29 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2023
    1. Glossary of some important musical terms


      Estimating tempo, swing, and beat locations in audio recordings

      Jean Laroche 2001

  2. Jul 2023
  3. Jun 2023
    1. Indlamu, the type of traditional dance music the track is based on (andincidentally one of the styles that influenced mbaqanga), is usually played at a faster tempo.Makhathini recounts that he was trying to capture how it would be to dance with the veryancient forefathers and mothers, thus accounting for the slower tempo (Makhathini, 2020).The track titles ‘Ehlobo’ and ‘Okhalweni’ are Zulu expressions meaning ‘in the summer’ and‘from the waist’ respectively


    2. “Double time”is defined by the New Grove Dictionary of Jazzas “the apparent doubling of the tempo [...] achieved by halving the prevailing note-value” (Kernfeld, 2002). In an explanation of the same term written for a popular audience, the book What to Listen for in Jazzclarifies that double time “involves a doubling of tempo in the rhythm section, a doubling of the general speed of the melody line, or both” (Kernfeld, 1997).The Grove’s use of the word “apparent” implies that the tempo has not in fact doubled. To emphasize this point, some authors prefer the more precise term “double-time feel,” reserving the term “double time” for a true doublingof tempo(Levine, 1995).
    3. TempoPerception andBeat Inference
  4. May 2023
    1. Indlamu, the type of traditional dance music the track is based on (and incidentally one of the styles that influenced mbaqanga), is usually played at a faster tempo. Makhathini recounts that he was trying to capture how it would be to dance with the very ancient forefathers and mothers, thus accounting for the slower tempo (Makhathini, 2020). The track titles ‘Ehlobo’ and ‘Okhalweni’ are Zulu expressions meaning ‘in the summer’ and ‘from the waist’ respectively.
  5. Jul 2022
    1. E, por fim, o fechamento de creches e escolas e o isolamento social fizeram com que recaísse totalmente sobre as famílias as tarefas de cuidados, incluindo as tarefas domésticas, os cuidados dispensados às pessoas de alguma forma dependentes, acrescido do auxílio às crianças em aprendizado à distância. Como cultural e socialmente as tarefas de cuidado são vistas como trabalho feminino, as mulheres foram mais sacrificadas com o acúmulo de tarefas. 106.

  6. May 2021
  7. Mar 2021
    1. Metabolic stress: Increasing time under tension (TUT) increases metabolic stressand gives you incredible pump, or muscle-cell swelling. This swelling cancause both an increase in muscle-protein synthesis and a decrease in proteinbreakdown, which are essential components of the process by which the bodyrepairs and grows muscle tissue after exercise (4,5,6)
  8. Jun 2020
  9. Jan 2019
    1. The urgency of time may make it too onerous forthe extra effort of articulating actions as they are beingperformed, yet most emergency response requires somecommunication.

      Interaction of time (tempo/pace) and breakdowns in articulation work.

    2. On the surface, the lack of sta-ble membership suggests that a shared mental modelmay not be viable or even desired in emergent responsegroups. Time may be too precious to seek consensus onevents and actions, and agreements may make the groupless flexible to accommodate to changing inputs.

      Evokes pluritemporal concerns about tempo, pace and synchronization.

    3. The urgency of the situation meansthat the objective of coordination is to achieve minimallyacceptable and timely action, even when more effec-tive responses may be feasible—but would take longerand use more resources.

      temporal issues related to emergent response: pace and timeliness

  10. Aug 2018
    1. Many tasks worth completing require cooperation –yet crowdsourcing has largely focused on independent work. Distributed teams have always facedchallenges in cultural differences and coordination[60], but crowd collaboration now must createrapport over much shorter timescales(e.g., one hour) and possibly wider culturalor socioeconomic gaps

      In Kittur's example, synchronous collaboration describes a temporal aspect (timescale and tempo of the work) related to how the collaboration is structured or not.

      "Short periods of intense crowd collaboration call for fast teambuilding and may require the automatic assignment of group members to maximize collective intelligence."

    1. Events have a time span; actions have a time frame that highlights the urgency of (continuously) deepening our knowledge of time as a key component of organizations (Bleijenbergh, Gremmen, & Peters, 2016). In

      Interesting way to temporally frame events as a span vs activity as a time frame/tempo.

    1. Major societal transformations are linked to information and communication technologies, giving rise to processes of growing global interdependence. They in turn generate the approxi-mation of coevalness, the illusion of simultaneity by being able to link instantly people and places around the globe. Many other processes are also accelerated. Speed and mobility are thus gaining in momentum, leading in turn to further speeding up processes that interlink the move-ment of people, information, ideas and goods.

      Evokes Virilio theories and social/political critiques on speed/compression, as cited by Adam (2004).

      Also Hassan's work, also cited by Adam (2004).

    1. phase-angle differ­ences simply refer to whether the phases, the parts of one rhythmic pattern,

      Phase-angle definition.

      "phase-angle differ­ences simply refer to whether the phases, the parts of one rhythmic pattern, lag, precede, or coincide with those of another."

    2. the idea of entrainment presented in Chapter 6—the adjust­ment of the pace or cycle of an activity to match or synchronize with that of another activity (Ancona and Chong 1996, p. 253)—does suggest a reason why faster could be better, but it also suggests that faster could be worse.

      Entrainment definition.

      "This, as the entrainment phenomenon and examples il­lustrate, supports the contingency view of speed, that the appropriate speed varies by activity and context." (p. 190)

  11. Jul 2018
    1. Virilio suggests that we can read the history of modernity as a series of innovations iu ever-increasing time compression. He argues that, through the ages, the wealth and power associated with ownership of land was equally tied to the capacity to traverse it and to the speed at which this could be achieved.

      Cites French political theorist and technology critic Paul Virilio.

      Virilio's engagement with speed integrates 3 concepts that evoke increasing tempos over 3 successive centuries: 19th century transport, 20th century transmission, and 21st century transplantion.

      The concept of transplantation, which is more biological in origin/use, is not as broadly covered here as transport and transmission.

    2. the potential capacity of exterrirorial beings to be everywhere at once and nowhere in particular is inescapably tied to operators that are bounded by their embodied temporal limits of terrestrial existence and sequential information processing. The actual capacity for parallel absorption of knowledge, therefore, is hugely disap­pointing. Equally, the electronic capacity to be now-here and no-where has brought the body to a standstill.

      Adam's critique of transmission technologies allowing people to be "now-here and no-where" perhaps also helps unpacks some of the tensions for SBTF's global social coordination.

      Could this be some of the unconscious motive to use terms that situate volunteers with one another as they attempt to grapple with tempo-imposed friction points which work against "terrestrial existence" and "sequential information processing"?

    3. The over­load of information, for example, is becoming so extensive that taking advantage of only the tiniest fraction of it not only blows apart the principle of instantaneity and 'real-time' communication, but also slows down operators to a pomt where they lose themselves in the eternity of electronically networked information.

      High tempo Information overload exacerbates time compression and thus impacts temporal sensemaking through typical means via chronologies, linear information processing, and past/present/future contexts.

    4. The intensive {elec­tronic) present, Virilio suggests, is no longer part of chrono­logical time; we have to conceptualize it instead _as chronoscopic time. Real space, he argues, is making room for decontextualized 'real-time' processes and intensity takes over from extensity.11 This in turn has consequences and, similar to the time compression in transport, the compression in transmission has led to a range of paradoxical effects.

      Definition of chronoscopic time: While still bounded and defined by clock-time, like chronological time, chronoscopic experiences are more tempo-driven and focused on a hyper-present real-time. Chronological time is situated in movement across a timeline of past, present, future where history and temporal story narrative arcs.

      See Purser (2000) for a dromological analysis of Virilio's work on chronoscopic- and real-time.

    5. With respect to twentieth-century transmission Virilio has in mind the wireless telegraph, telephone, radio and subse­quent developments in computer and satellite communica­tion, which have once more changed the relationship between time and movement across space. Together, these innovations in transmission replaced succession and duration with seeming simultaneity and instantaneity. Duration has been compressed to zero and the present extended spatially to encircle the globe: it became a global present.

      In the example of ICT advancements (radio, telegraph, computer, etc.), Adam describes a shift in tempo of a person's temporal experience due to real-time transmission capabilities.

      Tempo experiences that are successive or have some duration quality are transformed into a perceived sense of instantaneous and simultaneous "real time" experience.

      When a sociotemporal experience is lighting up friction points between time and space -- is this where tempo and timelines begin to get entangled?

      Is the computer-mediated "movement" between time and space the inflection point where social coordination begins to break down? That we don't have enough time to process or make sense of CMC-delivered information?