9 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2024
    1. theworksprescribed in earlier years were much easier and written as lead sheets rather than detailed notations for both hands, which gave the performers the opportunity to rely more on their improvisational and arrangement skills rather than their reading skills to successfullyinterpret the works.
    2. Articulation specifications such as the staccatomarkings in Ballad for Thomas(Example 2.2.2) and sempre legato in Two Studies for Piano(Example 2.2.3). •Scale patterns in the left hand in Example 2.2.1 bar 30 and Example 2.2.3 bar 2-4 in Two Studies for Piano. •The similarity of sudden change in time signature, which can be found throughoutAfrican Funk for Felix, Ballad for Thomas and Lutoslawski’s Two Studies forPiano.
    3. Reddy use Western art music notation devices similar to those used by Lutoslawski in Two Studies for Piano no.1(Example 2.2.3):•There are detailed dynamic markings in both Ballad for Thomas and Lutoslawski’s Two Studies for Piano, although African Funk for Felix does not have any dynamic markings. It is important to note that Reddy states in the preface to Ballad for Thomasthat the dynamic markings are a mere suggestion (Reddy 2005c).•The use of Italian expressions, for example crescendoin Ballad for Thomas (Example 2.2.2) and sempre legatoin Two Studies for Piano(Example 2.2.3).
    4. Texture is regarded asthe joining of musical voices into melodic and accompaniment factors. In his book, Alfred’s essentialsof jazz theory,Berg (2005:3) writes: “... it is texturethat provides an aural dimension of depth”. The use of voicings6(Levine 1989:42) and texture in the three late piano worksare examined in this chapter.
    5. In addition, certain stylistic rhythmic elements in the worksareanalysed. Reddy’s musicis highly syncopated. Rhythm, as Neuhaus(1973)describes in his book The art of piano playing, is comparedto the pulse of a living organism, and he is adamant that even in a toccata the pulse will vary as the pulse of a healthy person is regular, but increases or decreases under the pressure of psychological or physical experience:Music is a tonal process and being a process and not an instant, or an arrested state, it takes place in time. The rhythm of a musical composition is frequently –and not without reason –compared to the pulse of a living organism (Neuhaus 1973:30).
    6. In this chapter the various stylistic influences in Reddy’s African Funk for Felix, Ballad for Thomas, and Toccata for John Roos are traced and delineated. By shedding light on the stylistic features that Reddy brought to pianistic realisation, I provideinterpretative insightsbased on a stylistic study of these works. This study is conducted by way of an overview of the stylistic musical elements found within the harmony, melody, rhythm, texture, form and style of the three works.The structures of the compositions are analysedincludingthe form of the composition, improvisation sections, intros, outros, modulation, development, and specific stylistic structural qualities, for example the cyclic repetition within the mbaqangasection in African Funk for Felix(Allen 2001; Bennet 2002:4-8; Berg 2005:3; Harrison 2009:131-132).Furthermore, examples of Reddy's harmonic vocabulary are givenand concepts such as extended jazz chords, harmonic repetition, ostinato, tension versus resolution, modal harmony, accompaniment style, modulation, transitions between different sections, and stylistic harmonic characteristics form part of this discussion (Reddy 2005b; 2005c; 2007).Stylistic melodic structures and motifs are also delineatedwith specific focus onstylistic licks,5development of the melody, tension and release, melodic material in the left hand, walking bass patterns, and melodies borrowed or quoted from other compositions (Aebersold 1992:43; Berg 2005:7; Harrison 2009:91; Reddy 2005b; 2005c; 2007).The use (or sometimes even lack) of dynamic markings in Reddy’s worksis also investigated. In African Funk for FelixReddy did not include dynamic markings. There arerecordings(as discussed in the literature review) that can be used as a referencewhen studying the work, but if itis performed as a solo piano composition, the
    7. His skills are apparent by looking at the rapid metronome marking (130 per crotchet) of one of his late piano works, African Funk for Felix (Reddy 2005b:1). This metronome markingadds to the difficulty of the workthat comprisesa repeated semiquaver ostinato, complex syncopations and rhythms, changes in time signatures, and technically challenging passages for both hands.
    8. While I enjoyed an excellent classical music education in London at the Royal College of Music I ventured later intopop, rock and other musical styles without abandoning my classical roots, and attempted to share the fruits of this Catholic musical perspective with audiences. They were perhaps not ready for pioneering efforts in bridging the gap between jazz and classical, then, and seemed to me sometimes to advocate a kind of ‘apartheid in music'(Reddy 2005a).
    9. This led him to createhis distinctive compositional style referred to as clazz.The name originated froman amalgamation of the words ‘classical’ and ‘jazz’. In reality, clazzcomprisesseveral musical genresincludingjazz, pop, Indian, world music, rock, Javanese gamelan music, South African mbaqanga,isicathamiya, and Western art music. Reddy’s political and philosophical beliefs are evident in clazz. By fusing different musical styles, he exhibitedhis humanitarianism, deeming all should be treated equally(Reddy 2007:11; Lucia 2010b:53; Van der Merwe 2016:71).