407 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2019
    1. t root, the player is tasked with learning a combination of actions and responses. The game does one thing. The player responds with another. In order to beat the game, the player needs to master the system.

      This is similar to working out math. You have to learn it, understand it, and master it. If put into a game format to where students are more attentive, it will be beneficial to their motivation.

    2. Good math games are like mathematical instruments. They are sophisticated digital manipulatives that are able to provide instant feedback. Just playing with a great math game will teach you something about numbers. Just fiddle with it and you’re already doing math.

      This is true! Another form of learning. Since math games is able to provide feedback, it can give student's a better response to their work. This is very useful when the classroom has independent studying times.

    3. The underlying assumption of an education system that relies so heavily on test-based assessment is that content is what matters. We even call it "subject matter." In some ways, it's true that content matters -- as long as we interpret the language so that ‘matters’ is used as a verb. Understand that “what matters” is that which is in the process of matter-ing, the process of becoming matter. What matters is what can be understood as a material, what is measurable, what is quantifiable, what is matter.

      Part 2 of Jordan Shapiro article. I believe this area is useful since it highlights the assumptions of the education system. The content is what matters, not necessarily always given in the form of tests, essays, or handouts;

    1. In this guide, we show how to apply games to math and humanities education, as well as how games can facilitate interdisciplinary learning.

      Did a skim, great resource to get started in integrating games / finding games for the classroom.

      This serves to my research by explaining the types of facilitation in a classroom and the experiences.

    2. These are fun, playful games that don’t "teach to the test," but do align directly with state standards.

      I believe this note highlights well that not all classrooms will be the same and that there is flexibility in each lesson.

      This reminded me to think that not all classrooms will be the same or offer the same experience. As a reminder, the sentence serves as a motivation to make a classroom genuine to your student's learning experience.

    3. The cost of using any kind of new tool in school can be prohibitive, but for educators who want to make it happen, trying free games is a great first step.

      This paragraph provides a good arching theme that teachers experience within their classroom. Lack of resources. However, there are free things in the world that are a good use, we just got to find them. Then work our way up to find better resources.

      This can serve as a quote from this article as a reminder for the things teacher experience in a classroom.

    4. It’s a matter of changing tactics and presumptions: games can be integrated into everyday curricula because they enable teachers to present academic concepts in a contextualized, experiential way.

      I think this sentence serves well in anything we do in a classroom. The way we approach a lesson can determine the beneficial factors that students can take with them. Another important is the integration of technology within the classroom. This way, students have a study of play where they can experiment and learn.

      I think this is important to my inquiry because the statement offers something that is valuable about time and classroom integration.

    5. same subject area from a different perspective.

      Different approach might help fit the curriculum better. The website offers different perspective to play with.

    6. Games in the Classroom: Overcoming the Obstacles

      I noticed when reading this article, the percentage was rank from highest to lowest. I think that is great in terms of organizing information for the readers.

    1. Twitter is a microblogging site.Reddit is a social news aggregator and entertainment site. It’s a platform made up of thousands of smaller, niche “forums,” or subreddits, each with their own rules.Some subreddits, such as /r/todayilearned, do not require expanding further than the post’s title, limited to 300 characters.However, other subreddits require in-depth self-posts, which can be up to 40,000 characters long. Examples include /r/nosleep, /r/entrepreneur, and even /r/theredpillThat doesn’t sound like microblogging to me.

      This person actually makes a great point, a blog itself is limited to minimal actions or explantations and microblogging is more of a in the moment type of things. When some one post to reddit I have notice they go into a good depth of it the topic or they stick to simply posting a link to something relevant to the forum.

      This can be helpful to my article to help me define reddit

    1. These sites are at once the product of screwing around and the social network that invariably results when people screw with each other.

      After reading pages prior to this quote, I find it interesting that any form of online community or online database, the author seems to want to ridicule it. In this instance he calls Reddit a screw around website that even if the forums have ideas that matter, they do no truly matter because of all the excess.

      This paper is actually why I wanted to create a bit of a counter argument in the paper because I know that is one of the main push backs with online communities and people thinking they are useless.

    1. A Resource for Teachers

      This is another .org website so again creditable, seems a bit more legitimized because it is from the American Board. I am not sure how helpful this article maybe because I have already reviewed another one linking to a could of the more large subreddit groups.

    1. If you want to know about a topic, or want to share what you know, there’s probably a community out there waiting for you.

      She makes a very valid point. In the beginning when I was first told about this option, I was skeptical as to how a platform like this have so many subgroups. After speaking with my Reddit enthusiast boyfriend his should me what I refer to as a "Whole new world." Its insane, but I think even if you are looking for a group to connect with, whether you want a professional setting or maybe some memes Reddit has it for you. At the end of my blog I would like to touch on this because I want to address the apprehension that I am sure may have about reddit because I know I could not have been the only one to have this little battle.

    2. Reddit allows users to upvote items they like (as well as downvote items they don’t), respond to what others have posted, and create their own posts.

      I think this function is actually a great one that may actually work to help other teachers because if many like a source or the moderaters find the content very helpful they can either pin or upvote certain materials to help them in the long wrong.

      The idea of creating a community popularization if something that I can touch on to add more definition as to why Reddit is good. But not just the popularization but as well as how something that is deemed unhelpful or possible rude could get deleted and/or down voted.

    3. I have seen the incredible benefit of having an online community of professionals who are willing to engage in discussions and debates. It has been wonderful to be part of a group willing to help each other problem-solve as new experiences come up and new issues arise.

      As stated a few sentences away she is actually an active teacher trying to move forward to become a librarian. She seems to affirm that she is already active in online communities giving her a boost to her creditability because she has had that hands on experience.

    4. easy-to-use interface, and harnesses the power of crowd-sourcing

      In a short amount of words she seems to sum up what many people think an affinity space is. Although I would not call Reddit as the "front page of the internet" as I still think may people are not familiar with it.

      This could make for a great quote in the blog as a staple sentence of perhaps when I attempt to define what exactly reddit is used for.

    5. Reddit: A “Lost” Technology Resource

      This may also be a good creditable source, it is a .org website and it is said to be contributed by Journal of the American Association of School Librarians.

      Although not exactly teachers, they also work in the same school systems and perhaps have a different input as to how reddit maybe used.

    1. 5 Subreddits for Teachers

      This article promotes use of Reddit also the source of this also seems somewhat creditable. It may sound like a silly title to a website but I do know that obtaining a .org ending is difficult and needs some type of push to get it recognized. Seems like a good place to get started.

    2. When you enter teacher in the search box, you can read posts and discussions from both students and their teachers. You may find questions posted every week that you can reply to about your experiences as a teacher too.

      The author makes a good point of you'll find gems in random places and it might be worth a shot to see what some teachers have posted in the forum.

      I am not to sure how this might help me look for ways teachers use Reddit but it is worth a look, I do not want to build a huge argument against Reddit but I think I would really have to pick and choose there. Maybe it could be worth a good laugh.

    3. Discussions may include tips on moving to a new school district, dealing with problem students, handling helicopter parents and tips for those enrolled in teaching programs in college

      This small summary brings up a good point and points me more in the direction of looking at this subreddit now that I have a general Idea that those who use this reddit tend to give or receive advice

    4. This is a great place to view funny pictures that only teachers will understand and to find links to popular news stories in the education field. This subreddit includes links to articles and resources for teachers too

      Although the author is listening subreddits that maybe helpful to teachers, he all makes this comment here and the above highlighted to show that even teachers need and do us the reddit as a comical relief as well as way to actually interact and share relavant ideas.

      Think this page would help me as a way to look at other Reddits, not just the history teacher one, but also the way it could help me as well is gathering for a small defense to a counter argument I would like to propose in my blog. So in a way this helps both sides, me gathering information into different affinity spaces as well as a a built argument.

    1. Engaging in this way reminds her that getting stuck is part of the process, and coaching other people through those emotions serve the dual purpose of reminding herself to stick with it too

      Speaking of process earlier, we have to remind students that math is a journey and is not an instant answer. I believe with this piece of information, we can tell student's its ok to be stuck but keep going.

    2. Danforth thinks of math circles as an opportunity to experience what it means to be a mathematician,

      What about having this idea of a math circles with students? Can that help shed light for students who struggle in math or even a math problem? I think this could be a useful concept to integrate into the classroom and let kids think beyond.

    3. helped her think of math as primarily about problem solving. “That new definition of math allows more people to be good at it,” she said.

      I relate to this statement very well. Because a lot of times when we think of a math class, we do not like it because it's hard and we can't get it. It should be more about the problem solving approach and how one can improve their process every time when tackling math.

    4. While groups are often working on the task from different directions or entering at different levels of understanding,

      This quote brings perspective to us as teachers and the students. That there are different levels of understanding. It adds well into her anecdote from the quote before.

  2. Apr 2019
    1. As teachers we often put our students into reading groups with a limited choice of books and then try to create artificial conversations. In contrast, the act of creating the book commercial together pushes students to have deep discussions as they negotiate creative decisions about what to include and how to communicate the strengths of the book.

      Artificial conversations are an issue I predict I'd face as a teacher, this activity seems to negate the issue by focusing on student interest and creation. What other activities deal with this issue in this sort of way?

    2. Now it’s time for an audience. My students watch each commercial and comment about what they liked, and then the creator tells us what they might do differently next time.

      This is an activity that sees writing as making. Students plan, make, and peer edit.

    3. s Adobe Spark Video.

      I have personal hate for Adobe Spark because of how glitchy and untrustworthy it is.

    4. The act of creating a commercial gets students thinking about elements of story such as character, setting, and plot.

      Multilayered activity (benefits students multiple ways.) What other ways are there?

    5. The library is constantly expanding and keeps student interest in books and reading growing.

      Answer to my possible question: How to get students interested/involved?

  3. Dec 2018
    1. they are subjective and mutable, and readers can interact with texts in a number of way

      a great tool that supports critical thinking and stylistic preferences.

    2. ices, I show several differ ent cinematic versions of this scene (Almereyda, Branagh, and Zeffirelli) that offer varied interpre tation

      accentuates this idea of interpretations

    3. I follow this activity by showing a film ver sion of the textual pas

      This is activity that i want to use in my classroom. i think that especially with hamlet it will work.

    4. What is interesting in the images is not the correct ness of interpretation but how the student chose to represent the lines from the poetry

      Interpretation again. poetry is especially important. there are many critics who interpret work differently. its important to justify all interpretation and communicate the authors intentions also

    5. g, detailing their interpretations of what is being re

      This is the main goal. interpretations are what we want from students. we want they to communicate what they envision and encourage their mental processes

    6. xt. In the process of composing storyboards, students will often go back and forth between the text they are reading and the visuals they are creat

      The reason why they work. reading and rereading

    7. newspapers, in comic books and graphic nov els. In filmmakin

      Shows its wide use in today's society.

    8. t. The storyboards served as a brainstorming activity, much like a prewriting ex ercise for a written pap

      Connect the written process with the visual one

    9. scaffold

      Pedagogical concept

    10. toryboards deliver a narrative A m through discrete visual representa tion

      Storyboarding helps visualize text

    1. talks about digital storytelling as ways to engage students in the writing process. like the other article said, its not always about engagement. talk about the other beneficial aspects of digital essays. community, communication, challenges, feedback.

    2. he also talks about storyboarding as a way to visualize text. pairs well with the other resource about storyboarding. he even puts a webstie that i can access.

    3. because he addresses writing teachers, hicks talks about the similarities writing has with digital writing. same process. draft. edit. publish

    4. he also talks about Common Core state standards. I need to connect these activities to a TEKs requirement to be eligible.

    5. visual mentor texts (films). when i talk about the Franken-Science project, it is important to note that jurassic park is a mentor visual text that allows us to critique similar ideas in Shelleys Frankenstein

    6. "smart producers and smart consumers"

      This is what i want my students to learn. when i talk about digital essays, i want my students to realize that they consume digital media and also produce digital content. before this class i had never considered myself as a producer, but i am.

    7. Hicks writes from the POV of a ELA teacher. this is relevant to me and helps me understand his goals.

      in this chapter, he addresses visual learners and the benefits of using multimodal methods to teaching



    1. Schemas.Aschema(pluralschemasorschemata) is a structure that organizes largeamounts of information into a meaningful system. Schemas include our generalizedknowledge about situations (Matlin, 2009). Schemas are plans we learn and use dur-ing our environmental interactions. Larger units are needed to organize propositionsrepresenting bits of information into a coherent whole (Anderson, 1990). Schemas as-sist us in generating and controlling routine sequential actions (Cooper & Shallice,2006).

      quote this simple explanation. give insight to how we learn

    2. Piaget (1962) offered a different view of imitation. He believed that humandevelopment involved the acquisition of schemes (schemas), or cognitive structures thatunderlie and make possible organized thought and action (Flavell, 1985). Thoughts andactions are not synonymous with schemes; they are overt manifestations of schemes.Schemes available to individuals determine how they react to events. Schemes reflectprior experiences and comprise one’s knowledge at any given time.

      Schema and the discussion about one's knowledge and experiences are important to my analysis. it provides pedagogical information and reserach



    1. The key to success is to choose wisely and create lesson plans that are effective in making a film a learning experience. 

      the goal in this entire method

    2. Cons of Using Movies in the Classroom

      also talks about the negative connotations. great list of ideas. canva

    3. Pros of Using Movies in Class

      These are important ideas. these could be used as infographic in my analysis. canva was cool. use to create

    4. Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts (CCSS) i

      perhaps i need to take a look at texas' regulations. TEKS

    5. School Policies

      reoccurring idea. depending on where i teach, the policies may be different

    6. engagement cannot be the only reason.

      engagement is what prompted me to research it in the first place. but she's right. it cant be the only reason. i need to look at it as a multi-use tool.

    7. Melissa Kelly

      hyperlink shows the credentials

    1. Humanities is an interdisciplinary course in which students recognize writing as an art form. Students read widely to understand how various authors craft compositions for various aesthetic purposes. This course includes the study of major historical and cultural movements and their relationship to literature and the other fine arts. Humanities is a rigorous course of study in which high school students respond to aesthetic elements in texts and other art forms through outlets such as discussions, journals, oral interpretations, and dramatizations. Students read widely to understand the commonalities that literature shares with the fine arts. In addition, students use written composition to show an in-depth understanding of creative achievements in the arts and literature and how these various art forms are a reflection of history. All students are expected to participate in classroom discussions and presentations that lead to an understanding, appreciation, and enjoyment of critical, creative achievements throughout history. Understanding is demonstrated through a variety of media.

      quote this and talk about how literature can be woven into other art mediums (vids, photo, modernism and postmodernism as a collected art construct) this is why we are allowed to use film

    1. To connect to a student's schemata, teachers should (1) present information that builds background ideas, concepts, and principles; (2) show (don't tell) through demonstrations, multimedia, and graphics; (3) use outside resources, trips, and speakers; and/or (4) tell about the topic from personal experience.

      great advice to heed. background info is an important concept. talk about it.

    2. e KWL (What I Know, What I Want to Know, What I Learned) or KWLW (What I Know, What I Want to Know, What I Learned, Where It Was Learned) chart as a previewing activit

      could be used as a good infographic of learned ideas

    3. Most of my students are Hispanic and many have had experiences with gangs at one time or an- other. The It

      need to choose films that may be relevant to the situation of the students. for instance. the method that Hillary Swank uses in freedom writers.

    4. Educators who refuse to acknowledge popular cul- ture as a significant basis of knowledge often de- value students by refusing to work with the knowledge that students actually have a

      we need to keep up with the times and allow students to showcase their skills

    5. Film and Schemata

      now we are talking about Schema. this is an important pedagogical concept. need to put into the analysis and quote book from learning process with hernandez. schunk.

    6. . I have found that the use of film for at-risk students far surpasses literature as facilitation for in- creasing the literacy and critical-thinking skills of my students, and that includes, surprisingly enough, their reading and writing skills

      movies help at risk students and encourage the writing process.

    7. We must use film as other lit- erature is used: as a basis for anchoring most writing and critical-thinking activiti

      quotable insight for the goals

    8. . We start by choosing the films that en- gage students in creating an environment to think and a desire to communicate.

      this is the goal of the entire practice.

    9. 1. A Comparison of Literary and Cinematic

      show the similarities and how they translate into different mediums

    10. nd parents must sign individual releases each time a film is shown.

      something i'll have to do too

    11. do not permit the showing of R-rated feature films at all; teachers may use only excerp

      i feel that this decision may hinder teachable concept though. R rated movies may be grittier than most other movies, but they provide real insight into an idea and help achieve memorable lessons

    12. , a practice that is unethical as well as illegal

      incorporate seriousness into text

    13. ? And haven't teachers over the years misused film? I am referring to the habit of turning films into a visual aid-turning on the projector or VCR and letting the film do the teaching with lit- tle comment or questions.

      use as a quote to talk about the misuse

    14. misused film

      The negative connotation behind the practice

    15. c. After all, don't we partly blame film and television for the low literacy levels in societ

      true statement. coincides with the negative argument above. ironic that teachers blame tv and etc for the loss of reading in schools so they play movies to get a reaction out of their students. not good. maybe untrue?

    16. m (rap music, for example, as poet

      in school, we didn't differentiate by genre of music. lyrics are a form of modern poetry

    17. le The Matrix was in the theaters, a favorite line was, "Never send a human to do a machine's jo

      this movie is alpha in terms of Humanity and loss of humanity (teachable concept) can be paired with other movies like Upgrade and texts.

    18. Ezra Pound, and T. S. Eliot have gone so far as to view any form of popular cul- ture as "a threat to the very existence of civilization as well as an expression of the vulgarization and deca- dence of the masse

      it would be very meta and ironic if i used pop culture to teach them then.

    19. Film is our most popular "popular" culture

      Popular culture is a dominant theme that keeps popping up throughout this inquiry project. It would be unwise not to mention it in the analysis.

    20. school teacher Michael Vetrie.

      Author's credentials

  4. archives.math.utk.edu archives.math.utk.edu
    1. One reason frequently cited is that teachers are not trained in utilizing technology in the classroom within the subject context.

      Our goal: Be the best in STEM education One of the recommendation is to recruit 100,000 middle and high school teachers and they are an important factor of achieving excellence in STEM education. How do we fix this to achieve our goal?

    2. Discussing feelings, attitudes, and appreciation of mathematics with students

      I actually found a blog post talking about the exact same thing. [https://brightthemag.com/how-teens-can-fight-math-anxiety-fd8411493d52]

    3. I like the class because of the teacher"

      We say this all the time without even releasing it. Instructors' behavior and teaching methods are powerful impacts on students.

    4. Jackson and Leffingwell (1999) found that in their study only seven percent of the population reported having positive experiences with mathematics from kindergarten through college.

      This is concerning. How can we make students have more positive experiences with math?

    5. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

      Found another website that talks about this too. [https://www.edutopia.org/article/effective-technology-use-math-class]

    1. Digital Storytelling for Students With Learning Disabilities

      This article adds to my information on some specific kids that digital storytelling really helps and will add LD students to my post. The ideas in this post also reflect a lot of those from my previous articles so it helps hold those ideas solid for my post.

    2. They can choose how to develop their story so it can convey the right meaning.

      With digital storytelling, students are able view their own stories as an audience member as many times as they want to be able to see how their story is being portrayed and if it is not being portrayed as the author would have hoped, it is accessible so that they can go in and fix it.

    3. students are able to gain confidence

      Confidence is a big factor, especially with LD students. If they believe that they can't create good writing then they won't and vise versa. We must employ strategies and activities to allow all students to feel confident and know that they can create amazing pieces of work.

    4. Digital storytelling opens up opportunities to scaffold traditional literacy for students with learning disabilities in order to help them learn and master new skills by applying them in a creative way.

      Digital storytelling provides these students with a stepping stool and provides them with support for creating pieces of writing.

    5. Many students with learning disabilities have difficulty putting their thoughts to writing and/or lose focus while writing down their thoughts, due to the physical act of writing.

      when you take out the physical act of writing, the students are able to express themselves in ways that they are more comfortable with and enjoy

    6. It provides students with the ability to do research, explore innovative technology, and collaborate with peers to tell a story.

      with technology in their hands, they are able to do so much that helps them get into their own story

    1. Digital Storytelling: Extending the Potential for Struggling Writers

      This article is so full of information on how digital storytelling helps struggling writers and goes in to detail about some specific types of kids and how digital storytelling helps them directly with the part of writing that they struggle with. This article will be great for the details and direct example of how digital storytelling helps many types of students who are struggling in different areas as well as all students.

    1. This text provides the general information and benefits of storytelling that I will be able to use to help back up digital storytelling in which my project will be about.

    2. In pursuit of lifelong literacy, we must remember as Eisner (1985) stated that, “The enduring outcomes of education are found in...the joy of the ride, not merely arriving at the destination.” (p. 35).


    3. Using storytelling to discuss many different types of stories, students can make decisions about what type of story they want to tell and what details they should include by participating in oral discussions with a partner or the class (Black, 2008)

      Social side

    4. many younger students give up and merely stop writing when they cannot think of anything to say.

      especially students who are easily frustrated or consider themselves "bad" writers.

    5. There are two key areas that storytelling positively impacts to improve student writing: use of language and identification of audience.

      Both of which are important for young writers to develop

    6. nstead of passively receiving directions on how and what to write about, students make key decisions about their writing with the teacher as model, coach, and facilitator.

      Students are able to self regulate their learning and be in control which is something all people desire to do. When they do this, they are more motivated because they are able to do what they want to do and in turn do it better.

    7. Nicolini (1994) states that, “We are by nature storytellers; therefore, it only makes sense to allow students a chance to first do something at which they are already good.” (p. 58).

      Giving students a mode that they are unafraid of they are more likely to take risks and not hold back from telling the story that they want to tell, and not changing it in fear that they wont be able to spell all the words or make the sentences.

    8. Through active engagement, storytelling as a pedagogical strategy can strengthen reading comprehension by helping students develop of a sense of story (Aiex, 1988; Craig, Hull, Haggart, & Crowder, 2001; Phillips, 1999)

      You always learn better through doing

    9. In storytelling, the interaction is personal, engaging, and immediate (Aiex, 1988)

      All important for children's learning and understanding

    10. In a study conducted by Cliatt and Shaw (1988), the researchers reported that storytelling not only helped participants enhance the language and logic skills of the children but also resulted in the development of positive attitudes towards instruction

      storytelling=better attitudes=better reading and writing

    11. Wallace (2000) noted that, “The phenomenon of storytelling actually becomes a common language that facilitates meaningful communication; we can hear and understand each other’s stories because we can usually recognize ourselves in the stories of others- no matter how varied our cultural backgrounds” (p. 436).

      Building off of each other and creating a community of strong writers. Building this kind of relationship can go a long way with their confidence which can in turn lead to better writing and the cycle will just keep going.

    12. Researchers have found that literacy instruction is most effective when developed through social interaction and collaboration with others (Dugan, 1997). This pedagogical strategy capitalizes on students’ desire to talk and interact with others.

      Children are very social beings and love to share about all kinds of things with you, we should extend this excitement to writing.

    13. Storytelling is defined as, “relating a tale to one or more listeners through voice and gesture” (National Council of Teachers of English, 1992, p. 1). Because storytelling relies on both the listener and the teller, this strategy utilizes the social element of language.

      I guess I never really viewed storytelling through writing as social but even in writing it allows the writer to have their voice and share their voice with others.

    14. Others have carried this connection further and believe that, “reading like a writer allows one to actually become a writer” (Langer & Flihan, 2000, p. 126)

      Reading and writing have a close tie and because reading progresses faster than writing we should use it to help progress our writing as well. A lot of what children read in their early grades are stories and so by writing stories they can match what they are reading, we can help them achieve greater success in writing.

    15. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) reported that, “one out of every five of our nation’s school-age children suffer from reading failures” (ASHA, n.d., Facts on Literacy Section)

      While this number can't completely disappear but we should be working toward finding ways to make this number smaller and smaller.

  5. Nov 2018
    1. Allowing students who struggle with forming letters in a fluent manner-like Colleen-to compose on the computer removes the handwriting obstacle and also eliminates for the reader the difficulty of reading visually challenging handwritten text. By sharing their stories through narrated movies, the handwriting obstacle is removed and replaced by the pitch and expression of students' own voices.

      By taking out the writing, we are able to see how students can create stories and see how they can compose a story. When you take out the worry of the writing, the students feel free to be as creative as they want to and can because they feel like they can be successful at that creative level.

    2. he process of creating a storyboard after drafting their stories helps the writers visualize the story as it unfolds and more concretely reveals to them any gaps or omissions of details that are important to plot development. Once the omissions are visualized, students add details to make their stories more fluid and comprehensible.

      Another example of how digital storytelling can help students who struggle with adding the details to create flow in a story, visualizing seeing it through pictures in the storyboard.

    3. Giving students an environment in which interaction and collaboration are encouraged help them write more productively.

      Students can learn a lot from each other and can grow their own ideas just from talking to others and the computer screen is an easy way for others to view others work to get ideas of what they're doing.

    4. The interactive nature of composing a digital stor y reduces nonproduction resulting from disengagement or distractions. Undoubtedly the countless graphics and music clips available on the Internet may also be a distraction, but limiting the websites that students may access and setting a time frame to select graphics and music may reduce the distractibility. On the other hand, the multimedia used to create a digital story promotes active learning and collaboration: two approaches to learning that help distracted students stay engaged with the assignment.

      With structure, digital storytelling keeps easily distracted and disengaged kids on task an engaged with the tasks and active learning and collaboration.

    5. Not only did the assistant principal affirm the student as a writer by commenting about the content of his story but also verified him as a storyteller by making specific comments about his articulate narration. As a result, when this Kyle type returned home, he voluntarily created a digital story

      When the students have others compliment them, especially their insecurities, they become more sure of themselves and confident and then when they are confident they enjoy the tasks more because they believe that the product will be great so they are more likely to want to create things on their own for fun which in turn gives them more practice so that they can become even better and this can just form a cycle of improvement.

    6. By encouraging this Kyle type to draw his own illustrations to depict scenes for his digital story, the project became more meaningful to him.

      When the student is able to create exactly what they want, they are more connected to the piece and able to take more ownership of it. When given only a certain set of things to choose from they are less excited about it, especially if there isn't an option that directly elicits what they are trying to portray and that leads to frustration and they settle with less.

    7. fter she recorded and listened to her narration, she realized it was too fast and expressionless, and she willingly chose to rerecord the narration until the recording satisfied her.

      Allows them self correct to make sure it sounds to others how they want it to sound.

    8. Although they promptly begin an assigned writing task and complete it, they are reluctant to make any type of revision. Creating a movie gives them a reason for writing and makes them more conscious of their audience, one that reaches beyond themselves and their teacher, and motivates them to write more clearly and with more detail. They employ their artistic ability by drawing pictures to illustrate their stories, scan and save the illustrations, and then import them into a video-editing program.

      One good example of how digital storytelling helps one group of struggling students.The idea that this can be viewed by may makes them want to write so that everyone can read and understand and make meaning and then they get to add the illustrations as well.

    9. Digital storytelling has the capacity to not only motivate struggling writers as they experience the enjoyment of creating stories enhanced by multimedia, but also to reposition themselves from struggling writers to competent writers.

      Allows them to view themselves differently so that when they are traditionally writing, their new attitudes about writing will show in their work. Believing that they are good writers will allow them to be more confident in their writing and their writing will improve.

    10. The process of storyboarding facilitates the introduction of events in a logical and orderly sequence thereby illuminating gaps or omissions overlooked in a traditionally composed draft. When these breaks in the flow of the story are realized, the writer can make necessary revisions in the draft before recording the narration.

      They are able to visually see the story to watch it flow. With the composition simply in words, they are less likely to be able to picture it in their head and watch the flow to see if it has any gaps. When they are able to put it into a storyboard they can see it and it also gives them a way to solve the issue before they do the final product, and with writing it always feels more final especially for kids and they are less inclined to fix the problem if there is one because it is more intimidating because it all seems like one piece. In a storyboard it is all broken up so its easier to fix the small pieces of the whole.

    11. Students' narrations of their stories reduce overt weaknesses in conventions such as spelling, capitalization, and handwriting.

      Gives them more confidence

    12. Teachers report an increase in student motivation to write when they know their writing will be published on the Internet (Karchmer, 2001)

      I feel like this is true throughout all ages. Even now, knowing that something has the possibility of being seen by any, I pay really close attention making sure everything I do makes me sound smart. I am more likely to read over it multiple times to make sure everything is right.

    13. Once movies are created, showing them to the class is the publishing step in the writing process and should not be omitted because students generally enjoy showing their movies.

      Children are proud of their creations, there is sometimes a fear of sharing writing, especially those seen as not great writers. I never viewed myself as a good writer and I still don't like letting others read my work.

    14. personal photographs

      Create a greater tie to the piece

    15. seven elements

      Much like written composition, point of view, dramatic question, emotions, even economy and pacing, all fall into written compositions. Digital story telling adds the gift of voice and a soundtrack. These ideas allow the student to get creative and feel more connected to piece of work that they are creating. Young student sometimes struggle with the idea that you have a voice in writing because to them, its just words on a page, but through digital storytelling they feel like they really are telling their story and they are doing it out loud.

    16. they confidently explore new software, devices, or other technological tools.

      Students more likely to take risks and try new things with technology then on paper?

    17. may struggle with traditional literacy, tapping into other literacies may boost their motivation and scaffold their understanding of traditional literacies.

      using literacy to build upon literacy. By allowing them to use a mode that they are more interested in or are seen as higher achievement in, they will be more motivated in the terms of traditional literacy.

    18. limit students' writing opportunities to experiences that prepare them for testing

      "Teaching to the test" this is something that has has become a huge thing in the class but is it the best way to truly prepare them? Can we use methods besides directly what is on the test to get the same ideas across and maybe even move farther for a better understanding?

    19. assigning everyone the same topic

      As stated earlier in the article, it talks about how lack of interest influences the quantity and quality of the work. By giving all students the same prompt, some may have a bigger interest or connection to whatever the prompt may be so it may, before the writing has even started, already separated into two groups of students. How else could we check for kids writing level? how can we address the idea of giving all kids an assessment that is more up their alley.

    20. Furthermore, incomplete knowledge or lack of interest in an assigned topic may influence the quantity and quality of a composition (Graham & Harris, 1997).

      "lack of interest" how can we help peak their interest and give them something that they are excited about while still having this idea of a composition? can digital storytelling combat this lack of interest to help improve the quality of a composition for these learners?

    21. Although their compositions are replete with spelling, capitalization, punctuation, and handwriting errors, they are less likely to revise spelling, punctuation, grammar, or the text to increase the clarity of their communication (Englert, 1990; MacArthur & Graham, 1987)

      Why is this? Misconception about good writers? Expectations of themselves?

    22. Using this multimedia approach in the classroom helps students discover voice, confidence, and structure in their writing

      Helpful for all students

    23. Creating digital stories acts as a motivator for students, thus they remain engaged throughout the project (Burn & Reed, 1999). Additionally, digital stories provide an alternative conduit of expression for those students who struggle with writing traditional text (Reid, Parker, & Burn, 2002).

      Students who don't learn best through traditional means, and therefore are at a high risk of falling behind, can benefit from creating these digital stories to help them become more engaged in the content.

    1. When we taught middle school students for 18 lessons through creative, open, visual math, they changed their ideas and relationships with math. After only 18 days they also improved their test performance by the equivalent of 1.6 years of school;

      I feel like this breaks the very first problem with math. It's seen as a performance subject. Is there a better way to analyze success other than testing?

    1. Reblogged this on David R. Taylor-Thoughts on Education.

      Power to the reblogging community. I'm sure Larry Cuban appreciates his work being enjoyed just as the students may tend to feel when they see their peers' input and support on their thoughts

    2. diversify what they teach

      I like what Larry has mentioned here about diversifying what they teach and learn. I can see how this would encourage more conversation than if the teacher was to simply prompt students verbally. The technology probably entices them to answer/ engage more often.

    3. I see a professional teacher and engaged students rather than the tech driving the class forward.

      This is a great observation by Alice in Pa, which embodies how I want technology to function in my classroom.

    4. Go to socrative.com

      Okay, its possible I retract my statement about games! This site is cool. I will use restraint!

    1. “There’s a pedagogical danger that students won’t develop open-ended skills from an animated dissection, that it doesn’t have the genetic variety we find in animals,” says Brian R. Shmaefsky, a professor of biology at Kingswood College in Houston and the secretary-treasurer of the National Association of Biology Teachers. “But for teachers dealing with student and parental complaints about animals, I’m for technology like that in the classroom.”

      I too am concerned however I also think it is also important for students to overcome the unknown and feared.

    2. the technology saves school districts thousands of dollars, allows students to do multiple dissections on the same creature and get immediate feedback about what they did right or wrong, and ensures a safer enviornment for dissections.

      Saving money, I guess that can often be vital for schools but is there a way to get more money so kids can do more!? Probably not huh?

    3. Or they’ll use a Web camera and integrate graphics to produce weather reports, which they post online as podcasts.

      What a cute idea! This is also a great way to encourage collaboration and teamwork. I'm sure organizing the meteorological team was just as crazy as making stop motion at Maplewood but just as rewarding!

    4. educators need to do much more than just show off the latest gizmo to make technology effective.

      yes, just using "gizmos" is not enough. technology must be integrated

    5. Some are downloading real data

      This is useful utilization of technology inn my opinion. I also like how the students are rotating stations to use several medias and to sustain stimulation.

    1. What We Do For Scientists PlantingScience is a simple, effective and efficient avenue for outreach, and to share the passion for what you do with burgeoning young scientists and citizens.

      I like that they remind us that the mentors are getting something genuine out of this partnership too ;)

    2. student-centered plant investigations that integrate scientific practices and big ideas in biology that meet the guidelines in the Next Generation Science Standards and other 21st century education standards

      Comforting to know that standards don't have to mean boring!

    1. PlantingScience Staff We like how this mentor is encouraging the students to think ahead.

      This demonstrates just how feasible connecting becomes with a resource like a blog. The mentor can instantaneously and casually respond. This can really make a student feel special and committed by getting expert advice.

    1. Sharing information and ideas to improve thinking for all is a very important part of science.

      As it is for all parts of life. I love that this gets young scientists in the habit of collaborating because I think sometimes professional science can become proprietary.

    1. "I didn't want to turn it into a typical report you do in school," said Baker. "I wanted it to be a lot more exciting than that."A

      This is the inspiration I am searching for

    1. Awesome post Noa! I never knew the music was such an essential part of our being. Well I did some research and I found a ted talk about how music effects people. This ted talk proved that humans... The Biology of Music · 6 year

      Nice to see the student's perspective. I see the students taking ownership and gaining that confidence in their own expertise as described by Jill Walker Rettberg, Blogging as a Tool for Reflection and Learning

    1. blog is called Rebecca’s Pocket. In her oft-cited essay “Weblogs: a history and perspective”, she writes about how blogging not only helped her gain knowledge about herself and her own interests, blogging actually led her to value more highly her own opinion and her own point of view. Partly, this was because she carefully considered her ideas as she wrote.

      This demonstrates how blogging is one of those informal yet vital places where people become great writers.

  6. May 2018
    1. “High” Tech Strategies

      And the inevitable high tech options that can be out of reach for a lot of families and school districts. The IEP requires, if it is agreed upon by the committee, that the school does everything possible within reason to get the device.

    2. These strategies involve some type of battery operated device such as a tape-recorder, that enhance specific skill areas. Most devices in this category refer to Voice Output Communication Aids (VOCAs

      The next level of tech that includes battery operated devices. With growing inclusion of smart devices in classrooms, I could see this being an easily accessible option for a lot of students. Apps and programs are often easily purchasable and accessible.

    3. Assistive Technology for children with Autism and Aspergers

      This article caught my eye with the categories of assistive technology it presents. It displays low tech, mid tech, and high tech options. This can be crucial to not only finding which is appropriate for non verbal ASD students, but what is also within economic and accessible boundaries.

    4. dry erase board, a photograph, clipboards

      Low tech options include everyday material that you can find in everyday classrooms. Easily accessible and easily used.

    1. defining what exactly is meant by "non-verbal." For instance, some individuals have spoken words, but do not use them functionally, while others may have little spoken language but are able to use it to communicate their needs. The first day of the meeting was focused on developing a description

      Interesting note here. Defining what it means to be non verbal and determining the degree to which one is non verbal. Each individual are a separate case by case instance that can make results vary.

    2. "We still know very little about the cognitive capabilities of nonverbal people with autism, and how best to help them learn to communicate,"

      ASD is a relatively new disorder without a lot of research behind it, leading to a lack of information of how to best help this group of people.

    3. It is estimated that as many as 25 percent of individuals living with autism spectrum disorders are non-verbal.

      This is a large portion of ASD, not including those that are limitedly verbal that could also use assistive technology.

    1. “People with autism bring strengths that we need at Microsoft,” she said, adding that “some have amazing ability to retain information, think at a level of detail and depth, or excel in math or code.”

      I like how this article shines light on how assistive technology can aid the transition for ASD people to have success in the real world. Microsoft here invests in ASD people and they are able to exhibit their strengths in the work place and with the abilities show in this text.

    2. She further explains that even a grocery store or movie theater can be filled with distractions and triggers that will continue to elicit autistic behaviors,

      The need for assistive technology goes beyond the classroom as seen here. IEP research that I have done indicates that students who require assistive technology through the school can request for the service to be taken home as well. This decision is made in the ARD meeting and can be discussed as an option.

    3. Visual Scene Displays — a type of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) — that give detailed context to common situations. She cited an app called Scene Speak, as well as more dynamic ones like TouchChat, Look2Learn and Tobii Sono Flex. The latter programs turn symbols into speech, allowing less-verbal children a better way to communicate.

      Some direct examples of apps that are being used as assistive technology for students who are non verbal. The app is a medium between the students and to those whom they are trying to communicate with. It taps emphasis into visual skills to compensate for verbal deficiencies. A growing trend in schools as this article advocates.

    1. The following are 10 different ways that ESL teachers can use technology to teach English in a way that will make lessons more engaging and appealing:

      Majority of the examples provided involve assessment which feels more significant and students, especially in the beginning levels, shy away from.

    2. There are many options on the Internet to learn about virtually any topic.

      Could be a specifc website like the examples but also, just Google Earth

    3. Digital Field Trips

      This is something new that I hadnt thought of before. It could be used to physically show a place of interest in a cultural or geographic lesson or to describe directions in Spanish by the students.

    1. It has the tendency to make the learning passive. Everything is available, and everything is accessible in an instant. This results in the brain taking for granted what is served up to it so easily. And you don’t really value what comes too easily. For example, there’s just something about flipping the pages of a thick dual-language dictionary that makes us appreciate the word when we finally locate it on the page.Technology also precludes human interaction. Some people just learn best when interacting with others. Solo flights in front of the computer don’t hold much appeal to them. There’s just something about having a warm body laughing your bungling of a new language.So as it turns out, technology has its own shortcomings. You can’t lean on it too much. If you want a bountiful harvest, you need to put in the effort and the time to really do the hard work. Technology is the same. It’s there to help, but it can’t drag you from bed in the morning and sit you in front of the computer or make you take the tests seriously.

      Directed mainly at individual learners, not students in a classroom. There is the conversation and non-isolated aspect of the classroom. There does need to be an integration not substitution.

    2. Choose a story that has a visual component. That is, a story that has the text and pictures shown. If the storyteller is being shown, take note of his/her gestures. This will help you make out the things happening in the story. (If possible, make sure that you are familiar with the English version of the story.)Because they are geared for kids, the language structure in the stories will be easy enough, and the vocabulary so basic that an adult listening to Cinderella in Spanish can mine it for language acquisition.

      I have seen this technique used before but, did not engage me well enough to work very well

    3. Test Your Knowledge Through Technologically-enhanced Language Games

      Again, memorization based

    4. With YouTube, you also have access to native speakers speaking their dialects in full display. A video or channel may not necessarily be about language

      A process that I use now and did in high school by watching tv show episodes and identifying 50 or so words that we knew

    5. Turn Car Rides into Language Classes

      For auditory learners

    6. Video Chat with a Native Speaker Any Time of the Day

      Requires more preparation than my ideal tech integration but, i have seen it be done and successful.

    7. With one click or tap, you will know what “sleep” is when translated to French, Spanish or Japanese, for example
    8. 1. Change the Language Settings on Your Devices and Social Media Accounts

      Not entirely plausible for the classroom but, may be able to walk through a webisite like Facebook in Spanish.

    9. They have memory games that make learning fun. Videos record the lessons and you can replay them at any time of the day and as often as like.

      The only two aspects of language learning tech that ive tested.

    10. Technology has changed the way we exchange information.

      Highlights the increased on importance of tech on language learning but also, breaks down what language is which provides a lens with whih to analyze tech

  7. Apr 2018
    1. Rapid changes in digital communication provide facilities for reading and writing to be combined with various and often quite complex aspects of images, music, sound, graphics, photography and film

      This source is going to my second go-to for information. I chose this sources because of its ability to give me a larger amount of information strictly pertaining to multi modal literates - ranging from composition of works, to the makeup of classrooms. It focuses on more recent research (2010) and k-12 classrooms. It also points out ways in which students and teachers can use technology, and where teachers can attempt to promote more technology in classrooms

    1. This paper describes my investigation of technology integration in social studies instruction to build an understanding of why technology is being used to teach social studies content. Given the nature of social studies instruction and the need to engagestudents in the learning process, I selected motivational theory as a theoretical frame for this research.

      This article focuses on motivational theory as a looking glass into multimodal classroom and literates. Tina Heafner first offers definitions about motivation theory, before digesting her observations and methods commonly used to promote motivation. She then uses her observations to make her professional recommendations.

    1. A child is allowed to take a device home if it is needed to enable him/her to benefit from his/her educational program as determined by the IEP team

      Not just for school use only, but instead an emphasis on improving all facets of life.

    2. Assistive technology means any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially, off-the-shelf, modified or customized, that is used to increase, maintain or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities. Federal law requires that school districts identify the assistive technology needs that would benefit your child in his or her Individualized Education Program (IEP).

      Key vocabulary and terminology for Special Education and for parents to know about when entering their child's IEP/ARD meetings. It is so important for parents to know their rights, demanding for the law to be held up in their schools.

    3. New technologies have created opportunities and higher expectations for full inclusion of individuals with autism into all aspects of society, beginning with the classroom.

      Technology creating a pathway for easier lifestyles and for students to achieve and succeed. Technology used in concept of fairness, giving a child what he or she needs to achieve success in the classroom.

    1. Justify

      Greatest take-away. Can be used for my future reference. Provides structure in Q&A form about why her and her team decided to take on creating multimodal spaces

    2. Through this retelling, Knight explores how a design philosophy can be a crucial component of space design. Although focused on one specific case study, the chapter offers advice others can use regarding the development and implementation of a design philosophy.

      This piece, though not a scholarly piece, is a nice view at the process that goes into creating multimodal classrooms, but its focus is on classroom design. A vital part of this piece, in using this for mine is the complete beginning of this piece. She defines terms such as classroom design, multi modal functions, etc. She also discusses the philosophy of classroom design and how effective is has been in her teaching experience.

    3. Our pedagogical values necessitated arguments for small class sizes and studio-type teaching environments. We repeatedly returned to these pedagogical arguments, in reports, in meetings, in conversations, in emails—anytime we needed to advocate for resources that would help us to best teach communication studies in theory and practice. These repeated ideas and approaches became the basis for what we call our design philosophy—our particular ideas about the purpose of built environments and what they should accomplish. Written in plain English with minimal jargon, the statement reflects our shared beliefs and specific objectives regarding teaching spaces. Our design philosophy became a tool to effectively interface with a variety of stakeholders, from administration to facilities to IT. It became a tool to guide our process of production; at times, it served as our creed, or manifesto.

      Pedagogy points of emphasis

    4. This flexible and easily modified space supports Individual student work, Collaborative group work, Small-group discussion, and Large-group seminars and presentations

      Align with my way of wanting to teach. Not only in terms of actually creating things, but I believe that creating things on your own is vital to making things stick.

    5. Build the most effective teaching and learning space possible, Communicate our ideas to a variety of stakeholders, Negotiate our classroom vision from a strong bargaining position, and Effectively solve problems and work within constraints in the process of completing the project.

      philosophy of this classroom design

    1. games could be beneficial for a number of reasons. Firstly, it is claimed that in gamesknowledge or skills learned and practiced are more likely to transfer than when practiced on a single kind of problem. Once mastered, theknowledge and skills are practiced further to provide overlearning. This leads to the knowledge and skills becoming automatized and con-solidated in memory, so that the learner can begin to focus consciously on comprehending or applying new information

      Research has shown that students are significantly more engaged and concentrate much harder when challenged in classrooms. Literature in the game-based context reflects similar understanding of the phenomenon that the challenge in games may drive a player's sense of engagement. As Fotini Paraskeva in "Multiplayer online games as educational tools: Facing new challenges in learning" writes, "Games seem to put the learner in the role of decision-maker, pushing players through ever harder challenges, and learning is accomplished through trial and error" (Paraskeva 499). Prior research by James Paul Gee in "What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy", and John Kirriemuir in "The relevance of video games and gaming consoles to the higher and further education learning experience" — which Paraskeva cites to corroborate her findings — also shows that challenge in game-based learning increased learning outcomes as well as satisfaction.

    1. Games model learning by doing perfectly, as they demand the active participation of players all along the way. This is one reason games have such potential as tools for learning: they are really nothing more than complex problems waiting to be solved by players in a way that is both fun and challenging.

      As new technologies allow for increasingly sophisticated game experiences, the potential for the integration of games and learning becomes ever more crucial. Learning environments have been largely limited to the traditional classroom: the teacher stands in front of the class and relays knowledge to a listening group of students. But gaming environments are quite unlike that. As Katie Salen Tekinbas in Guide to Digital Games + Learning writes, "Games . . . demand the active participation of players all along the way" (Shapiro 4). Through their use of immersive experiences, games like Mafia, Dragonbox, and Crayon Physics Deluxe — all social games referenced by Tekinbas — provide an opportunity for play which can result in a myriad of rich experiences.

    1. Take a stroll through “The Educational Gaming Industry Timeline”. Click and read about the key games, developers and innovations that shaped the industry’s history. Each key date is complete with a short description, as well as videos, games, and links to further information.

      It is clear that as a result of the ubiquitous digital environment and the sheer volume of their interaction with it, today's students think and process information fundamentally differently from their predecessors. Brendan Alexander points out that "with the proliferation of the internet . . . people [can] play, share, and learn together from thousands of miles away". To give readers an idea of the growth of the Educational Gaming Industry, Alexander provides a link to "The Educational Gaming Industry Timeline". The timeline explores the evolution of overall game-based learning from the year 1967, to the present. In the final section of his blog, Alexander asks readers their thoughts, and invites them to share further examples that would benefit other readers.

    1. Gamification in learning is an established trend, and uses the core elements of what make games fun – mastery, narrative, instant feedback, competition, and reward, to create new ways for learners to internalize information.

      According to Susannah Holz, "gamification" is an emergent approach to learning instruction. It facilitates learning and encourages motivation using game elements and game-based thinking. In this case, the goal may be to increase student effort or simply to convey to students that "games [can] make learning . . . fun and interactive". In addition, Holz references other blogs that deal with gamification and digital game-based learning (DGBL), such as Alex Calhoun's "'Vanished' Teaches Children to Save the Future with Science" and Vicki Davis' "Gamification in Education". In short, this blog seems to explore the relationship between game-based learning experience and learning and related outcomes.

  8. May 2017
    1. Summary: I really like this source because it provides amore in-depth analysis of Fake News Stories than my first article does. This source, just like the other ones I am showing for my annotated bibliography are all educational. (I think going over this again is not imperative.) Assessment: Everything I highlighted in yellow is something I believe might be more tricky to teach/talk to students with Disabilities about. This does not mean they are bad (they are actually great ideas to take in) I just have to think about how one can teach that information. What I highlighted in blue are tips the author said that I really appreciated and believe that a lot of people do not think about. I think people who are educated in a way about the fact that Fake News is out there would like this source. I see people who activley share Fake News everyday and there is no way this source would get them to see that all the news they know of is Fake. They would get really angry. That is why me educating my students about Fake News is so important! I think tis source seems less biased because in "Does teh story attach a generic enemy?" it includes the both the Liberal and Conservative side. Being liberal myself, I have been awre of mostly only Conservative Fake News that attacks liberals. Reflection: This source is a great addition for me because it gives me a more detailed lense through which to examine Fake News. It talks about points that rely on one's emotion as well as the actual writing. It gets to points that may are really important and go beyond the surface of a Fake News article.

  9. Apr 2016
    1. Kathryn deBros,

      I followed this link to her page and learned that she writes a good deal and has some fantastic references she draws on and that you might draw on in this project. Follow articles with tags on the home page of her noodle and scroll down to sources for more (if you're looking).

    1. A visual schedule can also be created for the purpose of helping student direct their own behavior throughout the work period

      Visual schedules not only benefit children with ASD, but they are also helpful for all children in the classroom

    2. Models have been designed to ensure that necessary information that is gathered by an interdisciplinary team that includes parents to plan and develop supports

      Models are used in both classroom and at-home settings to ensure fluidity and structure in helping a child with ASD learn effecitve ways to communicate and learn other important skills

    3. Visual supports are tools that are used to increase the understanding of language, environmental expectations, and to provide structure and support for individuals with ASD. Visual supports can be provided in a variety of ways across multiple settings. For instance, you can incorporate supports in school, home, work, and within the community.

      Visual supports are useful tools for children with ASD and can be used in a variety of settings but for the same purpose: to ensure that the child learns and develops an effective communication and interaction skills, as well as a way to provide structure for the child.

    1. nterventions to support individuals with autism typically begin very early in life

      Stating how visual supports can be used as an effective intervention tool to ensure that a child with ASD recieves the assistance they need when communicating and learning.

    2. The Autism Society of America defines autism as “a complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first 3 years of life and is the result of a neurological disorder that affects the normal functioning of the brain, impacting development in the areas of social interaction and communication skills.”1

      I plan on using this definition when defining that Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorder are;

  10. www.autismspeaks.org www.autismspeaks.org
    1. Examples

      Examples of Physically Setting Parameters- Physical Boundaries: placing the visual on a physical boundary that is already defined (i.e. a door or window) and referring to it when the rule is followed

      Limited availability: deciding the number of times (or length) of time that an item or activity is available

      Wait: Start by display the symbol for ‘wait’ for a short/set amount of time before the child can receive the desired item or activity

    2. ensure the teaching and compliance ofthose steps. It is also helpful in decreasing anxiety and rigiditysurrounding

      Visual Schedule's are helpful because they break down certain tasks, especially tasks that have multiple steps; they help enforce the completion of these tasks by the ASD students

    3. earn new skills. A First-Then Board motivates them to do activities that th

      First-Then Board helpful when teaching ASD children how to follow directions and when learning new skills

    4. Visual Schedule

      Visual Schedule's display to children a set list of activities that will occur throughout the day; it may also display specific actions that will occur within certain activities

    5. First – Then Board

      First-Then boards are visual displays that show children a preferred activity that will occur after a previous task is completed; ex: First: Eating lunch, Then: Go to playground

    6. round items or activities and to communicate basic expected

      Visually Setting Parameters: involves using visuals to set clear boundaries for activities and items, and is used to communicate behaviors

    7. h ASD use them on their own in so

      VS used with ASD children to (1) help teach social skills, (2) help child communicate wants and needs, and (3) assist children in coping with change and paying attention

    8. limited interests or repetitive behaviors. Visual supportshelp in all three area

      VS used to help ASD children who struggle when interacting socially, using language, and having limited interests/repetitive behaviors

    9. p their child communicate

      VS used as a communication tool between children and parents, and between children and other adults/peers

    10. r visual item to communicate with a child who has difficulty understanding or using language. Visual supportscan be photographs, drawings, obj

      What is a visual support