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  1. May 2019
    1. uring World War I as a chemist at Hammersley Paper Mill and then won a scholarship to Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, where she earned a doctorate in biochemistry in 1923

      High school- top of her class, earning her a scholarship to Goucher College (1918, studied zoology and chemistry).

      World War I- worked as a chemist at Hammersley Paper mIll, earned a scholarshiip to Yale University (1923, doctrates in biochem).

    2. 1937–38, as a Guggenheim fellow at the University of Uppsala, Sweden, she invented a means of isolating and purifying the active substance in tuberculin

      Post doctoral research at University of Chicago Taught Pathology (Sprague Memorial Institute) and Biochem (UPENN's Henry Phipps Institute)

      University of Uppsala (Sweden) 1937-38 as a Guggenheim fellow, invented technique to isolate and purify active substance in tuberculin----- protein substance from tuberculosis causing bacillus Myobacterium Tuberulosis Produced first purified protein derivative tuberculin, enabled first reliable tuberculin test

      1941, US adopts as standard test 1952, World Health Organization adopts standard test

      Still in Use today

      1958- retired from teaching. Served as a consultant to the United States Public Health Service

      • Director of Cancer Research Laboratory @ Mound Park Hospital (aka Bayfront Medical Center) St. Petersburg

      1990- Inducted into National Women's Hall of Fame

    1. inherently tumor-selective virus species (for example, RNA viruses, poxviruses); (2) viral gene-deleted mutants—critical viral gene expendable for growth in tumor cells, but not in normal cells, were deleted (for example, adenovirus dl1520/Onyx-015, herpes simplex virus (HSV) G207); (3) promoter engineered mutants—viral replication was engineered to be dependent on inserted tumor-specific promoters, and as a result, the replication of the virus is restricted to tumor cells that are able to activate the promoters (for example, prostate specific antigen-regulated adenovirus CG7870, telomerase-regulated adenoviruses and HSVs); (4) pseudotyped viruses—normal viral tropism is ablated, and viruses are engineered to attach/bind to specific surface receptors that are expressed exclusively/preferentially on tumor cells (for example, adenovirus Delta-24RGD).

      engineered oncolytc viruses and their mechanisms of action

    1. While more traditional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy lack tumor specificity targeting all replicating cells, and other immunotherapies have limited scope by relying on the presence of a specific ligand/receptor, oncolytic viruses are postulated to be both specific to neoplastic cells and have an expansive immunostimulatory latitude. The

      Chemo and Radiation lack specificity in targetting cancerous cells, instead targeting a large scope or rapidly dividing cells.

      Immunotherapies are limited to the presence of ligand and receptors for activation.

      Oncolytic viruses are specific to neoplastic (cancerous, specific) cells and have a large amount of immunostimulatory range----> can activate tumor immunity, stimulate immune system......

    1. a genetically engineered or naturally occurring virus that can selectively replicate in and kill cancer cells without harming the normal tissues

      Contrasting to gene therapy, where a virus is used as a mere vector (carrier of a gene), oncolytic virotherapy uses the virus as a drug agent.