. The mutant fish have cilia defects associated with ventricular dilations and loss of the Reissner fibers. Scoliosis onset and progression are also strongly associated with astrogliosis and neuroinflammation, and anti-inflammatory drug treatment prevents scoliosis in mutant zebrafish, suggesting a novel pathogenic mechanism for human idiopathic scoliosis. This study is quite comprehensive with high-quality data, and the manuscript is well written, providing important information on how the ciliary transition zone protein functions in maintaining the zebrafish body axis straightness.

      Strengths:

      Very clear and comprehensive analysis of the mutant zebrafish.

      Weaknesses:

      (1) In Figures 1D-G, magnified high-resolution pictures are required to show there are indeed no vertebral malformations.

      (2) Are the transcriptome data and proteomic data consistent? Consistent targets in both analyses should be highlighted.

      (3) What is the role of Anxa2 in neuroinflammation? Is increased Anxa2 expression in rpgrip1l mutant zebrafish reduced after anti-inflammatory drug treatment? What is the expression level of anxa2 in cep290 mutant zebrafish?

      (4) More background about Rpgrip1l should be provided in the introduction, particularly the past studies of the mammalian homolog of Rpgrip11, if there are any.

      (5) Is there any human disease associated with Rpgrip1l? Do these patients have scoliosis phenotype?

      (6) A summary diagram at the end would be helpful for understanding the main findings.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors provide compelling evidence that stimulation of epidermal cells in Drosophila larvae results in the stimulation of sensory neurons that evoke a variety of behavioral responses. Further, the authors demonstrate that epidermal cells are inherently mechanoresponsive and implicate a role for store-operated calcium entry (mediated by Stim and Orai) in the communication to sensory neurons.

      Strengths:

      The study represents a significant advance in our understanding of mechanosensation. Multiple strengths are noted. First, the genetic analyses presented in the paper are thorough with appropriate consideration to potential confounds. Second, behavioral studies are complemented by sophisticated optogenetics and imaging studies. Third, identification of roles for store-operated calcium entry is intriguing. Lastly, conservation of these pathways in vertebrates raise the possibility that the described axis is also functional in vertebrates.

      Weaknesses:

      The study has a few conceptual weaknesses that are arguably minor. The involvement of store-operated calcium entry implicates ER calcium store release. Whether mechanical stimulation evokes ER calcium release in epidermal cells and how this might come about (e.g., which ER calcium channels, roles for calcium-induced calcium release etc.) remains unaddressed. On a related note, the kinetics of store-operated calcium entry is very distinct from that required for SV release. The link between SOC and epidermal cells-neuron transmission is not reconciled. Finally, it is not clear how optogenetic stimulation of epidermal cells results in the activation of SOC.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      The manuscript titled, "Identification of a Musashi2 translocation as a novel oncogene in myeloid leukemia" by Spinler et al. studies the functional role of the translocation t(7;17)(p15;q23), resulting in MSI2/HOXA9 fusion gene, as a secondary driver in bcCML. MSI2-HOXA9 forced expression along with BCR-ABL enhances colony formation and leads to a more aggressive disease in vivo. Depletion of the RNA binding domain RRM1 or RRM2 of MSI2 led to a significant reduction in colony formation, with RRM1 depletion specifically impacting differentiation and blast cell counts. Mechanistically, the authors find that MSI2-HOXA9 aberrantly localizes to the nucleus, elevating the expression of mitochondrial polymerase Polrmt, thereby leading to upregulation of mitochondrial components and enhancing mitochondrial function and basal respiration. Overall, this study examines how the rare MSI2-HOXA9 fusion gene can act as a novel cooperating oncogene and could serve as a secondary hit in the progression of CML to blast crisis.

      Strengths:

      (1) Demonstration that MSI2-HOXA9 contributes to oncogenesis in the BCR-ABL context.

      (2) Development of a novel cooperativity model for BCR-ABL and provides additional supporting data for the role of MSI2 in leukemogenesis.

      (3) Evidence that MSI2-HOXA9 acts uniquely compared to MSI2 alone through nuclear vs. cytoplasmic localization and activation of mitochondrial polymerase Polrmt.

      Weaknesses:

      (1) MSI2-HOXA9 fusion is extremely rare as it has been only found in a handful of patients and it is not clear whether other MSI2 fusions function in a similar manner.

      (2) The mechanism needs to be strengthened since MSI2 alone or the HOXA9 mutant may not be linked to the mitochondrial mechanism.

      (3) It is not clear that the mitochondrial pathway is sufficient for the MSI2-HOXA9 oncogenic mechanism.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Through RNA analysis, Xie et al found LncRNA Snhg3 was one of the most down-regulated Snhgs by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mouse liver. Consequently, the authors sought to examine the mechanism through which Snhg3 is involved in the progression of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver diseases (MASLD) in HFD-induced obese (DIO) mice. Interestingly, liver-specific Sngh3 knockout was reduced, while Sngh3 over-expression potentiated fatty liver in mice on an HFD. Using the RNA pull-down approach, the authors identified SND1 as a potential Sngh3 interacting protein. SND1 is a component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). The authors found that Sngh3 increased SND1 ubiquitination to enhance SND1 protein stability, which then reduced the level of repressive chromatin H3K27me3 on PPARg promoter. The upregulation of PPARg, a lipogenic transcription factor, thus contributed to hepatic fat accumulation.

      The authors propose a signaling cascade that explains how LncRNA sngh3 may promote hepatic steatosis. Multiple molecular approaches have been employed to identify molecular targets of the proposed mechanism, which is a strength of the study. There are, however, several potential issues to consider before jumping to a conclusion.

      (1) First of all, it's important to ensure the robustness and rigor of each study. The manuscript was not carefully put together. The image qualities for several figures were poor, making it difficult for the readers to evaluate the results with confidence. The biological replicates and numbers of experimental repeats for cell-based assays were not described. When possible, the entire immunoblot imaging used for quantification should be presented (rather than showing n=1 representative). There were multiple mislabels in figure panels or figure legends (e.g., Figure 2I, Figure 2K, and Figure 3K). The b-actin immunoblot image was reused in Figure 4J, Figure 5G, and Figure 7B with different exposure times. These might be from the same cohort of mice. If the immunoblots were run at different times, the loading control should be included on the same blot as well.

      (2) The authors can do a better job in explaining the logic for how they came up with the potential function of each component of the signaling cascade. Sngh3 is down-regulated by HFD. However, the evidence presented indicates its involvement in promoting steatosis. In Figure 1C, one would expect PPARg expression to be up-regulated (when Sngh3 was down-regulated). If so, the physiological observation conflicts with the proposed mechanism. In addition, SND1 is known to regulate RNA/miRNA processing. How do the authors rule out this potential mechanism? How about the hosting snoRNA, Snord17? Does it involve the progression of NASLD?

      (3) The role of PPARg in fatty liver diseases might be a rodent-specific phenomenon. PPARg agonist treatment in humans may actually reduce ectopic fat deposition by increasing fat storage in adipose tissues. The relevance of the findings to human diseases should be discussed.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      Summary:

      The authors provide an interesting observation that ER-targeted excess misfolded proteins localize to the nucleus within membrane-entrapped vesicles for further quality control during cell division. This is useful information indicating transient nuclear compartmentalization as a quality control strategy for misfolded ER proteins in mitotic cells, although endogenous substrates of this pathway are yet to be identified.

      Strengths:

      This microscopy-based study reports unique membrane-based compartments of ER-targeted misfolded proteins within the nucleus. Quarantining aggregating proteins in membrane-less compartments is a widely accepted protein quality control mechanism. This work highlights the importance of membrane-bound quarantining strategies for aggregating proteins. These observations open up multiple questions on proteostasis biology. How do these membrane-bound bodies enter the nucleus? How are the single-layer membranes formed? How exactly are these membrane-bound aggregates degraded? Are similar membrane-bound nuclear deposits present in post-mitotic cells that are relevant in age-related proteostasis diseases? Etc. Thus, the observations reported here are potentially interesting.

      Weaknesses:

      This study, like many other studies, used a set of model misfolding-prone proteins to uncover the interesting nuclear-compartment-based quality control of ER proteins. The endogenous ER-proteins that reach a similar stage of overdose of misfolding during ER stress remain unknown.

      The mechanism of disaggregation of membrane-trapped misfolded proteins is unclear. Do these come out of the membrane traps? The authors report a few vesicles in living cells. This may suggest that membrane-untrapped proteins are disaggregated while trapped proteins remain aggregates within membranes.

      The authors figure out the involvement of proteasome and Hsp70 during the disaggregation process. However, the detailed mechanisms including the ubiquitin ligases are not identified. Also, is the protein ubiquitinated at this stage?

      This paper suffers from a lack of cellular biochemistry. Western blots confirming the solubility and insolubility of the misfolded proteins are required. This will also help to calculate the specific activity of luciferase more accurately than estimating the fluorescence intensities of soluble and aggregated/compartmentalized proteins. Microscopy suggested the dissolution of the membrane-based compartments and probably disaggregation of the protein. This data should be substantiated using Western blots. Degradation can only be confirmed by Western blots. The authors should try time course experiments to correlate with microscopy data. Cycloheximide chase experiments will be useful.

      The cell models express the ER-targeted misfolded proteins constitutively that may already reprogram the proteostasis. The authors may try one experiment with inducible overexpression.

      It is clear that a saturating dose of ER-targeted misfolded proteins activa