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    1. Appendix A: Drum Kit Notation
    2. Rhythmic Phrasing
    3. Exoticisation of South African Jazz and Township Culture
    4. Reworking the South African Jazz Sound
    5. Influence of Apartheid
    6. Traits of South African Jazz in Masekela’s Style
    7. South African and U.S.-American Rhythm Sections
    8. Rhythmic Influence of Latin Music on South African Jazz Styles
    9. Rhythm section
    10. Analysis of Selected South African JazzRecordings
    11. South African Jazz Sound
    12. Mbaqanga
    13. Marabi
    14. Behind the Beat”Feel
    15. Syncopation
    16. Theoretical Framework
    17. Jazz in South Africa: Roots and Styles
    1. In a blues song with a sung text, the lyrics consist of a line that is repeated, then followed by a contrasting line (aab). The melody often follows this structure as well. Blues melodies often leave large gaps to allow for call-and-response between the melodic instrument and other instruments. The blues scale is like a minor pentatonic scale with an additional chromatic passing tone: do–me–fa–fi–sol–te (^1−↓^3−^4−↑^4−^5−↓^7)(1^−↓3^−4^−↑4^−5^−↓7^)(\hat1-\downarrow\hat3-\hat4-\uparrow\hat4-\hat5-\downarrow\hat7). The blues scale can be rotated to begin on its second note, creating a major blues scale: do–re–ri–mi–sol–la (^1−^2−↑^2−^3−^5−^6)(1^−2^−↑2^−3^−5^−6^)(\hat1-\hat2-\uparrow\hat2-\hat3-\hat5-\hat6).
    2. The “major” blues scale Some improvisers find it helpful to think of a major blues scale. The difference between a major and minor pentatonic scale is identical to the difference between the major and minor blues scale: the major blues scale is a rotation of the blues scale of its relative minor. Begin the blues scale on me (↓^3)(↓3^)(\downarrow\hat3), and you will get a blues scale for the relative major. These relationships are summarized in Example 5
    3. Another essential part of blues phrase structure is the notion of call-and-response, a feature likely inherited from the work songs of enslaved Africans and African Americans. The vocal, lyricized melody takes on the role of the “call” while an instrumental filler takes on the role of the “response.” Notice that in “Gulf Coast Blues,” each lyric labeled with an a is sung entirely and exclusively in the first two measures of the phrase. Example 3 annotates a transcription of “Gulf Coast Blues” to show this call-and-response relationship.
    4. This blues scale is used in both major and minor blues tunes, despite the clashes with the underlying harmony.
    5. Much as the harmonies of the blues tend not to stick to one diatonic key, flouting the norms of tonal music, the melodies are similarly chromatic to match.
    1. The poetic structure: it is undoubtedly a structure made of three lines of fourbars each but its organization differs on the levels of prosody, melody, andharmony.The prosodic structure: AAB generally. The phrase (either sung or spoken)during the first line is repeated in the second line and a second phrasefollows in the third line.9The melodic structure: AAB but often AA’B. The same melodic phrase usuallyis repeated but may be subject to variation.The harmonic structure: ABC. As seen above, the three lines have been differentfrom each other right from the most original chord changes. The first linestarts with I, the second with IV, and the third with V
  3. Sep 2023
  4. Jul 2023
    1. Playing “outside the changes”To illuminate techniques of “outside” playing, an excerpt of Herbie Hancock’ssolo on the standard tune There is No Greater Love will show its application within thecontext of a standard AABA song form. This performance from a live recordingdemonstrates Hancock’s skill at moving from “inside” to “outside” and back again withinthe space of three choruses.
    2. Quartal Harmony and sus ChordsQuartal chords can have a variety of uses. Sometimes they imply quartal harmonyand other times they are merely used to create interesting voicings of tertian chords; bothare staples of modern jazz keyboard harmony. There are many Preludes with isolatedchords voiced in fourths or with a right-hand figuration using fourths, and even thesequick references, along with Kapustin’s other devices, create a modern jazz context forhis musical ideas. Most of the examples discussed below feature more extensive use ofquartal techniques, and most use tertian harmony with quartal chord voicings
    3. While there is nothing relaxed about the harmonic rhythm in Kapustin’s music,there are modal elements in some of his themes. Probably the most popular of the modesis Dorian and one of the first popular modal pieces, So What by Miles Davis, uses aDorian riff.
    1. As for meter, Arom adds that “it is in fact the most elementary manifestationof rhythm,” 17 made of identical durations with regular stress patterns.
    2. “The pulse, as it has just been defined, is notrhythm. Rhythm is created by a succession of sound events with contrastingfeatures. This contrast may be generated by accents, timbres and durations.”15This is how these three components operate:

      Accents: Contrast is created by means of highlighting certain elements of the music, either regularly or irregularly. When timbre or duration are not at play, accents are the only rhythmic criteria. Timbre: Contrast is produced by hearing/playing different tone colors in turn, either regularly or irregularly. When accents or duration are not at play, timbre is the only rhythmic criterion. Duration: Contrast is produced by the succession of unequal time val- ues. When accents or timbre are not at play, durations are the only rhythmic criteria. 16 As for meter, Arom adds that “it is in fact the most elementary manifestation of rhythm,” 17 made of identical durations with regular stress patterns. Fred Lerdahl and Ray Jackendoff suggest other definitions of the accent, of which they see three types:

    3. walking bass, ching-a-ding, oom-pah
    4. SOUND
    5. Orchestral Settings and Instrumental Functions
    1. Glossary of some important musical terms
    1. street bands, made up of various combinations of brass instruments, clarinets, and drums, which played marches, hymns, popular songs

      open-air performances - needed loud instruments

    1. To answer your question about register, register doesbelong to the domain of timbre but differs from instrumentation that also belongs to timbre. I understand that in organ music the word "register" is synonymous to characteristic timbres of musical instruments. But confusion like this is inevitable with any of the 11 aspects: "melody" can have its own "harmony" (e.g., solo flute sonatas by CPE Bach), rhythm can be "metric" (e.g., compositions written in the genre of "perpetum mobile", e.g., Paganini or Weber), articulation can be dynamic (e.g., accent), etc..

      The distinction between register and instrumentation is that register is bound to pitch and underlies instrumentation. Every instrument and vocal usually breaks into 3 registers that can be classified in 2 general types: intensity growing towards the top (vocals and brass) or 5towards the bottom (reed woodwinds and strings). This typology goes against and across the distinctions between different timbres of the instruments. However, the distinctions between registers can be greatly reduced. For instance, the bel canto training can completely conceal a breaking point between neighboring registers. Also, the timbral differences between different instruments (and vocals) greatly exceed the timbral differences between different registers of the same instrument (or voice type).Yet another important distinction is that register plays a formative role for tonal organization of modes of timbre-oriented music that are characterized by indefinite pitch (relative and variable pitch values), such as ekmelic and khasmatonal modes. In such modes, the degrees are defined in regards to their position within a vocal register(s). It is possible that the same principles are in play in the instrumental forms of music of the same ethnicities that keep cultivating such vocal music (e.g., music for Jaw Harp or musical bow). The aspect of instrumentation completely misses this formative melodic modal function. Combinations of timbral colors of different instruments do notform specific musical modes. Timbral coloration is known to be modally formative only in instrumental ensembles consisting of the sameinstrumental types -e.g., a set of gongs. But then, such cases fall within the domain of register rather than instrumentation.On the other hand, instrumental timbres often blend, forming new composite colors (for example, clarinet + oboe). There is nothing remotely similar in the domain of register -registers don't blend.It can be generalized that register fundamentally opposes instrumentation: register is based on timbral similarity, whereas instrumentation -on timbral contrasts. Composers select a specific instrument to "color" constituent sounds in a musical composition in different colors. Singers (and possibly instrumental players) usually select a specific register to secure unityin timbral coloration for the pitch-classes of a musical mode. Timbral contrasts are important in khasmatonal music, where a mode is defined by the group of pitch classes of one register contrasting the other register (e.g., falsetto or rasping). However, such music is rather rare and is still operated by the principle of integratingtimbral colors into a melodic phrase rather than by differentiation of timbral color to color the music textures, as it occurs in instrumentation. The only exception is Schoenberg's experiments with Klangfarbenmelodie that did not work -and could not work, because changes of instrumental timbres within the same melodic stream has been demonstrated to segregate this stream into fragments that obstruct phrasing.



      Materials and Techniques of Twentieth-Century Music Kostka 2006

    1. PROCEDURE FOR CHORD CONSTRUCTION The priori~y order dIe is not set up cornplecely by rhe &crates ~Facoustics. There are adjust- ments made to the table thar are more reflective of"c~rnrnon pracrice." That is, taking prefer- ence in the order of notes chat emphasize the modal quality of a primary mne or sel~cting notes that conform to documented use in recordings or printed music. It will be explained in each example when an adjuscrnent is made. Although a11 spacings will be represented in the examples, it is restated here that the most interesting are the mixed spacings. Still, ane should be familiar with the consrmction and use of a11 spacings. 1. Select che general tessitura and soar of rhe chord. 2. Select the kind of spacing. 3. Place the primary color tone somewhere within the seIecced ressitura. 4. FiIl inJ up or dawn, the remaining coIar cones wirhin the specified incervaI of che selected spacing to the number of notes desired in the chord (four or five plus root is ypical). 5. Keep in mind the rules of supporr and balance if good support and balance are desired. One should be abIe to create a balanced chord on assignment. 6. If constructing mixed spacings, try co create balanced chords first, then experiment with exotic (imbalanced) spacings. Some of them sound surprisingly good. 7. Erase and adjust if needed. If consrructing an assigned spacing (quartd, e tc.) you may need to shift the prioricy tabIe to fuIm the requlred spacing- 8. Doublings are acceptable and wen desired in some cases. commendations wilI be made within rhe comments of each example. At this time it should be pointed out hat there is a problem with rhe standardization ofmodal chord symbols. Throughoutthe remainderofthe text, the chord symbols given in the examples are a compilation ofsuggestions that I have received from the many studerm I have had from all parts of the world. These suggested symbols work, but are open ro criticism
    1. SOUND SUPPORT PHRASINGThe last performance directive to cover is quite important, and one that is often overlooked~ that of sound support phrasing ~ the direction as when to start and when to stop produc-ing a sound irrelative to pitch change.Whether the sound is produced by blowing, plucking, scrapping or hitting, there is a pointwhen the performer needs to take a breath, raise the arm, or move the bow toa starting posi-tion; all affect the phrase qualicy ofa melody. There are two considerations the composermust make; (1) how long the sound production can last depending on the tempo of theperformance and the abilities of the performer, and (2) how will the pause ro take a breathor raise a bow affect the phrasing of the melody. Careful preplanning is required to assure asuccessful interpretation of your melody.
    2. ARTICULATIONS AND EFFECTSThis subject is beyond the scope of this book ~ one really should refer to an orchestrationor arranging text for this, bur to provide a quick access and a review, the following descrip-tions of articulations are included.ARTICULATIONSIchasbeenstatedthatforajazzperformance,onlytwoarticulationsareneeded:staccatoandtenuto-thereisnoneedtobesospartan.To review:Staccato and tenuto refer to note length ~ how long the pitch is held - with no change in vol-ume or emphasis.
    3. Non-western scales (octatonic and more)
    4. THE ELEMENTS OF A MELODYThe elements ofa melody are comprised of the following groups: source materials, a meansof creation and development, phrase organization, tessitura, contour and expressive devices.In addition, a goal and point of climax should be devised for each section or phrase of amelody.A, SOURCE MATERIALSMelodies may be based on any of the following sources:1. Single notes2. Tritonic scale fragments3. Tetratonic scale fragments (tetrachords - see Vol. 1)4. Pentatonic scales(a) diatonic(b) altered(c) add note (sextatonic)(d) blues scalesDiatonic and altered diatonic modes (septatonic)Symmetric scalesHarmonic references(a) arpeggiations/guidetones(b) common tones/pivot points_(c) leading tones/neighbor tones8. Quotes9. Non-western scales (octatonic and more)AWA melodic source is the pitch organization of a motif, phrase, section, or any area of a melodythat shows musical unity. A group of asymmetrically organized pitches numbering four ormore in a scalar format can imply a modality and its perceived emotional qualicy (see Vol. 1,Chapter IV).If an example is not scalar - having consecutive skips - in most cases it will have notes incommon with a particular modality. Ir is possible char if the phrase is long enough, morethan one scalar source can be detected. In addition, the modal qualicy of the motif or phrasecan be enhanced or obscured by its relationship to the harmonic foundation of that partic-ular area.EXAMPLES OF MELODIC SOURCE MATERIALSThe following, like most of the examples found in the remainder of the book, are excerpts,ofa length sufficient to illustrate the defined concept. To put the example in context, it issuggested the student refer to the recommended listenings and readings found at the end ofche chapter as a source of scores and recordings for further study1. SINGLE NOTEThe starting point of the categories of melodic source materials, having no pitch compari-son it is a melodic device in which the rhythmic development of the motif or phrase createsmusical cohesion. Very effective in jazz melodies, it is a device chat Horace Silver and JoeHenderson use extensively.Example 1.1a: “Caribbean Fire Dance” (B section) by Joe HendersonG- F E Eb Db Eb
    5. STYLEThe styles of jazz melodies can be categorized into two main groups:ROMANTICJazz ballads, bossa novas, boleros and some medium and fast tempo songs have melodiesthar are constructed following the developmental procedures that have come from the melo-dic style of Tchaikovsky and Rachmaninoffby way of the popular music composers of the20s to the 50s. Included are the efforts of expert film composers from the earliest to con-temporary times. With this in mind, it is very importanc chat the jazz composer as well asthose aspiring to compose for the popular market: CDs, radio, television and films, be ableto compose a romantic melody.IDIOMATICThesejazzmelodiesareconstructedtoconformtoparticularqualitiesthataredefinedbyanhistoricera:bebop,swing,Dixieland,hardbop;afolk/ethnicreference:blues,Caribbean,pentatonic,pop;orbytheperformancepeculiarities ofaninstrumentorvoice.Melodiescanalsobedescribedbyanynoteworthyuseofcheelements:angular,lyrical,programmatic,symmetric,tetrachordic,oranyoftheothers.THE GENERAL MELODIC STYLE CATEGORIESRomantic/Ideal: these melodies/compositions are based on the Romantic period philosoph-ically, melodically and to some degree, harmonically.Romantic/Melodic: these melodies show consistencies with romantic melody writing proce-dures but differ in philosophy, harmonic materials and emotional goals.idiomatic/Referential:modeledonthemelodicdescriptionsofastyleera,folkreferenceorinstrument/voiceperformancecharacteristics.Idiomatic/Abstract: these melodies are constructed to have a quality described as jagged,smooth, consonant, chromatic and similar depictions.Idiomatic/Programmatic: the construction ofa melody to define an emotional, modal orprogrammatic goal: pastoral, energetic, dark, mysterious and so forth.In the main, jazz melodies are either romantic or non-romantic. The non-romantic melodiesare so diverse - having so many variables in their descriptions - that a comprehensive repre-sentation of how the elements of melody writing were co be applied for each would bebeyond the scope of this book. In addition, there are many melodies that have mixed influ-ences: folk/modal, riff/pentatonic, and many more,Another point to consider is that many compositions have different styles of melodies indifferent sections. Some examples arSONG SECTION STYLE - Contrasted and Combined Melodic Styles
    1. n comparing themarabi harmonic structure and its seminalposition in vernacular jazz improvisatory practice in South Africa to that of the AfricanAmerican blues in its relationship to jazz, Ballantine explained its basis ‘on a cyclicpattern’ as ‘stretch[ing] over four measures, with one measure for each of the followingchords: I – IV - I 6/4 - V’ (Ballantine 1993:26)
    1. There are two ways of establishing a chord–scale relationship for ii 7 –V 7 or ii≤57–V 7progressions: either select a mode that works for V7 or select a mode that works for ii7or (ii≤57). As shown in Figure 18.4, mm. 2–4 feature a descending sequence of incompleteII–Vs connecting the tonic on I with the predominant on IV. Each II–V progressionestablishes a chord–scale relationship with the corresponding dominant 7th. Notice that,in m. 2, the use of Mixolydian ≤13 fits the underlying context much better than the diatonicMixolydian mode. The tonic note F4 functions as the ≤13th of Mixolydian ≤13 and isretained as a common tone in mm. 1–2. The second A section (mm. 9–16) demonstratesa different approach to chord–scale theory. The selection of modes for the II–V pro-gression in Figure 18.4 is based on the quality of the predominant chord. Thus, inm. 10, Emin7(≤5)–A7 uses E Locrian, while in m. 11, Dmin7–G7 establishes a chord–scalerelationship with D Dorian, etc

      The bridge of “Confirmation” (mm. 17–24) features two four-bar phrases with ii7 –V7 tonicizations of the IV and ≤VI key areas. The chord–scale relationship for the bridge in Figure 18.4 includes a different selection of modes: Dorian, Mixolydian, and Ionian for Cmin7–F7–B≤Maj7, and Dorian, Altered, and Lydian for E≤min7–A≤7–D≤Maj7. Tonal and contextual considerations are particularly evident with the choice of Altered mode in m. 22, which accommodates notes from the tonic key and prepares the arrival of FMaj7 in m. 25. The last A section (mm. 25–32) features a much bolder selection of modes. The choices of A Altered in m. 26 and F Locrian in m. 28 are particularly poignant. The former injects chromatic notes into the structure of dominant 7th chord. The choice of F Locrian over Cmin7–F7 in m. 28 might seem out of place because neither chord (at least not in the present form) establishes a convincing relationship with this mode. But, the F Locrian mode forms a chord–scale relationship with F7(≤9≥9)sus, which is an effective harmonic substitution for Cmin7–F7. While the selection of modes in Figure 18.4 is overcrowded with different options, an improvisation may focus on only a few modes. In fact, each A section contains a selection of modes that could be implemented in the course of an entire solo. In establishing a successful chord–scale relationship for the tune, be mindful of three important con- siderations: (1) modal hierarchy, (2) chromatic treatment, and (3) voice leading. Chromatic modes, for instance, contain notes that might need preparation. This preparation usually takes place anywhere from one beat to one measure before the chromatic notes occur. The succession of modes in mm. 5–6—B≤ Mixolydian and D Mixolydian ≤13—illustrates such a case. The latter mode contains the chromatic ≤13th that was introduced as ≤7th of B≤7 in m. 5. “CONFIRMATION” 239

    2. The rhythmic structure of the melody is interesting hypermetrically: in mm. 1–4, thehypermetric downbeat occurs in mm. 1 and 3 and emphasizes ^5 as the melodic anchor.The continuation of the phrase features a less regular hypermetric organization withmetrical downbeats occurring in mm. 5, 6, and 7. This hypermetric organization cor-roborates yet another characteristic of contrafacts, namely that they have a fairly irregularand purposefully unpredictable phrase structure. The irregular hypermetric organizationof the A section is balanced by a symmetrical unfolding of hypermetric two-bar phrasesin the bridge
    3. ach dominant 7th in mm. 2–4 is subsequently expandedwith the ii≤57–V or ii7–V7 progressions, thereby doubling the rate of harmonic rhythm. Inm. 2, then, A7 becomes Emin7 (≤5)–A7; in m. 3, G7 turns into Dmin7–G7; and, in m. 4,F7 expands into Cmin7–F7.Comparing the second half of each A section shows that the first A is harmonically openand ends on a ii 7–V7 in m. 8, while the second and the last A feature closed harmoniccadences on I in m. 16 and m. 32, respectively. The bridge in mm. 17–24 has a symmetricalphrase structure and slower harmonic rhythm, which redirects the harmony from I to IVin m. 19 and, then, to ≤VI in m. 23. These key areas are tonicized with local ii7–V7progressions. The choice of these tonal areas corroborates an interesting fact about theoverall tonality of bebop tunes with respect to jazz traditions. The subdominant key areahas always had strong blues underpinnings and the flat submediant was one of the fewchromatic regions that ragtime or early jazz tunes allowed in their harmonic structure.3
  5. Jun 2023
    1. The A Section—Arpeggiation Patterns
    2. An Alternate Chord–Scale Relationship for the A Section
    3. The A Section: A Two-Scale Approach
    4. A Single-Scale ApproachThe chord structure of the A sections of rhythm changes can be reduced to the fundamentalframework shown in Figure 19.5.While mm. 1–4 of any A section feature a tonic prolongation, mm. 5–8 are morecomplicated even at the background level. For instance, the predominant in mm. 6, 14,and 30 can take the form of major 7th or dominant 7th chords. Also, the tonally closed256 INTERMEDIATEFIGURE 19.5 Fundamental Harmonic Frameworks
    5. xperiments with the“Coltrane” substitution
    6. FIGURE 19.6 A Basic Chord–Scale Relationship for the A Section
    7. The A section of rhythm changes can be realized with different harmonic progressions.Some of the most interesting realizations are shown in Figure 19.3a–i. With eachconsecutive progression, the level of harmonic complexity increases.
    8. As pointed out in the analysis of the tune, blues melodic devices are featured prominentlyin the original melody. In Jones’s solo, the melodic blue notes are integral componentsof his lines. In mm. 14–15, for instance, the pitch D≤4/C≥4 connects two adjacent phrases:≤^3 functions as a ≤7th of E≤7 and then becomes a lower chromatic neighbor preparingthe 3rd of B≤Maj7 in m. 15. The tritone G4–D≤4 in m. 14 provides additional bluesreferences. In mm. 61–62, open-position chords have similar blues underpinnings with≤^3 as the highest note piercing through the characteristic blues voicing. In mm. 94–95,the use of three-note close-position voicings embellished with grace notes enhances thestructural subdominant
    9. All the harmonic options in Figure 19.4 rely on the use of dominant 7th tritonesubstitutions, ii7–V7 diminutions, and/or [ii7–V7]/X interpolations. The use of a dominant7th tritone substitution in its clearest manifestation is shown in Figure 19.4b. Chords inmm. 18, 20, 22, and 24 function as tritone substitutions of the preceding dominant 7ths.The use of ii7–V7 diminutions results in the faster harmonic rhythm, as each dominant7th of the bridge can be potentially expanded with a predominant ii 7. In Figure 19.4c,the ii7–V7s occurring in mm. 18, 20, 22, and 24 expand the underlying dominant 7thchords. The combination of ii7–V7 diminutions with [ii7–V7]/X interpolations can producemore intricate harmonic progressions as demonstrated in Figure 19.4d and 19.4e. Themost obvious consequence of such combinations is even faster harmonic rhythm with twochords per measure. For instance, in Figure 19.4d, the [ii7–V7]/X interpolations in mm.18, 20, 22, and 24 establish a logical voice-leading connection with the upcoming ii7–V7progression. In addition, the ii 7–V7s in mm. 17–18, 19–20, 21–22, and 23–24 are a halfstep away from each other, which further assures good voice leading. The neighboringii7–V7s are also on display in Figure 19.4e. But unlike Figure 19.4d, the [ii7–V7]/Xprogressions in mm. 18, 20, 22, and 24 from Figure 19.4e function as lower chromaticneighbors in relation to the diatonic ii 7–V7 progressions
    10. ownward arpeggiation of Cmin7

      downward arpeggiation of Cmin7 balances an upward arpeggiation of a rootless B≤9 in m. 93; in mm. 115–116, an incomplete upward arpeggiation of Dmin 11 balances a downward arpeggiation of G7 (≤13)

    11. Another relatively simple technique used by Jones in his solo involves the arpeggiation offour-part chords
    12. “Confirmation”—Improvised Solo by Hank Jones (transcribed by Dariusz Terefenko)
    13. Lead Sheet—“Confirmation”
    14. Even though the subdominant on IV features a dominant 7th chord, inthe context of this progression it functions as a predominant
    15. A chromatic pitch enclosure occurs in m. 18 when the melodic cellE4–C4–C≥4–D4 encircles the root of D7. The C≥5s in mm. 2, 6, 26, and 30 constitutemelodic appoggiaturas because they are accented and approached by a leap
    16. The presence of chromaticism is integral to the structure of bebop melodies. Some of thechromatic additions, such as the metrically accented C≥5s in mm. 2, 6, 26, and 30, makesubtle references to the blues
    17. With the exception of the blues, the rhythm changes progression is probably the mostimportant chord progression in jazz. The term “rhythm changes” refers to a 32-bar AABAform based on the harmonic structure of “I Got Rhythm” by George and Ira Gershwin.The song appeared in the Aarons and Freedley production Girl Crazy (1930) andoriginally featured a 34-bar AABA form with a two-bar extension in the last A section.The two-bar extension was eventually cut and the chord changes of the last A sectionreplicated those from the second A. A newly composed line based on the rhythm changesprogression is known as a contrafact. The enormous popularity of rhythm changes hasbeen well documented by an ever-increasing number of composed contrafacts andrecordings
    18. The melody of “Moose the Mooche” confirms the premise that contrafacts are far moredexterous than the tunes from which they borrow their chord progressions. The melodicrhythm of “Moose the Mooche” is typical of bebop syntax. In m. 1, the Charleston rhythmis highlighted with an octave leap from F4 to F5. This rhythmic gesture appears in variousguises throughout the tune. Other rhythmic figures, such as 8th-note triplets in mm. 2and 8, and 16th-note triplet turn figures in mm. 14, 31, and 32, are idiomatic decorationsthat enhance the melodic surface.The presence of chromaticism is integral to the structure of bebop melodies. Some of thechromatic additions, such as the metrically accented C≥5s in mm. 2, 6, 26, and 30, makesubtle references to the blues. Other chromatic notes emphasize structurally importantharmonies. For instance, a carefully prepared A≤4 occupies beat 1 in mm. 5 and 29, andconstitutes the ≤7th of the underlying V7/IV harmony. The preparation of A≤4 in mm. 4and 28 features an upward stepwise ascent: F4–G4. The end of m. 12 illustrates anotheridiomatic preparation of this pitch. Here, the A≤4 anticipates V 7/IV by a half beat andoccurs at the “and” of 4 in m. 12. The downward tritone leap from D5–A≤4 furtherintensifies its status and injects yet another blues characteristic into the framework of themelody. Other chromatic notes, such as unaccented passing and pitch enclosures, haveprimarily ornamental functions. The chromatic passing note G≤4 in mm. 5 and 29 moves
    19. “Moose the Mooche” features a 32-bar AABA form.3 The first A section is harmonicallyopen and ends on a ii 7–V7 in m. 8. The second A features a full-cadential closure on I inm. 16. The bridge cycles through a cycle of dominant 7ths progression and interruptsthe form on V 7 in m. 24. The final A section is harmonically closed but, in order to allowfor the circularity of the chorus improvisation, it features a Imaj7–VI 7–ii7–V7 turnaroundprogression (or any acceptable substitute variant).The tonic is prolonged in mm. 1–4 and then morphed into a V 7/IV in m. 5. The tonicprolongation takes the form of an idiomatic Imaj 7–vi7–ii7–V7 progression, which lendsitself to a variety of harmonic substitutions. The subdominant controls mm. 5–6 and iscapable of many surface realizations. Next, mm. 7–8 proceed to the dominant, which canalso be idiomatically expanded, transformed, and/or confirmed. The A section of rhythmchanges is also known as an eight-bar blues because it contains the harmonic paradigmof the blues: tonic in m. 1, subdominant in m. 6, and dominant in m. 8.4 This foreshortenedblues preserves the structural weight of the fundamental chords, as the tonic controls thelongest span (mm. 1–4), the subdominant occupies the shorter span (mm. 6–7), and thedominant (m. 8) becomes subject to various harmonic modifications
    20. Charlie Parker wrote a number of contrafacts on rhythm changes among which “Moosethe Mooche,” shown in Figure 19.1, is one of the most well known
    21. Figure 18.5 provides a chord–scale relationship for “Confirmation” using bebop scalesonly.The selection of bebop scales is analogous to the use of modes from Figure 18.4. Inm. 2, for instance, Emin7 (≤5)–A7 uses A Mixolydian ≤13, which accommodates ^1 in itspitch structure, as does A dominant bebop ≤13, making them much better choices thantheir diatonic counterparts.Demonstrating slightly different and more advanced organization of bebop scales, the lastA section alternates between ascending and descending scalar patterns. In addition, thelast note of each measure forms a stepwise connection with the first note of the next,thereby ensuring effective voice leading between different scales. Thus the last note ofm. 26, C≥4, resolves up to D4, which begins the G dominant bebop scale on 5. Similarly,the use of B≤3 in m. 31 is a consequence of the C4 in m. 30 resolving down to the ≤7thof C7
    22. cadential melodic gestures in his solo. Thesepatterns usually accomplish two objectives: (1) they provide a logical phrase conclusionand (2) they foreshadow the arrival of the next phrase
    23. diminished 7th chords
    24. incomplete diminished 7th (mm. 24 and 98)
    25. The solo is unified through the use of similar melodic devices at the same locations withinthe form. For instance, in mm. 4, 12, and 28 of the form, Jones frequently employs adom7(≥5) chord (mm. 4, 12, 36, 92, 100, and 108).
    26. arpeggiation
    27. Hank Jones’s solo on “Confirmation,” shown in Figure 18.3, is from the album BebopRedux, recorded in 1977. In this solo, Jones shows how two jazz traditions—blues andbebop—can be integrated in a musically convincing manner. He also demonstrates astunning command of the bebop language manifested in a linear approach to improvisation
    28. Notice how Jones infusesthe music with the blues elements in mm. 45–48, 61–64, 93–96, or 125–128
    29. As indicated in the analysis of the tune, the A section of “Confirmation” contains elementsof the blues, such as single blue-note inflections and characteristic blues harmonies
    30. metric displacement
    31. Chapter 26 provides an analysis of Lennie Tristano’s “Line Up.” Based on this analysis,specific elements of his style of improvisation are codified

      no note: break up tristano style into atomic jazz style elements

    32. Playing OutsideAlong with rhythmic displacement, playing outside of the underlying tonality is anotherhallmark feature of Tristano’s style of improvisation and results in his highly originalapproach to chromaticism. In “Line Up,” the use of chromaticism is pervasive, yet themanner in which Tristano controls it deserves attention. Just like his use of rhythmicdisplacements, Tristano’s use of chromaticism is elegant and logical. When his linestemporarily leave the underlying tonal area and venture into a chromatic space, they retainstrong melodic and harmonic identities and remain inside of the outside key areas. Figure26.3 compares two phrases from mm. 25–27 and 63–68.“LINE UP” 395

      side-slipping bitonality

    33. The expressiveness of the blues comes from the melodic inflections added to particularnotes. When we listen to various vocal or guitar renditions of the blues, these inflectionsare easily recognizable; they stand out because of their emotional charge and slightly “outof tune” sound. 1 The so-called blues scale approximates the sound of these pitchinflections by altering ^3, ^5, and ^7 of the major scale. Figure 9.3 illustrates the content ofthe blues scale and its derivation from the major scale.The blues scale is a six-note collection with the “blue” notes on ≤3, ≤5, and ≤7. Althoughthe presence of ≤7th suggests a chord–scale relationship with the dominant 7th chord,the use of the blues scale is not limited to this chord only. In the context of the bluesscale, the pitches ≤3 and ≤5 constitute expressive embellishments not bound by anyparticular harmonic function or chord type. The blues scale, then, is an androgynous
    34. rhythmic displacement using different improvisationalstrategies, such as phrase displacement, metric displacement, manipulation of phraseaccents, and melodic interpolations. Phrase displacement occurs when the phrase is shiftedby a beat (or more) and creates a dissonance with the underlying harmonic and metricstructure. Probably the most effective use of this technique occurs in m. 77 where theline begins on beat 2 with a downward arpeggiation of the E major upper-structure triadover the structural B≤7 and is further emphasized with a strong accent on the first quarternote, EΩ4. The manipulation of phrase accents shifts regular metrical accents, therebycreating metric ambiguity. This technique occurs when the phrase temporarily rendersbeats 2 and 4 as beats 1 and 3. The phrase in mm. 159–160 illustrates these features.Notice how beat 4 in m. 159 influences the perception of beat 2 in the next measure.Metric displacement implies the use of cross rhythm to create a characteristic rhythmic joltand increase in tension within the phrase. The phrase in mm. 81–83 displays thesecharacteristics. The distribution of accents and phrase groupings in mm. 81–83 createsan interesting superimposition of 3/4, 3/8, 2/4, and 4/4 respectively. Notice how theuse of 3/8 influences the metric location of sub-phrases in 2/4 and 4/4 in mm. 82–83,and how the perception of the meter in the ensuing measures is constantly beingchallenged

      forms of rhythmic displacement

    35. These seven models of harmonic realization get progressively more advanced, but eventhe initial ones—provided that they are performed in time and with a good rhythmicfeel—can convincingly express the majority of jazz progressions. As you get morecomfortable at realizing harmonic progressions using these models, experiment withdifferent metric placements and variations of the Charleston rhythm
    36. The ability to realize harmonic progressions on the keyboard is an essential skill for thecontemporary jazz musician, regardless of her/his primary instrument. The forthcomingmodels of keyboard playing will help to accomplish this objective
    37. invertible potential of the guide tones.
    38. Various chords realized in “chorale style” with equal distribution of notes in bothhands.Model VII uses two voices per hand and employs different four-, five- and larger-partharmonic structures. Since this model uses only four-voice textures, larger formations needto be reduced to their essential harmonic frameworks. In reducing chords to their four-part frameworks certain notes are retained and others omitted. Typically, the root isretained, the 5th is omitted, and—depending on the context—the remaining three voicesare selected from the related guide tones, pitch alterations, or extensions. Figure 12.7demonstrates different Model VII realizations of the II–V–I progression. The selectionof chords differs from one realization to the next and depends both on the voicing of theopening chord and on the voice-leading forces initiated by the initial two chords
    39. Rootless five-part chords in the R.H. realized with good voice leading.• Roots, thirds, or fifths in the L.H. in 2:1 ratio with the R.H.The motion between chords in Model VI shown in Figure 12.6 is controlled by theprinciples of good voice leading
    40. Rootless five-part chords in the R.H. (NO voice-leading considerations.)• Roots of chords in the L.H. in 1:1 ratio with the R.H.Broadly speaking, so-called rootless formations omit the root of the chord from theirstructure. With rootless five-part chords, the upper four-part structure is placed in theR.H. and the root in the L.H. Some of the R.H. shapes should look, sound, and feelfamiliar, since they have already been encountered in the four-part chords in the contextof Model III and Model IV. Similar to Model III, we will first acquaint ourselves withfour rotations of the rootless formation. Figure 12.5 provides four Model V realizationsof the major and minor versions of the II–V–I progression, with each realization beginningon a different R.H. shape
    41. Root position and inversions of four-part chords in the R.H. (NO voice-leadingconsiderations.)• Roots of chords in the L.H. in 1:1 ratio with the R.H.The focus of Model III, shown in Figure 12.3, is to explore only one position or inversionof the four-part chord throughout the progression
    42. Root position and inversions in the R.H. realized with good voice leading.• Roots, 3rds, or 5ths in the L.H. in 2:1 ratio with the R.H
    43. Guide-tone lines in the right hand (R.H.).• Roots of chords in the left hand (L.H.) in 1:1 ratio with the R.H.Figure 12.1 demonstrates Model I using the major and minor versions of the II–V–Iprogression. Notice that the R.H. explores the invertible potential of the guide tones
    44. Rhythmicized guide tones in the R.H.• Roots, thirds or fifths in the L.H. in 2:1 ratio with the R.H.Figure 12.2 illustrates the use of Model II. The R.H. distributes the Charleston rhythmat different locations within the measure
    45. Figure 12.2 illustrates the use of Model II. The R.H. distributes the Charleston rhythmat different locations within the measure
    46. In addition to the ii 7–V7–Imaj7 and ii≤57–V7–i progressions, there are other harmonicprogressions that often occur in standard tunes. Probably the most recognizableprogression is a turnaround, also known as a turnback. The turnaround is a two- orfour-bar progression, usually with a faster harmonic rhythm, that typically occurs at theend of 8- or 16-bar phrases. One of the formal functions of the turnaround is to effectivelyprepare the arrival of the “top of the chorus” by ushering in a familiar chord progression. 1Just as the ii 7 –V 7 –Imaj 7 progression can be transformed with different harmonicsubstitutions, so too can turnarounds
    47. Tag endings are somewhat related to turnarounds in their basic harmonic structure, butplay different roles in tunes and complete performances. A tag ending occurs at the veryend of a tune, repeats a chord sequence (which in the course of subsequent repetitionsbecomes harmonically transformed), and has an indeterminate duration. Only the finalrepetition of the tag ending progression is harmonically closed with a clear confirmationof the tonic. Its basic role in the performance is to provide a satisfactory, coda-like endingwith a final improvisational flair. As Miles Davis demonstrated on his many recordings,tag endings may take on a life of their own—especially with Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter,and Tony Williams in the rhythm section—and frequently exceeded the length of his solos.2Tag endings and turnarounds often share similar chord progressions: the only differencebetween the Imaj7–vi7–ii7–V7 and the iii7–vi7–ii7–V7 is that the former begins on the tonicand the latter on the mediant chord. These two chords, Imaj7 and iii7, are said to befunctionally equivalent and are frequently used to substitute for one another. Figure 13.6illustrates a iii7–vi7–ii7–V7 tag ending progression realized with Model II of keyboardplaying. Each measure displaces the Charleston rhythm by a half beat.Each of these chords can be further substituted by a secondary dominant 7th and,subsequently, by a TR/X7. Since a tag ending progression is usually four bars long, wecan demonstrate the use of two harmonic techniques that will double the rate of harmonicrhythm in each measure. The technique of dominant saturation combines two dominant7th chords, diatonic or chromatic and its TR/X 7 (or vice versa) next to each other. Theuse of ii7–V7 diminution technique expands any dominant 7th chord into a local ii 7–V7
    48. Chapter 21 introduces 13 phrase models that illustrate the essential harmonic, contrapuntal,and structural properties of the different eight-bar phrases commonly found in standardtunes.
    49. During the Baroque Era, the “Rule of the Octave” was a practical tool that enabledmusicians to gain harmonic flexibility at the keyboard.5 The rule prescribed how toharmonize a scale in the bass using stylistic tonal progressions. In jazz, a similar rule canalso be developed. Instead of placing the scale in the bass, the major scale is placed in thesoprano voice. The jazz rule of the octave explains how to harmonize a descending majorscale with idiomatic jazz progressions. By examining different harmonic outcomes, therelationship of melodies to chords and chords to melodies becomes clear. The jazz ruleof the octave also helps us to realize the harmonic potential of different melodic segmentsand examines their behavior in the context of underlying chord progressions. Figures21.3a–21.3d illustrate four distinct harmonizations of the descending major scale
    50. Chapter 13 investigates two- and four-bar idiomatic jazz progressions. It also focuses onaural identification and keyboard realization of non-modulatory and modulatoryprogressions with various ii7–V7 or ii≤57–V7 interpolations, as well as miscellaneous four-bar phrases
    51. Chapter 5 expands the repository of harmonic structures to 35 five-part chords. They aredivided into five categories: major, minor, dominant 7th, suspended dominant, and inter-mediary

      Chordal extensions consist of different forms of the ninth, the eleventh, and the thirteenth and can be divided into two broad categories: diatonic and chromatic. Diatonic extensions enhance the structure of chords, whereas chromatic extensions modify that structure in a considerable way. The ninth has three distinct forms: a diatonic major 9th, a chromatic ≤9th, and a chromatic ≥9th. The eleventh has two forms: a diatonic perfect 11th and a chromatic ≥11th. The thirteenth has two forms: a diatonic major 13th and a chromatic ≤13t

    52. Chapter 23 examines the 32-bar ABAC form and its two tonal variants: on-tonic and off-tonic. As an example of this formal design, “All Of You” is analyzed
    53. Chapter 22 undertakes a study of song forms and its most common type: the 32-barAABA. Two tonal variants, on-tonic and off-tonic, are examined and, as an example ofthe on-tonic AABA formal design, “Have You Met Miss Jones?” is analyzed.
    54. John Coltrane’s recording of Giant Steps in 1959 epitomized his three-year period ofharmonic explorations, most notably with symmetrical intervallic cycles. 3 Hiscomposition “Countdown,” which is based on Miles Davis’s “Tune Up,” illustrates theuse of so-called “Coltrane” substitutions. Characterized by fast harmonic rhythm, thissubstitution projects a major-third cycle in which each local major 7th chord is tonicizedwith the corresponding dominant 7th. In the context of the Dmin7–G7–CMaj7progression shown in Figure 13.10, the first member of the major-third cycle, ≤VImaj7,is accessed through its dominant 7th that follows the structural predominant, ii 7. Thenext member of the major-third cycle, IIImaj7, is also preceded by its dominant, V 7/III,before the progression completes its trajectory with the structural dominant 7th resolvingto the tonic.
    55. Dorian Family of Voicings
    56. Roman numerals are context-sensitive and indicate the exact position of chords with respectto the underlying tonic. This style of notation is very powerful in explaining the tonalbehavior of chords and is mostly used in analysis. Some jazz musicians, however, havefound a useful niche for this type of notation. By translating the lead-sheet notation of astandard tune into Roman numerals, jazz musicians can easily transpose and learn thattune in all 12 keys. But Roman numerals, too, have their disadvantages. Problems withthis style of notation arise when a tune modulates away from the underlying tonic orfrequently tonicizes new key areas. With the addition of Arabic numbers borrowed fromthe figured-bass tradition, Roman numerals are capable of expressing complex five-,six-, or seven-part chords. When using Roman numerals, however, complex five-, six-, orseven-part formations will be translated to their essential four-part framework. For instance,F7(≤13) in the key of C major will be simply notated as IV7.

      The addition of available extensions to chords is a matter of personal preference and reflects the underlying context in which specific chords occur. The practice of adding extensions or reinterpreting chords is similar to that of interpreting unfigured basses from the Baroque period. There are, however, many musical situations where more detail is desired, such as when a composer or arranger wants a specific sound or voicing. In those types of situation, a chord symbol might include more detailed information about chordal HARMONIC FUNCTION 29 extensions, note omissions, or even a specific arrangement of notes. These chord symbols typically stand out among other, more conventionally written chords. Given the very different notation systems being used, we can start thinking more rigorously about our own notational choices. In Figure 3.6, the tonic chord in root position is notated with a “I5 3” symbol. In practice, however, a “I” will be used without the Arabic numbers because they are assumed. Also, in notating a chord in first inversion, the Roman numeral representation has already been simplified: instead of a complete “I6 3” symbol, the “I 6 ” symbol was used. Roman numerals might also include “Ω,” “≥,” and “≤.” Written in front of the Roman numeral, these accidentals indicate chromatic scale degrees in relation to the underlying key. To notate major chords, upper-case Roman numerals will be implemented, and to notate minor chords, lower-case Roman numerals will be used. A diminished triad will take a lower- case Roman numeral with a small raised circle, viio ; an augmented triad will use an upper- case Roman numeral with a small plus sign, III+ .




    1. But everything changes when degrees I and IV are treated as sev-enths, which is a quality only associated with the fifth degree in tonal harmony.This makes any hypothesis of assimilation impossible.The link between the function and the quality of a chord, which is organic in atonal situation, does not exist in blues. Indeed, let us look at the first degree withfour sounds: C-E-G-B b. All four notes belong to the scale as it has been defined.But this is neither true with the fourth degree (F-A-C-E b), as A does not belongto the scale, nor the fifth (G-B-D-F), which involves a B natural and a D that donot appear in the scale. This lack of organic link between the scale of referenceand how chords are built is a fundamental difference between blues and worksusing the tonal system.

      there is also no link between the quality of a chord and its function in blues harmonic system (I and IV chords are both 7th-chords)

    2. Blue Notes
    3. The Blues Scale
    4. Chords that are not built on superimposed layers of thirds are still to be in-vestigated. They are of three kinds in principle:Fig. 5.1. Infrastructure, superstructure, and developed chord

      the major sixth chord (C6) C-E-G-A • the minor sixth chord (Cm6) C-E b-G-A • the “sus4” chord (C7sus4 or just C7sus, “sus” meaning “suspended”) C-F-G-B b. The first two are usually seen as enriched perfect chords, in which case the sixth is considered an enrichment, like the ninth, eleventh, or thirteenth. The third case is less straightforward and depends on the context. In a tonal situation, the “sus4” chord is a form of suspension.10 In other contexts, it will be considered a specific chord. The question is asked of the distinction between the fourth and eleventh on the one hand, and the sixth and thirteenth on the other hand. How do we decide that F in a C chord is a fourth or eleventh or A a sixth or thirteenth? The reality shows that it is a total mess in the practice of jazz musicians. When a figuring including “4” or “11” (even more so with “6” or “13”) occurs, it is impossible to know for sure what exact degree the author is referring to. It seems to me that the rule should be this: if there is a fourth then there is no third, and if there is a sixth then there is no seventh. Implicitly, this comes down to considering that the fourth is a substitute for the third (as mentioned before, this is easy to understand in a tonal system) and the sixth a substitute for the seventh. This is a consequence of chords being built up on superimposed layers of thirds (which confirms the structuring nature of such a build-up, by the way). For F to be an eleventh, the third (E or E b) must have existed beforehand. The same applies for A to be a thirteenth: a seventh, B or B b, must have existed beforehand. Yet, the “7/6” figuring often occurs, which contradicts this rule (the “13” figuring should include the seventh implicitly). This does not reveal a different approach to that chord but a lack of rigor in figuring practices, with the implicit idea behind it that, as jazz is a type of music based on oral traditions and practices, any localized ambiguity can be clarified at a later stage.

    5. Harmonic substitution—Harmonic substitution consists of changing the qualityof a chord, that is to say altering one or several notes of the infrastructure. Themost common use of this rule produces secondary dominants: in sequencesbased on fifth relations expressed by functional degrees (I-IV-vii-iii-vi-ii-V-I),this consists of transforming any of the chords preceding V (except IV), that isto say either vii, iii, vi, or ii (all chords with minor thirds) into a seventh chord:
    6. a saxophonist may decide to double orhalve the tempo
    7. A pianist may use stride
    1. n the 1950s Tristano employed an advanced concept in jazz improvisation called side-slipping, or outside playing, which creates a form of temporary bitonality when chromatic harmony is superimposed over the standard harmonic progressions. Tristano intensified his use of counterpoint, polyrhythm, and chromaticism in the 1960s, evidenced by his solo piano improvisations recorded on Atlantic in 1961, in which he achieved maximum freedom within the confines of the structural model by superimposing different rhythmic, harmonic, and phrase structures. These recordings also exhibit relentless rhythmic drive and emotional depth and power.A charismatic teacher and multi-instrumentalist, Tristano taught students of various instruments and singers for more than 30 years. Generally credited as one of the first to teach jazz improvisation, he was as innovative as a teacher as he was a musician. Significant elements of his teaching include his belief in feeling as the basis of expression and the importance of developing the ear


      Tristano, Lennie Shim 2013

    2. Note the rhythmic displacement
    3. When rhythmic repetition is combined with pitchrepetition, a distinguishing motivic “hook” usually emerges
    4. fragmentation
    5. Harmonic Considerations
    9. Motivic sequence
    10. Phrase repetition—four measures
    11. Motivic repetition
    12. Melodic Variation via Modal Interchange
    13. Scale Resources
    14. Modal tunes alternate back and forth from low to medium rhythmic density
    15. Bebop tunes contain a high degree of rhythmic density
    16. Melodic Rhythm Density as a Function of Style
    17. Melodic Rhythm
    18. Breath Phrase=Grammatical Phrase=Antecedent:A musical “proposal” (open ended, as if with a comma)Consequent:A musical “response” (closed, as if with a period)Form Phrase
    19. Melodic Considerations


      JAZZ COMPOSITION - Theory and Practice Pease, T. 2003

    21. Pandiatonicism is produced by strictly confining harmonic material to a given scale (i.e.,with no chromatic, or out-of-scale, intrusion). This concept can be applied to any scale,but it is most commonly used in tonal and modal contexts. The technique is similar toconstant structures, but the intervals of all voicings are adjusted so as to conform to thescale of the moment. The spacing may be uniform or variable.
    1. Rhythmic and Harmonic Anticipation
    2. Diminished Scales and Harmony
    3. In Prelude IV, Kapustin intensifies the Garner strumming effect by instructingthat the chords can be arpeggiated, simulating jazz guitar. Another aspect of Garner’sstyle, the offbeat “kicks” from the bass end of the keyboard, are also captured in bars 2and 4 of ex. 13.21
    4. Like the diminished chord, the diminished scale is symmetrical, an eight-note (octotonic)collection of alternating whole and half steps, or half and whole steps.21 As Stefan Koskastates, “The octotonic scale is a rich source of melodic and harmonic material. It containsall of the intervals, from minor 2nd up to major 7th. All of the tertian triads except for theaugmented triad can be extracted from this scale, as can four of the five common 7th-chord types (the major-7 th cannot). 22Diminished scales and patterns derived from them are now part of modern jazzharmonic vocabulary and are used primarily to complement altered dominant chords. Forexample, a half-whole diminished scale over a G7 chord will include most of thecommon extensions and alterations:  9, 11, and 13
    5. Another common hybrid scale, thediminished-whole tone, is usually implied by the “alt” chord symbol. This scale includesa 9, both major and minor thirds (also referred to as a 9), and a 5. It starts out like ahalf-whole diminished scale and ends like a whole-tone scale. A diminished-whole tonescale in C would be C, D, E, E, G, A, B
    1. Smooth Voice Leading
    4. VI. JAZZ


      Open Music Theory (Version 2) Gotham et al 2022

    6. Backbeat
    7. Syncopation
    9. Added Notes (add) and Suspensions (sus)
    10. Chord Symbols vs. Roman Numerals
    12. Mode Mixture
    14. Spacing
    17. Typical Jazz Voicing
    19. Phrase and Lyric Structure
    20. The Blues Scale
    22. In the 20th and 21st centuries, composers sometimes used the diatonic collection, but without making anyattempt to make a specific pitch sound like the the pitch center. Such examples are not tonal, nor are theymodal; instead, they are considered pandiatonic. Igor Stravinsky often wrote pandiatonic passages; manycan be heard throughout the opening of his ballet Petrushka