65 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2023
    1. principal

      Key Points:

      1. A principal responsibility of the clinical microbiology laboratory is to determine which antimicrobial agents inhibit a specific bacterial isolate.
      2. Two general approaches to susceptibility testing are phenotypic testing (exposure of the bacterial isolate to antibiotics) and genotypic testing (detection of resistance genes).
      3. Phenotypic testing can determine a categorical response (susceptible, resistant, intermediate, or susceptible dose-dependent) or the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), the lowest concentration of antibiotic that inhibits visible bacterial growth.
      4. Determining the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) involves subculturing the tubes in which no growth is seen to find the lowest antibiotic concentration that reduces the number of viable bacteria by 99.9%.
      5. Quantitative susceptibility testing using microbroth dilution in microwell plates or other miniaturized testing platforms is common in clinical laboratories.
      6. Genotypic tests are accurate when few genes highly likely cause resistance to specific antibiotics. They can provide results faster than phenotypic tests.
      7. FDA-approved genotypic tests are available for methicillin resistance in S. aureus, vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus species, and carbapenem resistance in enteric gram-negative bacilli.
      8. With the advent of many new agents for treating yeasts and systemic fungal infections, susceptibility testing of yeasts and fungi has increased. It can be specific for species rather than for genera.
      9. Mold susceptibility testing remains technically challenging and time-consuming and is usually performed in commercial or reference laboratories. For most antifungals, an MIC is reported, but for echinocandins, a minimum effective concentration (MEC) is reported.

      | Testing Type | Methodology | Utility | Limitations | |--------------|-------------|---------|-------------| | Phenotypic Susceptibility Testing | Exposure of bacterial isolate to antibiotics and measurement of the effect on growth | Determines the response of bacteria to various antibiotics | May not capture all forms of resistance | | Genotypic Susceptibility Testing | Detection of resistance genes | Provides quick results, often a day or two faster than phenotypic tests | Accurate only when few genes are known to confer resistance to specific antibiotics | | MIC Determination | Finding the lowest concentration of antibiotic that inhibits visible bacterial growth | Used for precision in antibiotic therapy | None | | MBC Determination | Subculturing to find the lowest antibiotic concentration that reduces bacterial count by 99.9% | Gives an understanding of the bactericidal effect of antibiotics | Time-consuming | | Quantitative Susceptibility Testing | Microbroth dilution in microwell plates or other miniaturized testing platforms | Widely used in clinical laboratories | None | | Susceptibility Testing of Yeasts and Fungi | Similar to bacterial susceptibility testing but with additional parameters | Needed with the advent of new antifungal agents | Mold susceptibility testing is challenging and time-consuming |

    2. Quantitative

      Key Points:

      1. Quantitative NAATs (PCR or TMA) are used for monitoring therapeutic responses to diseases such as HIV-associated disease, cytomegalovirus infection, and hepatitis B and C virus infections by determining genotype and viral load.
      2. Many laboratories have validated quantitative assays for various pathogens, including Epstein-Barr virus and BK virus.
      3. Branched-chain DNA (bDNA) testing provides an alternative to NAATs for quantitative nucleic acid testing and is approved for viral load determination of HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. It has the advantage of requiring only a single heating/annealing step.
      4. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) offer high-throughput methods for rapidly sequencing large numbers of DNA molecules in complex mixtures.
      5. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of bacteria can be used for species identification, prediction of antibiotic susceptibility, and virulence factors. However, faster and less expensive methods are available for these applications.
      6. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) can be used diagnostically to detect pathogens in human tissues, such as the central nervous system, blood, and lung.
      7. mNGS has been successful in diagnosing rare, novel, or atypical infectious etiologies of meningitis or encephalitis, particularly in chronic central nervous system infections.
      8. mNGS can also be used to identify and quantify microbial cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in plasma, proving particularly useful in the diagnosis of culture-negative endocarditis and in immunocompromised hosts.
      9. One of the challenges with mNGS as a diagnostic approach for infectious diseases is that detection of microorganisms in clinical samples can represent normal microbiota, transient colonizers, sample contamination, and/or infection. Also, mNGS-based diagnostic approaches are currently offered by only a few laboratories due to the technical complexity, high cost, and relatively slow turnaround time.

      | Technique | Description | Application | Pros & Cons | |----------|-------------|----------------------|-------------| | Quantitative NAATs | Amplify and quantify DNA/RNA from specific pathogens. | Monitoring responses to therapy in infections such as HIV, cytomegalovirus, and hepatitis B and C. | Pros: Accurate monitoring of treatment responses. Cons: Requires proper reagents for specific pathogens. | | Branched-chain DNA (bDNA) Testing | Involves attaching bDNA to a site different from the target-binding sequence of the original probe for quantification. | Viral load determination of HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. | Pros: Only requires a single heating/annealing step. Cons: Not as widely used as NAATs. | | Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) | High-throughput sequencing of a complex mixture of DNA molecules. | Rapid determination of bacterial and viral genomes. | Pros: Fast, large-scale sequencing. Cons: Can be expensive and requires sophisticated computational resources. | | Whole-Genome Sequencing (WGS) | Involves sequencing the entire genome of an organism. | Species identification, prediction of antibiotic susceptibility, and identification of virulence factors. | Pros: Comprehensive genomic data. Cons: Slower and more expensive than some other methods. | | Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing (mNGS) | Analyzes large numbers of DNA or RNA sequences present in complex mixtures. | Diagnostic detection of pathogens in human tissues. | Pros: Can identify a wide range of pathogens. Cons: Can be challenging to distinguish between infection and normal microbiota or contamination. High cost and relatively slow

      turnaround time. |

    3. Nucleic


      • Nucleic acid probes are used for the direct detection of pathogens in clinical specimens without the need for amplification of the target DNA or RNA.
      • These tests detect a specific base sequence for a particular pathogen on single-stranded DNA or RNA through the hybridization of a complementary sequence (probe) coupled to a reporter system, which provides the signal for detection.
      • Commercially available nucleic acid probes can directly detect various bacterial and parasitic pathogens, including C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, group A Streptococcus, Gardnerella vaginalis, T. vaginalis, and Candida species.
      • Probes used for direct detection often target highly conserved 16S ribosomal RNA sequences.
      • The sensitivity and specificity of these probe assays are comparable to traditional assays, including EIA and culture, but less sensitive than nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs).


      • Several methods exist for amplifying small numbers of nucleic acid molecules to levels that can be easily detected.
      • NAATs include PCR, LCR, strand displacement amplification, and self-sustaining sequence replication.
      • These methods rely on primers whose binding to the target sequence leads to its specific amplification.
      • The amplified nucleic acid can be detected after the reaction is complete (end-point detection) or as the amplification proceeds (real-time detection).
      • The sensitivity of NAATs often exceeds that of other methods such as culture or nucleic acid probes.
      • PCR, the first and most common NAAT, involves repeated heating of the DNA, primer hybridization, target amplification by complementary strand extension, and signal detection via a labeled probe.
      • Real-time PCR monitoring, achieved through the incorporation of fluorescent dyes into the DNA or use of probes that fluoresce after binding a target sequence, has decreased the time needed to detect a specific target.
      • An alternative NAAT, transcription-mediated amplification, involves converting an RNA target sequence to DNA, which then gets exponentially transcribed into an RNA target. This method requires only a single heating/annealing step for amplification.


      • This process often involves initial PCR amplification of a highly conserved region of 16S rDNA, followed by sequencing of the PCR product.
      • Although 16S sequencing is not as rapid as other methods and still relatively expensive for routine use, it is becoming the definitive method for identifying unusual or hard-to-cultivate organisms.
    4. Strategies

      Start: | v Extract DNA or RNA from microorganisms | v Heat the extracted DNA or RNA to create single-stranded (ss) DNA/RNA containing target sequences | v [Option A] Direct detection | |--> Hybridize directly with probes attached to reporter molecules | | | v | Signal detection | v [Option B] Amplification before attachment of a reporter probe | |--> Repetitive cycles of complementary strand extension (polymerase chain reaction) | | | v | Hybridize with reporter probe | | | v | Signal detection | v [Option C] Amplification of original target–probe signal via additional probe | |--> Hybridization with an additional probe containing multiple copies of a secondary reporter target sequence (branched-chain DNA, or bDNA) | | | v | Signal detection | v [Option D] Capture on a solid support (hybrid capture) |--> Capture DNA/RNA hybrids on a solid support | v Use antibody to DNA/RNA hybrids to concentrate them | v Attach a second antibody coupled to a reporter molecule to the captured hybrid | v Signal detection

    5. NUCLEIC

      Nucleic Acid Tests:

      1. Techniques for detecting and quantitating specific DNA and RNA base sequences in clinical specimens are powerful tools in diagnosing bacterial, viral, parasitic, and fungal infections.

      2. Nucleic acid tests serve four main purposes:

      3. Detection and quantitation of specific pathogens in clinical specimens.

      4. Identification of organisms, usually bacteria, that are difficult to identify using conventional methods.

      5. Determining whether two or more isolates of the same pathogen are closely related, i.e., whether they belong to the same clone or strain.

      6. Used to predict the sensitivity of organisms to a small number of chemotherapeutic agents.

      7. The current technology offers a variety of methods for amplification and signal detection, some of which have been approved by the FDA for clinical diagnosis. Many laboratories have developed their own nucleic acid tests for pathogens, which must be rigorously validated before being used for patient care.

      8. The use of nucleic acid tests generally involves lysis of intact cells or viruses and denaturation of the DNA or RNA to make it single-stranded. The probe(s) and/or primer(s) complementary to the pathogen-specific target sequence are hybridized to the target sequence in a solution or on a solid support, depending on the system employed.

      9. In situ hybridization of a probe to a target is also possible and allows the use of probes with agents present in tissue specimens. Once the probe(s) or primer(s) have been hybridized to the target (biologic signal), various strategies may be employed to detect, amplify, and/or quantify the target–probe complex.

    6. Once

      Bacteria Identification:

      1. The isolation of bacteria involves examining certain characteristics detectable after growth on agar media such as colony size, color, hemolytic reactions, odor, and microscopic appearance. Definitive identification, however, necessitates additional tests.

      2. Identification methods include classic biochemical phenotyping (most common approach), mass spectrometry, gas chromatography, and nucleic acid tests.

      Biochemical Phenotyping:

      1. Classic biochemical identification of bacteria involves tests for protein or carbohydrate antigens, production of specific enzymes, ability to metabolize specific substrates and carbon sources, or the production of certain metabolites.

      2. Some tests are available in a rapid version, allowing many common organisms to be identified on the first day of growth. However, certain organisms, particularly gram-negative bacteria, require more extensive testing.

      3. Automated systems allow rapid phenotypic identification of bacterial pathogens by comparing the reaction pattern of isolates grown on multiple substrates with known patterns for various bacterial species.

      4. Several systems detect bacterial enzymes within 2-3 hours for organism identification. These systems rely on detecting enzymes in a heavy inoculum of bacteria, rather than on bacterial growth.

      Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS):

      1. MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid and accurate method for identifying microorganisms by protein analysis. It works by mixing the organism with a chemical matrix, pulsing with a laser, and comparing the resulting pattern (or fingerprint) of the proteins with a library of known patterns.

      2. The primary clinical advantage of MALDI-TOF MS is its speed – it can identify an organism directly from a colony on an agar plate in minutes, which is significantly faster than conventional methods.

      3. MALDI-TOF MS is highly accurate for identification of common bacteria and yeasts. However, less common organisms might not be present in FDA-approved databases used by MALDI-TOF MS devices and therefore cannot be identified unless the laboratory has validated the use of another database.

      4. While some laboratories use MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of mycobacteria and hyphal molds, it is not widely available. It's worth noting that it cannot differentiate some closely related organisms, such as Shigella and E. coli. Hence, other methods must be employed to confirm these identifications.

      5. Potential future uses of MALDI-TOF MS could include identification of bacteria and yeasts directly from low-protein clinical specimens (e.g., urine), detection of β-lactamase activity, and strain typing of bacteria. However, these applications are still under development.

    1. Adjuncts

      Agents targeting the cytokine cascade and coagulation:

      Specific agents designed to interrupt the initial cytokine cascade or interfere with dysregulated coagulation have been investigated. Recombinant activated protein C (aPC) was approved by the FDA and initially showed promising results in the PROWESS trial. However, subsequent trials failed to confirm its efficacy, and it was withdrawn from the market. It is no longer recommended for sepsis or septic shock. Glucocorticoids:

      Glucocorticoids have been widely used as adjunctive treatment in septic shock, although the evidence has been inconsistent. Some studies found no difference in mortality or shock reversal between patients treated with glucocorticoids and control patients with severe sepsis. However, two major randomized trials demonstrated faster shock resolution and mortality benefit when glucocorticoids were administered in combination with mineralocorticoids. Current guidelines suggest the use of IV hydrocortisone in septic shock if there is an ongoing vasopressor requirement despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Other adjuncts:

      High-dose IV ascorbic acid, either alone or in combination with thiamine and hydrocortisone, has been proposed as an inflammatory modulator and antioxidant in sepsis, but results have been variable, and current guidelines recommend against its use. IV immunoglobulin has shown potential benefit in some studies, but further research is needed before it becomes part of routine practice. Despite observational studies suggesting a potential benefit of statin use in sepsis and severe infection, there is currently no strong evidence from randomized controlled trials supporting their routine use in sepsis care. De-escalation of care is an important consideration once patients with sepsis and septic shock are stabilized. This involves assessing which therapies are no longer necessary and minimizing care:

      De-escalation of initial broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, guided by culture results and clinical improvement, may help reduce the emergence of resistant organisms, drug toxicity, and costs. Combination antimicrobial therapy is recommended only for specific situations such as neutropenic sepsis or sepsis caused by Pseudomonas. The use of serum biomarkers like procalcitonin to guide antibiotic duration has shown mixed results, with some studies reporting a mortality benefit and reduced treatment duration, while others have failed to replicate these findings. There is currently no consensus on antibiotic de-escalation criteria, and more research is needed in this area.

    2. inflammatory

      Start |

      V Proinflammatory Response |

      V Switch to Anti-inflammatory Phenotype: - Phagocytes |

      V Tissue Repair Promotion |

      V Reduction of Inflammation: - Regulatory T cells - Myeloid-derived suppressor cells |

      V Neuroinflammatory Reflex: - Sensory Input |

      V Afferent Vagus Nerve |

      V Brainstem Processing |

      V Efferent Vagus Nerve Activation |

      V Splenic Nerve Activation |

      V Norepinephrine Release in Spleen |

      V Acetylcholine Secretion by CD4+ T cells |

      V Acetylcholine Targets α7 Cholinergic Receptors on Macrophages |

      V Reduction of Proinflammatory Cytokine Release |

      V Attenuation of Systemic Inflammation

      | End

    3. Dysfunction

      Start |

      V Aberrant Inflammatory Response |

      V Cellular Damage |

      V Increased Risk of Organ Dysfunction |

      V Cellular Alterations: - Impaired Cell Death Pathways - Mitochondrial Dysfunction - Intracellular Handling of Reactive Oxygen Species |

      V Impaired Cellular Oxygen Utilization |

      V Reduced Cellular O2 Extraction |

      V Shift to Glycolysis and Fermentation |

      V ATP Depletion |

      V Bioenergetic Failure |

      V Release of Reactive Oxygen Species |

      V Apoptosis and Irreversible Cell Death |

      V Organ Failure |

      V Endothelial Dysfunction: - Disrupted Cell-Cell Connections - Loss of Barrier Integrity - Endothelial Glycocalyx Disruption |

      V Loss of Barrier Integrity |

      V Edema Formation |

      V Circulatory Dysfunction: - Vasomotor Collapse - Opening of Arteriovenous Shunts - Pathologic Shunting of Oxygenated Blood |

      V Microcirculatory Complications: - Microthrombosis - Decreased Capillary Density |

      V Impaired Tissue Oxygen Delivery |

      V Development of Organ Dysfunction |

      V Potential Role of the Gut: - Bacterial Translocation - Release of Toxic Mediators - Alteration in Gut Microbiome |

      V Morphologic Changes in Organ Failure |

      V Microscopic Changes in Organs (e.g., Lung) |

      V Histologic Changes in Some Organs (e.g., Kidney)

      | End

    4. In addition to pathogen recognition, PRRs also sense endogenous molecules released from injured cells—so-called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). DAMPs, or “alarmins,” are nuclear, cytoplasmic, or mitochondrial structures that are released from cells as a result of infection, tissue injury, or cell necrosis. Examples of DAMPs include high-mobility group protein B1, S100 proteins, and extracellular RNA, DNA, and histones. Once released into the extracellular environment, DAMPs are recognized by PRRs on immune cells, resulting in upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine production. Other cellular elements released during infection include reactive oxygen species, microparticles, proteolytic enzymes, and neutrophil extracellular traps, which can also influence inflammatory processes. ++ Concurrent to macrophage activation, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) surface receptors also bind microbial components. This interaction results in the expression of surface adhesion molecules that cause PMN aggregation and margination to the vascular endothelium. Through a multistep process of rolling, adhesion, diapedesis, and chemotaxis, PMNs migrate to the site of infection, releasing inflammatory mediators responsible for local vasodilation, hyperemia, and increased microvascular permeability. ++ Sepsis occurs when these local proinflammatory immune processes become exaggerated, resulting in a generalized immune response. Though it remains unclear why this malignant transition occurs, direct effects of the invading microorganism, overproduction of proinflammatory mediators, and activation of the complement system have all been implicated. +++ Coagulation Abnormalities ++ Sepsis is commonly associated with coagulation disorders and frequently leads to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Abnormalities in coagulation are thought to isolate invading microorganisms and/or to prevent the spread of infection and inflammation to other tissues and organs. Excess fibrin deposition is driven by coagulation via tissue factor, a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed by various cell types; by impaired anticoagulant mechanisms, including the protein C system and antithrombin; and by compromised fibrin removal due to depression of the fibrinolytic system. Coagulation (and other) proteases further enhance inflammation via protease-activated receptors. In infections with endothelial predominance (e.g., meningococcemia), these mechanisms can be common and deadly.

      Start |

      V Pathogen Recognition: Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) and Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) |

      V Release of Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) from Injured Cells |

      V Recognition of DAMPs by PRRs on Immune Cells |

      V Upregulation of Proinflammatory Cytokine Production |

      V Macrophage Activation |

      V PMN Activation: Binding of Microbial Components to PMN Surface Receptors

      | V Expression of Surface Adhesion Molecules |

      V PMN Aggregation and Margination to Vascular Endothelium |

      V Multistep Process of PMN Migration: Rolling, Adhesion, Diapedesis, Chemotaxis |

      V Release of Inflammatory Mediators by PMNs |

      V Local Vasodilation, Hyperemia, and Increased Microvascular Permeability |

      V Exaggeration of Local Proinflammatory Immune Processes |

      V Generalized Immune Response |

      V Sepsis |

      V Direct Effects of Invading Microorganism |

      V Overproduction of Proinflammatory Mediators |

      V Activation of Complement System |

      V Coagulation Disorders in Sepsis |

      V Excess Fibrin Deposition |

      V Coagulation via Tissue Factor |

      V Impaired Anticoagulant Mechanisms (Protein C System, Antithrombin) |

      V Compromised Fibrin Removal (Depression of Fibrinolytic System) |

      V Enhanced Inflammation via Protease-Activated Receptors |

      V Isolation of Microorganisms and Prevention of Spread |

      V Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

      | End

    5. Select




      Interaction between Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) expressed by pathogens and Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) expressed by innate immune cells (TLRs, CLRs, NLRs)

      | V

      Initiation of Inflammatory Response |

      V Release of Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) (e.g., uric acid, high-mobility group protein B1, S100 proteins, extracellular RNA, DNA, histones) |

      V Activation of Leukocytes |

      V Endothelial Dysfunction |

      V Expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule (ICAM) and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM-1) on Activated Endothelium |

      V Coagulation Activation |

      V Complement Activation |

      V Macrovascular Changes (Vasodilation, Hypotension) |

      V Endothelial Leak, Tissue Edema |

      V Relative Intravascular Hypovolemia |

      V Alterations in Cellular Bioenergetics |

      V Greater Glycolysis (Lactate Production) |

      V Mitochondrial Injury |

      V Release of Reactive Oxygen Species |

      V Organ Dysfunction |

      V Decreased Oxygen Delivery (DO2) at Tissue Level |

      V End

    6. For


      ├─ Initiation of Inflammation │ ├─ Pathogen recognition by innate immune cells (macrophages) │ ├─ Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) binding to pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) │ ├─ Upregulation of inflammatory gene transcription and activation of innate immunity │ └─ Release of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1)

      ├─ Concurrent Inflammatory Response │ ├─ Activation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and PMN aggregation │ ├─ Migration of PMNs to the site of infection │ └─ Release of inflammatory mediators causing local vasodilation and increased microvascular permeability

      ├─ Coagulation Abnormalities │ ├─ Excess fibrin deposition driven by coagulation via tissue factor │ ├─ Impaired anticoagulant mechanisms and compromised fibrin removal │ └─ Protease-activated receptors enhancing inflammation

      ├─ Organ Dysfunction │ ├─ Aberrant inflammatory response causing cellular damage │ ├─ Cellular alterations (e.g., impaired cell death pathways, mitochondrial dysfunction) │ ├─ Endothelial dysfunction and loss of barrier integrity │ ├─ Circulatory abnormalities (e.g., vasomotor collapse, microthrombosis) │ └─ Gut-related mechanisms contributing to organ dysfunction

      ├─ Anti-inflammatory Mechanisms │ ├─ Switching to an anti-inflammatory phenotype by phagocytes │ ├─ Regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells reducing inflammation │ └─ Neuroinflammatory reflex modulating proinflammatory cytokine release

      ├─ Immune Suppression │ ├─ Suppressed immune system in patients who survive early sepsis │ ├─ Reduced responsiveness of blood leukocytes to pathogens │ ├─ Enhanced apoptotic cell death implicated in immune suppression │ └─ Increased susceptibility to secondary infections

      └─ Clinical Assessment and Diagnosis ├─ Suspected or documented infection with acute organ dysfunction ├─ Determining the severity of organ dysfunction and identifying the inciting cause ├─ Assessment of physiologic manifestations using the SOFA score └─ Focus on the presence or absence of shock as a clinical emergency


    7. Immune

      Certainly! Here are more detailed points and subpoints regarding immune suppression in sepsis:

      1. Impaired Immune Cell Function:
      2. Multiple investigations have shown that blood leukocytes (white blood cells) in patients with sepsis have reduced responsiveness to pathogens.
      3. Postmortem studies have revealed significant functional impairments in splenocytes (cells found in the spleen) harvested from ICU patients who died of sepsis.
      4. Immune suppression is observed not only in the spleen but also in the lungs. The expression of ligands (molecules) for T cell-inhibitory receptors on parenchymal cells (cells that make up the functional tissue of an organ) is increased in both organs.

      5. Apoptotic Cell Death:

      6. Enhanced apoptotic cell death, particularly affecting B cells, CD4+ T cells, and follicular dendritic cells, has been implicated in sepsis-associated immune suppression and death.
      7. Apoptosis refers to programmed cell death. In sepsis, excessive apoptosis of immune cells can contribute to the weakened immune response.

      8. Secondary Infections:

      9. In a cohort of over 1000 ICU admissions for sepsis, approximately 14% of patients developed secondary infections.
      10. Common types of secondary infections include catheter-related bloodstream infections, ventilator-associated infections, and abdominal infections.
      11. Genomic response analysis during these secondary infections indicates immune suppression, including impaired glycolysis (a metabolic process) and cellular gluconeogenesis (generation of glucose).

      12. Identification of Hyperinflamed Phenotypes:

      13. Efforts are underway to identify sepsis patients who exhibit hyperinflamed phenotypes (excessive inflammatory response) rather than immunosuppressed phenotypes.
      14. Improved identification and monitoring of the host immune response can aid in guiding immunologic therapies.

      15. Challenges:

      16. The immune response in sepsis is dynamic, meaning it can vary at different stages of the condition and change rapidly.
      17. The understanding of whether the dysfunctional immune system drives organ dysfunction or if the immune system itself is just another dysfunctional organ remains unclear and poses a challenge.

      Approach to the Patient with Sepsis and Septic Shock: - To determine if a patient is septic, clinicians follow consensus criteria that include suspected or documented infection accompanied by acute, life-threatening organ dysfunction. - The clinician must identify the inciting cause of the infection and assess the severity of organ dysfunction. - The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score is a tool used to quickly assess the primary physiologic manifestations of organ dysfunction at the bedside. - Special attention should be given to the presence or absence of shock, which is considered a clinical emergency. - Shock is characterized by arterial hypotension (low blood pressure) with evidence of tissue hypoperfusion (reduced blood flow to tissues), such as oliguria (low urine output), altered mental status, poor peripheral perfusion, or elevated lactate levels.

    8. Laboratory

      Sure! Here's a breakdown of the paragraph into detailed points and subpoints:

      Laboratory and Physiologic Findings: - In a cohort study of electronic health records related to over 70,000 encounters, various laboratory and physiologic changes were observed in patients with suspected infection at risk for sepsis. - The most common finding was tachycardia (heart rate >90 beats/min), present in over 50% of encounters. - Other frequently accompanying abnormalities included tachypnea (respiratory rate >20 breaths/min), hypotension (systolic blood pressure ≤100 mmHg), and hypoxia (SaO2 ≤90%). - Leukocytosis (white blood cell count >12,000/μL) was present in fewer than one-third of patients, while leukopenia (white blood cell count <4000/μL) was present in fewer than 5%. - Less commonly measured but potential indicators of acute organ dysfunction included platelet count, total bilirubin, and serum lactate level. - Metabolic acidosis with anion gap may be detected if measured, as respiratory muscle fatigue occurs in sepsis-associated respiratory failure. - Other less common findings in sepsis included serum hypoalbuminemia, troponin elevation, hypoglycemia, and hypofibrinogenemia.

      Diagnostic Criteria: - There is no specific test or gold-standard method for diagnosing sepsis. - The definition of sepsis can be represented as a logic statement, where sepsis is a function of four independent variables: threat to life, organ dysfunction, dysregulated host response, and infection. - Determining whether each variable exists, can be measured, and the causal and conditional relationships hold can be challenging. - Clinicians require simple bedside criteria to operationalize the logic statement. - The Sepsis Definitions Task Force, with the introduction of Sepsis-3, recommends considering organ dysfunction by determining a Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score once infection is suspected. - The SOFA score ranges from 0 to 24 points, with up to 4 points assigned per organ system, across six organ systems. - The SOFA score is widely studied in the ICU for patients with infection, sepsis, and shock. - If a patient has ≥2 new SOFA points, they are considered septic, and their risk of in-hospital death may be ≥10%.

      Note: The figures mentioned in the text, such as Fig. 304-2 and Fig. 304-3, provide visual representations that complement the information described in the text.

    9. Recommendations

      Certainly! Here are the important words from the answer highlighted in bold:

      Identification of Patients at Risk of Sepsis: - To aid in early identification of infected patients at high risk of sepsis outside the ICU, two scoring systems are proposed: the quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score and the National Early Warning Score (NEWS). - The qSOFA score ranges from 0 to 3 points, with 1 point each for systolic hypotension (≤100 mmHg), tachypnea (≥22 breaths/min), or altered mentation. A qSOFA score of ≥2 points predicts sepsis similarly to more complex measures of organ dysfunction. - The NEWS is an aggregate scoring system that includes six physiologic parameters: respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, altered mentation, and temperature. - While SIRS criteria may be fulfilled in sepsis, they may not significantly contribute to identifying patients with suspected infection at greater risk of poor outcomes, ICU admission, or death, which are more common in patients with sepsis.

      Definition and Criteria for Septic Shock: - Septic shock is a subset of sepsis characterized by profound circulatory and cellular/metabolic abnormalities that substantially increase mortality risk. - The application of the definition of septic shock as a criterion for enrolling patients varies in clinical trials, observational studies, and quality improvement work. - Proposed criteria for septic shock include sepsis plus the need for vasopressor therapy to elevate mean arterial pressure to ≥65 mmHg, along with a serum lactate concentration >2.0 mmol/L after adequate fluid resuscitation. - Arterial lactate is a well-studied marker of tissue hypoperfusion, and elevated lactate levels and delayed lactate clearance are associated with increased organ failure and death in sepsis. - However, other factors such as alcohol intoxication, liver disease, diabetes mellitus, total parenteral nutrition, or antiretroviral treatment can also cause elevated lactate levels, and impaired clearance may contribute to elevated lactate concentration in sepsis.

      Treatment of Sepsis and Septic Shock: - Prompt diagnosis is crucial for sepsis care, and the recognition of septic shock by a clinician is considered an emergency requiring immediate treatment. - Treatment guidelines for sepsis are provided by the Surviving Sepsis Campaign, which consists of critical care, infectious disease, and emergency medicine professional societies. - The campaign has issued multiple iterations of clinical guidelines for the management of patients with sepsis and septic shock. - The specific guidelines and recommendations for treatment can be found in Table 304-2.

    10. TABLE

      I apologize, but the formatting limitations of this text-based interface make it challenging to create a flowchart. However, I can provide you with a textual representation of the flowchart you requested:

      Resuscitation: 1. Sepsis and septic shock constitute an emergency. 2. Initiate resuscitation with IV crystalloid fluid (30 mL/kg) within the first 3 hours. 3. Use balanced crystalloids for resuscitation. 4. Consider hemodynamic assessments (e.g., focused cardiac ultrasound) if the diagnosis is unclear. 5. In patients with elevated serum lactate levels, prioritize resuscitation to normalize lactate levels. 6. Target mean arterial pressure of 65 mmHg for patients with septic shock requiring vasopressors. 7. Consider capillary refill time as an adjunct measure of perfusion. 8. Avoid hydroxyethyl starches and gelatins. 9. Norepinephrine is the recommended first-choice vasopressor. 10. Vasopressin can be used to reduce norepinephrine dose. 11. Use dopamine only in specific situations (e.g., high risk of tachyarrhythmias or relative bradycardia). 12. Dobutamine may be used when patients show persistent evidence of hypoperfusion. 13. Red blood cell transfusion is recommended when hemoglobin concentration is <7.0 g/dL.

      Infection Control: 1. Obtain appropriate samples for microbiologic cultures before starting antimicrobial therapy. 2. Initiate IV antibiotics as soon as possible, ideally within 1 hour. 3. Use empirical broad-spectrum therapy to cover likely pathogens. 4. Narrow antibiotic therapy once pathogens and sensitivities are identified or clinical improvement is observed. 5. Undertake source control as soon as medically and logistically possible. 6. Conduct daily assessment for de-escalation of antimicrobial therapy. 7. If low likelihood of infection, defer antimicrobials and conduct rapid investigation.

      Respiratory Support: 1. Use high flow nasal oxygen over noninvasive ventilation for sepsis-induced hypoxemic respiratory failure. 2. Target tidal volume of 6 mL/kg of predicted body weight in sepsis-induced ARDS. 3. Use higher PEEP in moderate to severe sepsis-induced ARDS. 4. Consider prone positioning and recruitment maneuvers/neuromuscular blocking agents in severe ARDS (PaO2/FIO2 <150 mmHg). 5. Use conservative fluid strategy in sepsis-induced ARDS if no evidence of tissue hypoperfusion. 6. Avoid routine use of a pulmonary artery catheter. 7. Conduct spontaneous breathing trials for mechanically ventilated patients ready for weaning.

      General Supportive Care: 1. Place an arterial catheter for patients requiring a vasopressor as soon as practical. 2. Use IV corticosteroids in septic shock with ongoing vasopressor requirement. 3. Minimize continuous or intermittent sedation in mechanically ventilated sepsis patients. 4. Implement a protocol-based approach to blood glucose management. 5. Use continuous or intermittent renal replacement therapy in sepsis patients with acute kidney injury. 6. Provide pharmacologic prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism. 7. Administer stress ulcer prophylaxis to patients with risk factors for gastrointestinal bleeding. 8. Discuss goals of care and prognosis with patients and their families.

      Please note that this is a textual representation of the flowchart and the information may need to be rearranged to match the desired flowchart structure.

    11. There

      The initial management of infection involves several steps and can be divided into categories:

      1. Forming a Probable Diagnosis:
      2. Establish a probable diagnosis based on clinical presentation, signs, and symptoms.
      3. Identify the suspected site of infection (e.g., abdominal, urinary, soft-tissue infections).
      4. Consider the patient's medical history, onset location of infection, and local microbial susceptibility patterns.

      5. Obtaining Samples for Culture:

      6. Collect appropriate samples for microbiologic cultures before starting antimicrobial therapy.
      7. Samples should be obtained from the suspected site of infection to identify the causative pathogens.

      8. Initiating Empirical Antimicrobial Therapy:

      9. Administer appropriate broad-spectrum antibiotics within 1 hour of recognizing sepsis or septic shock.
      10. Choice of antibiotics depends on the suspected site of infection, patient's medical history, and local microbial susceptibility patterns.
      11. Timely administration of antibiotics is crucial, as delayed initiation increases the odds of in-hospital death.

      12. Achieving Source Control:

      13. More than 30% of sepsis patients require source control, especially for abdominal, urinary, and soft-tissue infections.
      14. Source control refers to interventions aimed at eliminating or controlling the source of infection.
      15. Timeliness of source control interventions is debated, but earlier intervention is associated with lower mortality rates.

      Additionally, there are specific elements and bundles of care for managing sepsis:

      1. 1-Hour Bundle of Care:
      2. Replace the previous guidelines recommending treatment initiation within 3-6 hours.
      3. Components of the 1-hour bundle include:
        • Measurement of serum lactate levels.
        • Collection of blood for culture before antibiotic administration.
        • Administration of appropriate broad-spectrum antibiotics.
        • Initiation of a 30 mL/kg crystalloid bolus for hypotension or lactate ≥4 mmol/L.
        • Treatment with vasopressors for persistent hypotension or shock.
      4. Serum lactate levels should be remeasured if the initial level is ≥2 mmol/L.

      5. Cardiorespiratory Resuscitation and Infection Control:

      6. Resuscitation involves structured approaches, including IV fluid administration and vasopressors.
      7. Oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation are used to support injured organs.
      8. The optimal components of resuscitation remain controversial, such as fluid choice and amount, hemodynamic monitoring, and vasoactive agents.

      9. Protocolized Treatment Bundles:

      10. Evidence suggests that protocolized treatment bundles may improve survival compared to clinical assessments alone.
      11. Early antibiotic administration and rapid restoration of perfusion are crucial in all sepsis treatment bundles.
      12. The timing and intensity of treatment bundles are still debated and may vary based on resource availability.

      13. Resuscitation in Septic Shock:

      14. Early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) was an aggressive resuscitation protocol but has limited evidence supporting its use.
      15. Subsequent trials found that EGDT did not provide a mortality benefit compared to protocol-based standard care or usual care.
      16. Modified versions of EGDT in lower-resourced settings also did not show improved outcomes.
      17. Current recommendations focus on initiating treatment within 3-6 hours and emphasize the importance of immediate resuscitation and management.

      18. Standardized Approach and Ongoing Care:

      19. Prompt care is ensured by implementing a standardized approach, similar to trauma teams.
      20. Patients should be transferred to an appropriate setting, such as the ICU, for ongoing care.

      Note: Important words have been highlighted to draw attention to key concepts and recommendations.

    12. Monitoring

      Subsequent treatment of sepsis and septic shock involves the following aspects, with finer division into categories:

      1. Monitoring:
      2. Hemodynamic monitoring devices can provide valuable information about the physiological manifestations of sepsis and septic shock.
      3. Invasive devices like the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) are no longer recommended for routine use.
      4. Noninvasive monitoring tools such as arterial pulse contour analysis, focused echocardiography, and ultrasound can assist in estimating parameters like cardiac output and volume responsiveness.
      5. Further research is needed to evaluate the impact of these tools on daily management.

      6. Support of Organ Function:

      7. The primary goal is to improve oxygen delivery to the tissues.
      8. Depending on the underlying physiological disturbance, interventions may include IV fluids, vasopressors, blood transfusions, or ventilatory support.

      9. Fluid Therapy:

        • Crystalloid solutions (e.g., normal saline, Ringer's lactate, Hartmann's solution, Plasma-Lyte) are commonly used in septic shock.
        • Colloid solutions (e.g., albumin, dextran, gelatins, hydroxyethyl starch) have variable use across ICUs and countries.
        • Crystalloids are recommended as first-line fluids for sepsis resuscitation, with balanced crystalloids preferred over saline.
        • The use of hydroxyethyl starches for intravascular volume replacement is not recommended.
      10. Vasopressor Therapy:

        • Vasopressors such as norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, and phenylephrine help maintain organ perfusion.
        • Norepinephrine is recommended as the first-choice vasopressor in septic shock.
        • Vasopressin can be added to reduce the norepinephrine dose in select cases.
      11. Blood Transfusion:

        • Red blood cell transfusion should be reserved for patients with a hemoglobin level ≤7 g/dL.
        • Higher thresholds (>10 g/dL) for transfusion are not recommended in septic shock.
      12. Ventilatory Support:

        • Mechanical ventilatory support is indicated for significant hypoxemia, hypoventilation, increased work of breathing, and inadequate compensation for metabolic acidosis.
        • Endotracheal intubation protects the airway, and positive-pressure breathing improves oxygen delivery.
        • Hemodynamic stability should be closely monitored during intubation to avoid complications.
      13. Complication Avoidance and De-escalation of Care:

      14. Continuous assessment for potential complications and timely interventions are necessary.
      15. De-escalation of care should be considered when appropriate, adjusting interventions based on the patient's response and clinical status.

      Note: Important words have been highlighted to emphasize key concepts and recommendations.

    1. Venous

      Based on the provided text, here are some subheadings that can be included:

      1. Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)
      2. Definition and overview of VTE
      3. Types of VTE: Deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE)
      4. Impact of VTE on health: Cardiovascular death, chronic disability, and emotional distress

      5. Epidemiology and Mortality Rates

      6. Prevalence of VTE in the United States
      7. Annual mortality rates attributed to PE
      8. Trends in age-specific mortality rates in the United States, Canada, and Europe
      9. Impact of socioeconomic status on in-hospital mortality

      10. Association with Midlife Mortality and Other Causes

      11. Decrease in life expectancy and midlife mortality in the United States
      12. Causes of increased midlife mortality: drug overdoses, alcoholic liver disease, suicides, heart and lung diseases, hypertension, stroke, and diabetes mellitus

      13. COVID-19 and VTE

      14. Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on VTE cases
      15. Clinical features and complications of COVID-19, including acute respiratory syndrome and thrombosis
      16. Mechanisms of thrombosis in COVID-19: inflammation, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction, and stasis

      17. Readmission Rates and Quality of Life

      18. Readmission rates of Medicare beneficiaries with acute PE
      19. Transition of care from inpatient to outpatient settings
      20. Post-PE syndrome: persistent dyspnea, fatigue, reduced exercise capacity, and right ventricular dysfunction
      21. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and postthrombotic syndrome

      22. Pathophysiology of VTE

      23. Role of inflammation as a trigger for acute PE and DVT
      24. Prothrombotic states and genetic mutations associated with VTE
      25. Clinical risk factors for VTE
      26. Interaction between VTE and atherothrombosis

      27. Embolization and Physiological Consequences

      28. Embolization of deep-vein thrombi and its consequences
      29. Gas exchange abnormalities and physiological effects of PE
      30. Pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular dysfunction, and microinfarction

      31. Pathophysiology of Postthrombotic Syndrome

      32. Postthrombotic syndrome and chronic venous insufficiency
      33. Clinical manifestations of postthrombotic syndrome: leg swelling, leg aching, skin ulceration
      34. Interaction between VTE, acute coronary syndrome, and acute stroke

      These subheadings can help organize the information and provide a structured flow to the content about venous thromboembolism and its related aspects.

    1. hypoxemia

      Certainly! Here are additional points regarding oxygenation and ventilation support:

      Oxygenation and Ventilation Support:

      1. Hypoxemia in Distributive Shock:
      2. Patients with distributive shock may present with hypoxemia, which can be attributed to primary pulmonary processes, such as pneumonia in septic shock.
      3. Adequate supplemental oxygen should be provided to maintain oxygen saturation (SpO2) levels between 92% and 95%.
      4. Intubation and initiation of mechanical ventilation may be necessary to optimize oxygenation and ensure adequate tissue oxygen delivery.

      5. Mechanical Ventilation Strategies:

      6. When initiating mechanical ventilation in shock patients, lung-protective ventilation strategies should be employed.
      7. Low tidal volume ventilation (6-8 mL/kg of predicted body weight) helps prevent ventilator-induced lung injury.
      8. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is optimized to maintain alveolar recruitment and improve oxygenation.
      9. Regular assessment and adjustment of ventilator settings are essential to meet the patient's oxygenation and ventilation requirements.

      10. High Minute Ventilation Needs:

      11. Patients in shock may require higher minute ventilation to compensate for metabolic acidosis and maintain adequate respiratory compensation.
      12. However, as shock progresses, they may be unable to maintain sufficient respiratory effort, indicating the need for mechanical ventilator support.

      13. Sedation and Neurologic Assessment:

      14. Daily sedation cessation should be prioritized to evaluate the patient's underlying neurologic function and minimize the duration of mechanical ventilation.
      15. Assessing neurologic status helps determine if the patient is ready for extubation and liberation from mechanical ventilation.

      16. Noninvasive Ventilation (NIV):

      17. The role of noninvasive ventilation in the setting of shock is limited and currently lacks robust evidence.
      18. NIV may be considered in specific cases of respiratory failure or acute pulmonary edema, but caution is warranted in the presence of hemodynamic instability.

      Antibiotic Administration:

      1. Early Antibiotic Initiation:
      2. In cases where septic shock is suspected or being considered as a cause of shock, broad-spectrum antibiotics should be promptly administered.
      3. Delaying antibiotic administration is associated with increased mortality, and every hour of delay can have detrimental effects.
      4. While obtaining appropriate cultures is ideal, treatment initiation should not be delayed if cultures cannot be obtained promptly.

      5. Antibiotic Stewardship:

      6. Once sepsis is ruled out or excluded as the cause of shock, it is important to discontinue all unnecessary antibiotics.
      7. Appropriate antibiotic stewardship helps minimize the development of antimicrobial resistance and reduces the risk of adverse effects associated with prolonged antibiotic use.

      Specific Causes of Shock Requiring Tailored Intervention:

      1. Etiology-Specific Interventions:
      2. The initial evaluation may identify specific causes of shock that require urgent and tailored interventions in addition to general management.
      3. For example, anaphylaxis requires removal of the triggering allergen, administration of epinephrine, fluid resuscitation, and vascular support.
      4. Adrenal insufficiency necessitates intravenous stress dose steroids for replacement.
      5. Cardiogenic shock with arrhythmia may require treatment based on advanced cardiac life support algorithms or placement of an artificial pacemaker.

      6. Urgent Lifesaving Measures:

      7. In cases of acute ischemic events, revascularization procedures or temporary mechanical support may be necessary.
      8. Valve dysfunction may require emergency surgery.
      9. Hemorrhagic hypovolemic shock may necessitate surgical intervention or interventional radiology procedures for hemostasis.

      10. Obstructive Shock:

      11. Obstructive shock caused by a tension pneumothorax requires immediate decompression.
      12. Proximal pulmonary embolism should

      be evaluated for thrombolytic therapy or surgical removal of the clot. - Dissection of the ascending aorta may require urgent surgical intervention to prevent further complications.

      It is important to note that the specific interventions and treatments for shock should be tailored to the individual patient's condition, underlying etiology, and in accordance with evidence-based guidelines.

    2. addition

      Certainly! Here are additional points regarding oxygenation and ventilation support:

      Oxygenation and Ventilation Support:

      1. Hypoxemia in Distributive Shock:
      2. Patients with distributive shock may present with hypoxemia, which can be attributed to primary pulmonary processes, such as pneumonia in septic shock.
      3. Adequate supplemental oxygen should be provided to maintain oxygen saturation (SpO2) levels between 92% and 95%.
      4. Intubation and initiation of mechanical ventilation may be necessary to optimize oxygenation and ensure adequate tissue oxygen delivery.

      5. Mechanical Ventilation Strategies:

      6. When initiating mechanical ventilation in shock patients, lung-protective ventilation strategies should be employed.
      7. Low tidal volume ventilation (6-8 mL/kg of predicted body weight) helps prevent ventilator-induced lung injury.
      8. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is optimized to maintain alveolar recruitment and improve oxygenation.
      9. Regular assessment and adjustment of ventilator settings are essential to meet the patient's oxygenation and ventilation requirements.

      10. High Minute Ventilation Needs:

      11. Patients in shock may require higher minute ventilation to compensate for metabolic acidosis and maintain adequate respiratory compensation.
      12. However, as shock progresses, they may be unable to maintain sufficient respiratory effort, indicating the need for mechanical ventilator support.

      13. Sedation and Neurologic Assessment:

      14. Daily sedation cessation should be prioritized to evaluate the patient's underlying neurologic function and minimize the duration of mechanical ventilation.
      15. Assessing neurologic status helps determine if the patient is ready for extubation and liberation from mechanical ventilation.

      16. Noninvasive Ventilation (NIV):

      17. The role of noninvasive ventilation in the setting of shock is limited and currently lacks robust evidence.
      18. NIV may be considered in specific cases of respiratory failure or acute pulmonary edema, but caution is warranted in the presence of hemodynamic instability.

      Antibiotic Administration:

      1. Early Antibiotic Initiation:
      2. In cases where septic shock is suspected or being considered as a cause of shock, broad-spectrum antibiotics should be promptly administered.
      3. Delaying antibiotic administration is associated with increased mortality, and every hour of delay can have detrimental effects.
      4. While obtaining appropriate cultures is ideal, treatment initiation should not be delayed if cultures cannot be obtained promptly.

      5. Antibiotic Stewardship:

      6. Once sepsis is ruled out or excluded as the cause of shock, it is important to discontinue all unnecessary antibiotics.
      7. Appropriate antibiotic stewardship helps minimize the development of antimicrobial resistance and reduces the risk of adverse effects associated with prolonged antibiotic use.

      Specific Causes of Shock Requiring Tailored Intervention:

      1. Etiology-Specific Interventions:
      2. The initial evaluation may identify specific causes of shock that require urgent and tailored interventions in addition to general management.
      3. For example, anaphylaxis requires removal of the triggering allergen, administration of epinephrine, fluid resuscitation, and vascular support.
      4. Adrenal insufficiency necessitates intravenous stress dose steroids for replacement.
      5. Cardiogenic shock with arrhythmia may require treatment based on advanced cardiac life support algorithms or placement of an artificial pacemaker.

      6. Urgent Lifesaving Measures:

      7. In cases of acute ischemic events, revascularization procedures or temporary mechanical support may be necessary.
      8. Valve dysfunction may require emergency surgery.
      9. Hemorrhagic hypovolemic shock may necessitate surgical intervention or interventional radiology procedures for hemostasis.

      10. Obstructive Shock:

      11. Obstructive shock caused by a tension pneumothorax requires immediate decompression.
      12. Proximal pulmonary embolism should

      be evaluated for thrombolytic therapy or surgical removal of the clot. - Dissection of the ascending aorta may require urgent surgical intervention to prevent further complications.

      It is important to note that the specific interventions and treatments for shock should be tailored to the individual patient's condition, underlying etiology, and in accordance with evidence-based guidelines.

    3. Distributive

      Distributive Shock - Distributive shock is characterized by reduced oxygen delivery due to a reduction in systemic vascular resistance (SVR). - Unlike other types of shock, compensatory mechanisms lead to an increase in cardiac output (CO). - Central venous pressure (CVP) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) are typically reduced in distributive shock. - The most common cause of distributive shock is sepsis, which is defined as a dysregulated host response to infection resulting in life-threatening organ dysfunction. - Other conditions that can cause distributive shock include pancreatitis, severe burns, liver failure, anaphylaxis, severe brain or spinal cord injury, and adrenal insufficiency.

      Cardiogenic Shock - Cardiogenic shock is characterized by reduced oxygen delivery due to a decrease in cardiac output (CO) caused by a primary cardiac problem. - In cardiogenic shock, there is usually a compensatory increase in systemic vascular resistance (SVR). - If the left ventricle (LV) is affected, the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is elevated, and if the right ventricle (RV) is affected, the central venous pressure (CVP) is elevated. - Processes that can reduce stroke volume (SV) and lead to cardiogenic shock include myocardial infarction, ischemic cardiomyopathies, primary myocarditis, and mechanical valvular disease. - Bradyarrhythmias and tachyarrhythmias can also have hemodynamic consequences and reduce CO.

      Hypovolemic Shock - Hypovolemic shock occurs when there is a reduction in preload, leading to decreased cardiac output (CO) and oxygen delivery. - This type of shock is characterized by an elevated systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and low central venous pressure (CVP) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) due to decreased intravascular volume. - Hemorrhage, both external (trauma) and internal (GI bleeding), is the most common cause of hypovolemic shock. - Non-hemorrhagic processes such as severe emesis or diarrhea, renal losses, and skin loss (burns, inflammatory conditions) can also cause hypovolemic shock.

      Obstructive Shock - Obstructive shock is characterized by reduced oxygen delivery resulting from a decrease in cardiac output (CO) caused by extracardiac pulmonary vascular or mechanical obstruction. - Specific conditions that can impede venous return and reduce CO include tension pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, restrictive pericarditis, pulmonary embolism, venous air embolism, fat embolism, and aortic dissection.

      Mixed Shock - Mixed shock occurs when a patient presents with more than one type of shock simultaneously. - For example, in sepsis, distributive shock is the initial disturbance, but a sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy can develop, resulting in a mixed type of shock with both distributive and cardiogenic components.

      Undifferentiated Shock - Some patients initially present with undifferentiated shock, where the type of shock and specific disease process are not apparent. - Through the history, physical examination, and initial diagnostic testing, clinicians attempt to classify the patient into one of the types of shock described above to initiate appropriate therapy.

      Epidemiology and Mortality - The distribution of shock types varies depending on the clinical setting. - In the emergency department (ED), hypovolemic shock and septic shock are the most common types. - In the intensive care unit (ICU), septic shock is the predominant type, followed by hypovolemic shock and cardiogenic shock. - Mortality rates are highest for septic shock and

      cardiogenic shock, while hypovolemic shock is associated with a lower mortality rate.

    4. Shock

      Certainly! Here are the detailed notes with subheadings:

      1. Introduction to Shock - Shock is a clinical condition characterized by organ dysfunction due to an imbalance between cellular oxygen supply and demand. - It is a life-threatening condition commonly observed in the intensive care unit (ICU). - Shock can be caused by a multitude of heterogeneous disease processes. - Left untreated, shock progresses to an irreversible phase and can lead to death from multisystem organ dysfunction (MSOF).

      2. Pathophysiology of Shock - Shock can result from impaired oxygen delivery, increased oxygen consumption, or impaired oxygen utilization. - This chapter focuses on shock related to inadequate oxygen delivery. - Insufficient oxygen supply leads to the cell's inability to support aerobic metabolism. - Inadequate oxygen delivery forces the cell into anaerobic metabolism, resulting in lactate production and reduced ATP generation. - Inadequate ATP disrupts cellular homeostasis, leading to dysfunction and death. - Calcium influx due to hypoxia can cause cellular swelling, activate inflammatory cascades, and alter microvascular circulation.

      3. Classification of Shock - Shock can be classified into four major types based on underlying physiological derangements. - The classification helps in determining the type of shock causing organ dysfunction. - The four major types of shock are not specifically mentioned in the passage, but they could be: a) Hypovolemic shock (due to decreased preload) b) Cardiogenic shock (due to decreased contractility) c) Distributive shock (due to decreased systemic vascular resistance) d) Obstructive shock (due to mechanical obstruction of blood flow)

      4. Determinants of Oxygen Delivery - Oxygen delivery (DO2) depends on cardiac output (CO) and arterial oxygen content (CaO2). - CO is determined by heart rate (HR) and stroke volume (SV). - SV is influenced by preload, afterload (systemic vascular resistance, SVR), and cardiac contractility. - Preload refers to the ventricular end-diastolic volume, while contractility represents the ventricle's ability to contract independently. - SVR represents the force against which the ventricle must contract (afterload). - CaO2 is composed of oxygen carried by hemoglobin and oxygen dissolved in blood. - SaO2 (arterial oxygen saturation) and Hb (hemoglobin) levels contribute to the oxygen content.

      5. Implications of Altered Determinants - Any disease process affecting HR, preload, contractility, SVR, SaO2, or Hb can reduce oxygen delivery and lead to cellular hypoxia. - Alterations in these determinants result in distinct physiological hemodynamic profiles associated with each type of shock. - Understanding these implications helps in diagnosing and managing shock effectively.

      These detailed notes with subheadings provide a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of shock, the classification of shock types, and the determinants of oxygen delivery.

    1. Atheroembolism



      Deposits of fibrin, platelets, and cholesterol debris embolize from proximal atherosclerotic lesions or aneurysmal sites. Large protruding aortic atheromas are a common source of emboli. Symptoms:

      Acute pain and tenderness at the site of embolization. Cyanotic discoloration of the toes ("blue toe" syndrome). Ischemia leading to digital necrosis and gangrene. Localized areas of tenderness, pallor, and livedo reticularis (mottled skin appearance). Treatment:

      Local foot care and, if necessary, amputation to treat necrotic areas. Analgesics for pain relief. Surgical revascularization procedures or thrombolytic therapy are usually not effective. Antiplatelet drugs and statins may improve cardiovascular outcomes. Anticoagulant therapy effectiveness is uncertain. Endovascular or surgical intervention may be necessary to exclude or bypass the vessel causing recurrent emboli. Thoracic Outlet Compression Syndrome:


      Compression of the neurovascular bundle (artery, vein, or nerves) at the thoracic outlet in the neck and shoulder. Cervical ribs, abnormalities of the scalenus anticus muscle, clavicle proximity to the first rib, or abnormal insertion of the pectoralis minor muscle may cause compression. Symptoms:

      Neurogenic form: shoulder and arm pain, weakness, and paresthesias. Arterial form: claudication, Raynaud's phenomenon, ischemic tissue loss, and gangrene. Venous form: thrombosis of the subclavian and axillary veins (Paget-Schroetter syndrome). Diagnosis:

      Provocative maneuvers to elicit symptoms and signs. Chest X-ray to identify cervical ribs. Duplex ultrasonography, MRA, or contrast angiography during provocative maneuvers to demonstrate compression. Neurophysiologic tests may be used but have low sensitivity for diagnosing neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome. Treatment:

      Conservative management: avoidance of provocative positions, shoulder girdle exercises. Surgical procedures (e.g., first rib removal, scalenus anticus muscle resection) for symptom relief or ischemia treatment. Popliteal Artery Entrapment:


      Gastrocnemius or popliteus muscle compression of the popliteal artery. Commonly affects young athletic individuals. Can lead to intermittent claudication, thrombosis, embolism, or aneurysm. Diagnosis:

      Normal pulse examination unless provocative maneuvers are performed. Duplex ultrasound, CTA, MRA, or angiography for confirmation. Treatment:

      Surgical release of the popliteal artery or vascular reconstruction. Popliteal Artery Aneurysm:


      Most common peripheral artery aneurysms. Often associated with aneurysms in other arteries, especially the aorta. Symptoms:

      Limb ischemia due to thrombosis or embolism. Rupture (less frequent). Compression of adjacent popliteal vein or peroneal nerve. Diagnosis:

      Palpation and confirmation by duplex ultrasonography. Treatment:

      Repair indicated for symptomatic aneurysms or when diameter exceeds 2-3 cm. Risk of thrombosis, embolism, or rupture. Arteriovenous Fistula:


      Abnormal communications between an artery and a vein. May be congenital or acquired (e.g., trauma, iatrogenic). Symptoms:

      Pulsatile mass. High-output heart failure. Distal ischemia due to arterial steal. Venous hypertension leading to venous stasis and ulcers. Diagnosis:

      Physical examination. Doppler ultrasonography, MRA, or angiography. Treatment:

      Surgical or endovascular procedures to close the fistula.

    2. Fibromuscular

      Based on the provided text, I have extracted information regarding Fibromuscular Dysplasia, Thromboangiitis Obliterans, Vasculitis, and Acute Limb Ischemia. Here's an overview of each condition:

      1. Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD):
      2. Hyperplastic disorder that affects medium-sized and small arteries.
      3. Predominantly affects females.
      4. Typically involves renal and carotid/vertebral arteries but can affect other arteries like coronary, mesenteric, iliac, and subclavian.
      5. Can cause stenosis, dissection, aneurysm, or thrombosis in affected arteries.
      6. Histologic classification includes intimal fibroplasia, medial dysplasia (medial fibroplasia, perimedial fibroplasia, medial hyperplasia), and adventitial hyperplasia.
      7. Angiographic classification: multifocal (medial dysplasia) and focal (intimal fibroplasia).
      8. Iliac arteries are often affected.
      9. Clinical manifestations similar to atherosclerosis (claudication, rest pain).
      10. Treatment options: percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), surgical reconstruction for severe symptoms or threatened limbs.

      11. Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger's Disease):

      12. Inflammatory occlusive vascular disorder affecting small and medium-sized arteries and veins in distal extremities.
      13. More common in men under 40 years of age, higher prevalence in Asians and individuals of Eastern European descent.
      14. Relationship to cigarette smoking.
      15. Pathology involves leukocyte infiltration, inflammatory thrombus, fibrosis, and recanalization.
      16. Clinical features: claudication, Raynaud's phenomenon, migratory superficial vein thrombophlebitis, trophic nail changes, ulcerations, gangrene.
      17. Diagnosis: MRA, CTA, arteriography, biopsy.
      18. Treatment: tobacco abstention, arterial bypass in selected cases, debridement, antibiotics if needed, amputation in severe cases.

      19. Vasculitis:

      20. Various vasculitides can affect the arteries supplying upper and lower extremities.
      21. Takayasu's arteritis and giant cell (temporal) arteritis are examples.

      22. Acute Limb Ischemia:

      23. Sudden cessation of blood flow to an extremity due to arterial occlusion.
      24. Causes: embolism, thrombus in situ, arterial dissection, trauma.
      25. Symptoms: severe pain, paresthesia, numbness, coldness, paralysis.
      26. Physical findings: loss of pulses, cyanosis, pallor, mottling, decreased skin temperature, muscle stiffening, sensory and motor deficits.
      27. Diagnosis: clinical evaluation, Doppler assessment, MRA, CTA, arteriography.
      28. Treatment: anticoagulation with heparin, immediate intervention for reperfusion (thrombolysis, thrombectomy, surgical procedures), long-term anticoagulation in specific cases, amputation if necessary.

      Please note that this information is extracted from the provided text and should not replace professional medical advice.


      Here's the information organized with subheadings and bullet points:

      Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms:

      Epidemiology and Risk Factors: - More common in males than females - Incidence increases with age - Cigarette smoking is a potent modifiable risk factor - Affects 1-2% of men aged >50 years with abdominal aortic aneurysms ≥4.0 cm - Majority of aneurysms (>90%) >4.0 cm are related to atherosclerotic disease - Most aneurysms are located below the level of the renal arteries - Prognosis is influenced by aneurysm size and coexisting coronary artery and cerebrovascular disease - Risk of rupture increases with aneurysm size: 1-2% for aneurysms <5 cm, 20-40% for aneurysms >5 cm in diameter - Mural thrombi within aneurysms may predispose to peripheral embolization

      Clinical Presentation: - Often asymptomatic, detected on routine examination or incidental imaging - Symptoms may develop as the aneurysm expands: - Palpable, pulsatile, expansile, and nontender mass - Abdominal pulsations - Pain in the chest, lower back, or scrotum - Aneurysmal pain usually indicates rupture and is a medical emergency - Acute rupture can occur without warning and is life-threatening - Rarely, leakage of the aneurysm may cause severe pain and tenderness - Acute pain and hypotension accompany aneurysm rupture, requiring emergency operation or endovascular repair

      Diagnostic Tests: - Abdominal radiography: May show calcified outline of the aneurysm (not visualized in ~25% of cases) - Abdominal ultrasound: - Delineates dimensions of the aneurysm and may detect mural thrombus - Useful for serial documentation of aneurysm size and screening high-risk patients - Ultrasound screening in men aged 65-74 associated with 42% risk reduction in aneurysm-related death - CT with contrast and MRI: - Accurate noninvasive tests for location, size, and planning repair - Contrast aortography: - Carries small risk of complications - May underestimate aneurysm diameter due to the presence of mural thrombi

      Treatment Options: - Statins: - Indicated to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events related to atherosclerosis - Medical therapies (β-adrenergic blockers, renin-angiotensin inhibitors): - Not proven effective in reducing aneurysm growth - Operative repair or endovascular placement of an aortic stent graft: - Indicated for rapidly expanding aneurysms or those associated with symptoms - Asymptomatic aneurysms: - Repair indicated if diameter is ≥5.5 cm - Serial noninvasive follow-up of smaller aneurysms (<5.5 cm) is an alternative to immediate repair - Choice of open surgical operation or endovascular repair based on vascular anatomy and comorbid conditions - Long-term surveillance with CT or MR aortography recommended after endovascular repair to monitor leaks and aneurysm expansion

      Surgical Considerations: - Preoperative evaluation: - Cardiac and general medical evaluations - Appropriate therapy for complicating conditions (coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, advanced age) - Operative mortality rate approximates 1-2% with careful evaluation

      and postoperative care - After acute rupture, mortality rate of emergent operation is 45-50% - Endovascular repair with stent placement is an alternative approach for ruptured aneurysms and may have a lower mortality rate

    2. four

      Sure! Here's a revised version with detailed subheadings:

      The Four Major Acute Aortic Syndromes

      1. Aortic Rupture
      2. Aortic rupture involves a complete tear in the aortic wall, resulting in immediate and severe internal bleeding.

      3. Aortic Dissection

      4. Aortic dissection occurs due to a tear in the intima of the aorta, leading to the formation of a false lumen and separation of the aortic wall layers.
      5. Common sites of occurrence include the right lateral wall of the ascending aorta and the descending thoracic aorta below the ligamentum arteriosum.
      6. The dissection is initiated by either a primary intimal tear with secondary dissection into the media or a medial hemorrhage that dissects along the elastic lamellar plates of the aorta.
      7. Aortic dissection usually propagates distally down the descending aorta and into its major branches, but it can also propagate proximally.
      8. Distal propagation may be limited by atherosclerotic plaque, and in some cases, a secondary distal intimal disruption occurs, resulting in the reentry of blood from the false to the true lumen.
      9. There are two important pathologic and radiologic variants of aortic dissection: intramural hematoma without an intimal flap and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer.

      10. Intramural Hematoma

      11. Intramural hematoma is characterized by bleeding into the wall of the aorta without the presence of an intimal tear.
      12. It often occurs in the descending thoracic aorta and can progress to aortic dissection and rupture.
      13. Acute intramural hematomas may result from rupture of the vasa vasorum with hemorrhage into the wall of the aorta.

      14. Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer

      15. Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcers are caused by erosion of a plaque into the aortic media.
      16. They are usually localized and not associated with extensive propagation, commonly found in the middle and distal portions of the descending thoracic aorta.
      17. The ulcer can erode beyond the internal elastic lamina, leading to medial hematoma, and may progress to false aneurysm formation or rupture.

      Classification of Aortic Dissections

      • DeBakey Classification:
      • Type I dissection: Intimal tear occurs in the ascending aorta and can propagate to the aortic arch, descending thoracic aorta, and abdominal aorta.
      • Type II dissection: Dissection is limited to the ascending aorta.
      • Type III dissection: Intimal tear is located in the descending aorta with distal propagation of the dissection.

      • Stanford Classification:

      • Type A dissections: Involve the ascending aorta independent of the site of tear and may extend distally.
      • Type B dissections: Involve the transverse and/or descending aorta without involvement of the ascending aorta.

      Factors Predisposing to Aortic Dissection

      • Medial degeneration-associated factors
      • Factors increasing aortic wall stress
      • Systemic hypertension
      • Marfan's syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
      • Inflammatory aortitis (e.g., Takayasu's arteritis, giant cell arteritis)
      • Congenital aortic valve anomalies (e.g., bicuspid valve)
      • Coarctation of the aorta
      • History of aortic trauma
      • Third trimester of pregnancy
      • Weight lifting, cocaine use, or deceleration injury

      Clinical Manifestations of Aortic Dissection

      • Peak incidence: Sixth and

      seventh decades of life - Sudden onset of severe chest, back, or abdominal pain - Neurologic symptoms (e.g., stroke, paraplegia) can occur due to involvement of the carotid or vertebral arteries or from spinal cord ischemia. - Vascular complications: - Aortic regurgitation from involvement of the aortic valve - Myocardial ischemia or infarction from involvement of the coronary arteries - End-organ ischemia from involvement of visceral or peripheral arteries

      Diagnosis and Imaging

      • Imaging modalities:
      • CT angiography: High sensitivity and specificity, widely used as the initial imaging modality.
      • Magnetic resonance angiography: Useful for patients with contrast allergy or renal insufficiency.
      • Transesophageal echocardiography: Provides valuable information in the operating room or intensive care unit.
      • Aortography: Reserved for patients in whom other imaging modalities are contraindicated or if surgical intervention is being considered.

      Management and Treatment

      • Medical management:
      • Blood pressure control: Beta blockers and vasodilators are used to reduce aortic wall stress.
      • Pain control: Intravenous opioids are given for pain relief.
      • Surgical intervention:
        • Indications: Ascending aorta involvement, complications (e.g., aortic rupture, malperfusion), Marfan syndrome, and pregnancy.
        • Surgical options: Ascending aortic replacement with or without aortic valve replacement, aortic root repair, or total arch replacement.
      • Endovascular therapy: Reserved for patients who are not surgical candidates or have complicated type B dissections.

      Prognosis and Complications

      • Mortality rates are high without appropriate management.
      • Complications: Aortic rupture, cardiac tamponade, acute aortic regurgitation, myocardial infarction, stroke, mesenteric or limb ischemia, renal failure, paraplegia.

      Syndrome Description Treatment Aortic Rupture Complete tear in the aortic wall leading to immediate and severe internal bleeding<br /> Immediate surgical intervention to repair rupture

      Aortic Dissection <br /> Tear in the intima of the aorta resulting in the formation of a false lumen and separation of layers <br /> - Medical therapy to reduce blood pressure and shear stress<br> - Surgical repair for type A dissections<br> - Endovascular repair or medical therapy for type B dissections Intramural Hematoma Bleeding into the wall of the aorta without an intimal tear, potentially progressing to dissection<br /> - Medical therapy to reduce blood pressure and shear stress<br> - Surgical intervention for complications or progression to dissection Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer <br /> Erosion of a plaque into the aortic media, leading to ulceration and possible aneurysm formation <br /> - Medical therapy to reduce blood pressure and shear stress<br> - Surgical intervention for complications, aneurysm formation, or rupture

    4. Emergent

      Here is the information you provided formatted as a table:

      | Syndrome | Preferred Treatment | In-Hospital Mortality Rate | |------------------------|------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|----------------------------| | Acute Ascending Aortic Dissection (Type A) and Intramural Hematoma (Type A) | Emergent or urgent surgical correction<br>- Excision of intimal flap<br>- Obliteration of false lumen<br>- Placement of interposition graft<br>- Aortic valve repair or composite valve-graft conduit if valve disrupted | 15-25% | | Complicated Type B Aortic Dissection | Thoracic endovascular aortic repair with endoluminal stent graft<br>- Fenestration of intimal flaps<br>- Stenting of narrowed branch vessels | | | Uncomplicated and Stable Distal Dissection and Intramural Hematoma (Type B) | Medical therapy<br>- Control of hypertension<br>- Reduction of cardiac contractility with β-adrenergic blockers<br>- Use of ACE inhibitors or calcium antagonists | 12% |

      Please note that the "In-Hospital Mortality Rate" for complicated Type B Aortic Dissection is not provided in the information you provided.

    5. The

      The Aorta - Conduit through which blood ejected from the left ventricle is delivered to the systemic arterial bed. - Diameter: ~3 cm at the origin and ascending portion, 2.5 cm in the descending portion (thorax), 1.8-2 cm in the abdomen. - Wall structure: thin intima, thick tunica media, adventitia. - Viscoelastic and compliant properties serve as a buffering function. - Distends during systole to store a portion of stroke volume and elastic energy, recoils during diastole for continuous blood flow. - Prone to injury and disease due to exposure to high pulsatile pressure and shear stress. - More prone to rupture, especially with aneurysmal dilation, due to increased wall tension (Laplace's law).

      Congenital Anomalies of the Aorta - Typically involve the aortic arch and its branches. - Symptoms may include dysphagia, stridor, and cough if there is compression of the esophagus or trachea. - Anomalies associated with symptoms: double aortic arch, right subclavian artery originating distal to the left subclavian artery, right-sided aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery. - Kommerell's diverticulum is an anatomic remnant of a right aortic arch. - Most congenital anomalies of the aorta are asymptomatic and detected during catheter-based procedures. - Diagnosis confirmed by computed tomographic (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. - Symptomatic anomalies treated with surgery.

      Coarctation of the Aorta - Typically occurs near the insertion of the ligamentum arteriosum, adjacent to the left subclavian artery. - May be associated with a bicuspid aortic valve, aortic arch hypoplasia, other congenital heart defects, and intracranial aneurysms. - Pulse delay or pressure differential between upper and lower extremities raises suspicion of aortic coarctation. - Diagnosis confirmed by echocardiography, CT, or MR angiography. - Untreated coarctation leads to hypertension in arteries proximal to the coarctation. - Treatment options: endovascular stent implantation if feasible or surgical repair for hemodynamically significant coarctation.

    1. quest

      Certainly! Here's a revised breakdown with detailed points:

      Prolonged Assisted Circulation

      • Continuous flow left ventricular assist systems (LVAS) aim to provide prolonged and durable mechanical circulatory support.
      • LVAS devices were initially designed as a short-term bridge to recovery or cardiac transplantation but are now commonly used as "destination therapy" for lifetime support.
      • In some cases, LVAS devices are used as a "bridge to decision" for patients with potentially reversible contraindications who may become future candidates for transplantation.

      Left Ventricular Assist Systems and Clinical Trials

      • The REMATCH trial (2001) demonstrated improved survival in transplant-ineligible heart failure patients using early-generation pulsatile flow LVAS.
      • Continuous flow systems with small turbo-pumps, minimal moving parts, and no valves were introduced for greater durability and wider adoption.
      • Comparative trials have shown that newer-generation continuous flow LVAS, such as the HeartMate II, HeartWare HVAD, and HeartMate 3, provide marked improvements in survival, functional capacity, and quality of life.

      Management of LVAS and Their Complications

      • Blood pressure management is crucial for maintaining forward flow in LVAS. Target mean arterial blood pressure is ≤90 mmHg, achieved through renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system drugs or vasodilators.
      • Increased shear stress in LVAS can cause low-grade hemolysis and acquired von Willebrand disease, leading to anemia and gastrointestinal bleeding. Anemia is often associated with iron deficiency.
      • LVAS can lead to right ventricular dysfunction and congestion due to increased right heart preload. Diuretic therapy is used to manage congestion.
      • Cardiac arrhythmias are common in LVAS patients and may require antiarrhythmic therapy to prevent low flow through the device.
      • Hemocompatibility-related adverse outcomes include strokes, device-related thrombosis, and bleeding complications.
      • Antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and warfarin (targeted to international normalized ratio of 2-3) is used to balance thrombotic and bleeding risks.
      • Stroke frequency varies depending on the LVAS device, ranging from 10% with the HeartMate 3 to as high as 29% with the HeartWare HVAD within 2 years of treatment.
      • Pump thrombosis is more commonly encountered with older LVAS devices and occurs early (within the first 6 months). Lactate dehydrogenase levels are used as a biomarker for pump thrombosis.
      • Infections, particularly involving the driveline, are common complications following LVAS implantation (approximately 1 in 5 patients). Treatment involves local exploration and long-term suppressive antibiotics.
      • Infections increase the risk of thrombosis and neurologic complications, further impacting the hemocompatibility of the LVAS.

      Please note that this revised breakdown includes more detailed points to provide a comprehensive understanding of prolonged assisted circulation, LVAS systems, and their management.


      Here is the information presented in a pointwise manner and organized into a table:

      | Left Ventricular Assist Systems and Clinical Trials | |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------| | REMATCH Trial (2001) | | - First study to demonstrate improved survival in transplant-ineligible, refractory heart failure patients with LVAS implantation. | | - Used early generation pulsatile flow LVAS. | | - Showed a 48% reduction in risk of death. | | - Limited durability with median "out of hospital" survival prolonged by only 5 months. | | - Complications of strokes, multisystem organ failure, and infections reduced enthusiasm for widespread adoption. | | Comparison Trials | | - Compared older bulky pulsatile LVAS with newer generation axial continuous flow LVAS (HeartMate II). | | - Marked improvement in short- and long-term survival, functional capacity, and quality of life with HeartMate II. | | - Introduced centrifugal continuous flow LVAS (HeartWare HVAD), demonstrated noninferiority to HeartMate II. | | - Most commonly used pump is the centrifugal device with fully magnetically levitated system (HeartMate 3). | | - HeartMate 3 nearly eliminates pump thrombosis, reduces stroke rates, and decreases bleeding complications. | | - Registry analyses show median survival of >50% at 4 years with current LVAS. | | Patient Selection | | - LVAS should ideally be employed for patients with severe persistent systolic heart failure symptoms unresponsive to medical management. | | - Common indicators include marked functional limitation (peak oxygen consumption <12 mL/kg per min), continuous IV inotropic therapy, | | symptomatic hypotension, worsening renal function, or persistent refractory congestion. | | - Role of LVAS in "less sick" patients (moderate symptoms) is less supported due to adverse risk-benefit ratio and need for external driveline.|

      Please note that the table provides a concise summary of the information you provided.

    1. approach

      Here are the notes and a flowchart for the approach to PAH treatment:

      Approach to PAH Treatment:

      1. Goal: Achieve a low clinical risk profile (1-year mortality risk <5%).
      2. Minimal symptoms
      3. WHO Functional Class I or II
      4. 6-minute walk distance (6-MWD) >440 m
      5. Cardiac index ≥2.5 L/min per m2

      6. Treatment Components:

      7. Risk factor modification (e.g., low-sodium diet)
      8. Diuretic use
      9. Supplemental oxygen
      10. Prescription (or supervised) exercise

      11. Combination Pharmacotherapy:

      12. Most patients will require two or more PAH pharmacotherapies.
      13. Targeting diverse pathobiologic and pathophysiologic events involved in vascular remodeling.
      14. Modeled after successful combination therapy in other complex diseases (HIV, cancer, heart failure).

      15. Landmark Trial: Initial Use of Ambrisentan plus Tadalafil in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (AMBITION):

      16. Treatment-naïve PAH patients randomized to: a) Combination of ambrisentan and tadalafil b) Ambrisentan monotherapy c) Tadalafil monotherapy
      17. Up-front combination therapy associated with a 50% lower risk of clinical worsening compared to monotherapy.
      18. Delay in time to first hospitalization.
      19. No significant increase in adverse events.

      Flowchart for Treatment of PAH:

      1. Vasoreactivity Testing:
      2. Conducted at the time of right heart catheterization.
      3. Positive vasoreactivity test: Acute and robust vasodilatory response.
        • High-dose oral calcium channel blocker therapy is initiated.
        • Favorable prognosis (minority of PAH patients).
      4. Negative vasoreactivity test:

        • Proceed to treatment selection based on clinical risk.
      5. High-Risk Patients:

      6. Advanced heart failure or syncope.
      7. Combination drug therapy, including intravenous prostacyclin therapy.

      8. Low- or Intermediate-Risk Patients:

      9. Initiate combination oral therapy:

        • Endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA) + phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE-5i).
      10. Add-On Therapy (Triple Therapy):

      11. Consider in patients who deteriorate clinically or fail to improve.

      12. Surgical Strategies:

      13. Lung transplantation or other surgical options considered in severe PAH refractory to maximal medical treatment.

      Note: The flowchart illustrates the treatment strategy for newly diagnosed PAH patients, incorporating vasoreactivity testing, risk assessment, and the sequential addition of therapies based on patient response and clinical risk.

      Please note that the flowchart is a simplified representation, and the specific treatment decisions should be made in consultation with healthcare professionals based on individual patient characteristics and available treatment options.

    2. availability


      Introduction: - Prior to the availability of disease-specific therapy, the 1- and 3-year mortality rates for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) or hereditary PAH were high. - In the current era, there are 14 FDA-approved medical therapies for PAH, and standardized treatment strategies have been developed. - Early, aggressive pharmacotherapy is emphasized, initiated at a PH specialty clinical center. - Among optimally treated patients, the 1- and 3-year survival rates have significantly improved.

      Prostanoids: - In PAH, there is an imbalance of arachidonic acid metabolites, resulting in reduced prostacyclin levels and increased thromboxane A2 production. - Prostacyclin (PGI2) activates cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent pathways, mediating vasodilation, antiproliferative effects on vascular smooth muscle, and inhibition of platelet aggregation. - Prostacyclin can be administered exogenously as epoprostenol, which is delivered via continuous intravenous infusion, improving functional capacity and survival in PAH. - Treprostinil has a longer half-life than epoprostenol, allowing for subcutaneous administration, and has shown efficacy in improving pulmonary hemodynamics, symptoms, exercise capacity, and survival. - Inhaled prostacyclin therapies, such as iloprost and treprostinil, provide benefits similar to infused prostacyclin therapy without the need for infusion catheters. - Oral prostacyclin has shown efficacy in clinical trials but is generally reserved as a second-line therapy. - Selexipag is an oral nonprostanoid that binds the prostaglandin I2 (IP) receptor, reducing the risk of hospitalization and disease progression in PAH patients.

      Endothelin Receptor Antagonists (ERAs): - ERAs inhibit the detrimental effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a vasoconstrictor and vascular smooth muscle mitogen. - The three ERAs approved for use in the United States are bosentan, macitentan, and ambrisentan. - Bosentan has shown improved symptoms, exercise capacity, and WHO functional class in PAH patients. - Ambrisentan has demonstrated improvements in exercise tolerance, WHO functional class, hemodynamics, and quality of life. - Macitentan, an ETA/B antagonist, reduced the risk of PAH-related clinical worsening and showed efficacy in patients receiving background PAH therapy.

      Nitric Oxide Pathway Effectors: - Nitric oxide (NO•) is generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase and activates soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) to generate cGMP, inducing vasodilation and inhibiting platelet activation. - Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, such as sildenafil and tadalafil, prevent the hydrolysis of cGMP, maximizing NO•-dependent vasodilation. - PDE-5 inhibitors have shown improvements in hemodynamics and exercise capacity in PAH patients. - Riociguat increases bioactive cGMP by stabilizing the interaction between NO• and sGC and directly stimulating sGC, independent of NO• availability. - Riociguat has significantly improved exercise capacity, pulmonary hemodynamics, WHO functional class, and time to clinical worsening in PAH patients. It is also approved for CTEPH patients who are ineligible for or have an ineffective surgical pulmonary endarterectomy.

      These notes provide an overview of the pharmacologic treatment options for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). It's important to consult with healthcare professionals for specific

      treatment recommendations and to stay informed about the latest research and guidelines in the field.

    3. clinical

      Certainly! Here are additional details and points for each classification of pulmonary hypertension:

      Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH): - Idiopathic PAH (IPAH) is characterized by sustained elevation in resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) >20 mmHg, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) ≥3.0 Wood units (WU), and pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) or left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) of ≤15 mmHg. - Heritable PAH (HPAH) refers to cases with a known genetic mutation associated with PAH, such as BMPR2 mutations. - Drug and toxin-induced PAH can occur as a side effect of certain medications (e.g., appetite suppressants) or exposure to toxins (e.g., anorexigens, rapeseed oil). - Connective tissue disease-associated PAH commonly occurs in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) and less frequently in other connective tissue diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. - Congenital heart disease-associated PAH occurs in patients with congenital heart defects and can be further classified into specific groups based on the type of defect and associated shunts. - Portal hypertension-associated PAH is observed in individuals with liver disease, including those with cirrhosis, and can occur independently of the cause of liver disease. - HIV-PAH is a subtype of PAH that occurs in individuals infected with HIV, and there is no direct correlation between the stage of HIV infection and the development of PAH. - Other less common forms of associated PAH include those associated with schistosomiasis (parasitic infection) and various drugs/toxins.

      PH due to Left Heart Disease: - PH due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction occurs in patients with impaired left ventricular function, typically as a result of systolic heart failure. - Valvular heart disease, such as mitral stenosis or regurgitation, can lead to increased pulmonary arterial pressure due to elevated left atrial pressure. - Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is characterized by elevated left atrial pressure and diastolic dysfunction, which can result in pulmonary venous hypertension and subsequent PH.

      PH due to Chronic Lung Disease and Hypoxia: - Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common cause of PH, with elevated pulmonary arterial pressure observed in a significant number of patients. - Interstitial lung disease, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, can lead to PH as a consequence of fibrotic changes in the lung tissue. - Mixed obstructive/restrictive lung disease, such as bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis, and fibrotic lung disease, can also contribute to the development of PH. - Sleep-disordered breathing, including conditions like obstructive sleep apnea, is associated with mild PH.

      Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension (CTEPH): - CTEPH occurs as a result of chronic thromboembolic obstruction of the pulmonary arteries, typically following a history of pulmonary embolism. - The development of CTEPH can also occur without a known history of clinical venous thromboembolism, suggesting the involvement of subclinical or diverse mechanisms. - The obstruction of proximal pulmonary vasculature and remodeling of distal pulmonary arterioles contribute to the pathophysiology of CTEPH. - Surgical pulmonary endarterectomy is a curative treatment option for many patients with CTEPH.

      PH with Unclear Multifactorial Mechanisms: - Some cases of PH cannot be clearly classified into the aforementioned categories and may have multifactorial causes. -

      Hematologic disorders, such as myeloproliferative disorders (e.g., polycythemia vera), can be associated with PH due to increased blood viscosity and thrombosis. - Systemic disorders like sarcoidosis (granulomatous inflammation) and vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels) can involve the pulmonary vasculature and lead to PH. - Metabolic disorders, including glycogen storage diseases (e.g., Gaucher disease), may have associated pulmonary involvement contributing to PH. - Other less common causes of PH include chronic kidney disease, thyroid disorders, metabolic syndrome, and more.

      It's important to consult with medical professionals and refer to the latest guidelines for accurate diagnosis, classification, and management of pulmonary hypertension.

    4. diagnosis


      I. Introduction - Difficulty in diagnosing pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to nonspecific symptoms and overlapping with other conditions - Importance of recognizing PH as a specific clinical entity

      II. Clinical Presentation - Most common symptoms: dyspnea and fatigue - Less common symptoms: edema, chest pain, presyncope, and syncope (indicative of advanced disease) - Physical examination findings in advanced disease: - Elevated jugular venous pressure, lower extremity edema, and ascites - Accentuated P2 component of the second heart sound, right-sided S3 or S4, holosystolic tricuspid regurgitant murmur - Signs of concurrent diseases: clubbing, sclerodactyly, telangiectasia, crackles, systemic hypertension

      III. Diagnostic Clinical Evaluation - Systematic approach to diagnosis and assessment is essential - Initial screening test: echocardiography with agitated saline (bubble) study - Findings supporting PH diagnosis: elevated estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy/dilation - Additional information on specific etiologies of PH can be obtained - Echocardiogram findings: - Normal echocardiogram may exclude further PH evaluation - Absence of tricuspid regurgitation requires additional assessment - Functional capacity assessment: - 6-minute walk distance (6-MWD) assessment for quantifying disease burden and prognosis - Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to differentiate cardiac and pulmonary causes of dyspnea and assess prognosis - Invasive hemodynamic monitoring with right heart catheterization (RHC) as the gold standard for diagnosis and severity assessment - RHC data interpretation optimized with information from diagnostic tests supporting the clinical context

      IV. Stepwise Approach to Diagnosing PH - Individualized approach based on patient's clinical and risk factor profile - Pulmonary function and lung imaging: - Pulmonary function testing for restrictive or obstructive lung diseases - High-resolution computed tomography (CT) for information on pulmonary and right heart enlargement, vessel pruning, signs of venous congestion - Sleep studies: - Nocturnal oximetry screening for desaturation, regardless of sleep-disordered breathing symptoms - Assessment of pulmonary arterial thrombosis: - Ventilation-perfusion (V̇/Q̇) scanning for screening and diagnosing chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) - CT angiography for staging thromboembolic burden and determining operative candidacy - Pulmonary angiography for definitive diagnosis of CTEPH - Serology: - Screening tests for HIV, antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, anti-Scl-70 antibodies, liver function, hepatitis - Consider methamphetamine screening - Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and NT-proBNP as biomarkers for assessing right ventricular function and treatment response - Invasive cardiopulmonary hemodynamics: - RHC as gold standard for PH diagnosis and guiding medical therapy - Hemodynamic criteria for PH diagnosis and classification: - mPAP > 20 mmHg, PAWP (or LVEDP) ≤ 15 mmHg or > 15 mmHg for distinguishing precapillary and postcapillary PH - PVR ≥ 3.0 Wood units (WU) for isolated precapillary PH - PVR < 3.0 WU for isolated postcapillary PH - Combined pre- and postcapillary

      PH: elevated mPAP, PVR ≥ 3.0 WU, PAWP > 15 mmHg - Vasoreactivity testing for idiopathic or hereditary PAH

      Note: It would be helpful to present the information in a table format for easier reference.

    5. Pulmonary

      . Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) Overview

      PH involves pathogenic remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature, leading to increased pulmonary artery pressure and vascular resistance. Common causes of PH are left heart or primary lung disease, and it can also occur as a late complication of luminal pulmonary embolism. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a distinct subtype of PH characterized by molecular and genetic events that cause obliterative arteriopathy, along with symptoms like dyspnea, chest pain, and syncope. Untreated PH has a high mortality rate, mainly due to decompensated right heart failure. 2. Advances in Understanding and Classification

      The mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) used to diagnose PH has been lowered from ≥25 mmHg to >20 mmHg for earlier detection. Delay in PH diagnosis, which can be up to 2 years, has significant implications for quality of life and life span. Clinicians should recognize PH signs and symptoms, conduct a systematic evaluation in at-risk patients, and achieve prompt diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and optimized patient outcomes. 3. Pathobiology of PAH

      Apoptosis resistance, cell proliferation, dysregulated metabolism, and increased oxidant stress contribute to the pathogenesis of PAH. These events cause hypertrophic, fibrotic, and plexogenic remodeling of distal pulmonary arterioles, leading to decreased vascular compliance and promoting in situ thrombosis. Abnormalities in molecular pathways and genes regulating pulmonary vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells have been identified (Table 283-1). Thrombin deposition in the pulmonary vasculature, resulting from endothelial dysfunction or as an independent abnormality, may amplify the obliterative arteriopathy. 4. Pathophysiology of PAH

      Progressive changes in pulmonary arterial compliance in PAH lead to an increase in total pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP). Elevated right ventricular afterload necessitates increased right ventricular work to maintain cardiac output (CO). Prolonged increase in right ventricular work affects the efficiency of right ventricular systolic function, depleting myocardial energy. These changes compromise blood perfusion through the alveolar-capillary interface and lead to right ventricular-pulmonary arterial uncoupling. In end-stage PAH, there is a decline in CO, decrease in mPAP, and frequent extrapulmonary vascular manifestations. These pointwise notes provide a detailed breakdown of the information, covering the overview of PH, advances in understanding and classification, pathobiology of PAH, and the pathophysiological changes associated with PAH. The subheadings help to organize the information and highlight the key aspects of each section.

    1. Interventions

      Interventions for managing massive or life-threatening hemoptysis can be detailed as follows:

      1. Protecting the airway and nonbleeding lung:
      2. Priority is given to protecting the airway and preventing asphyxiation.
      3. Position the patient with the bleeding side down to utilize gravitational advantage and keep blood out of the nonbleeding lung.
      4. Avoid endotracheal intubation unless necessary, as suctioning through an endotracheal tube is less effective than the natural cough reflex.
      5. If intubation is required, take steps to protect the nonbleeding lung:

        • Selective intubation of one lung (nonbleeding lung).
        • Insertion of a double-lumen endotracheal tube.
      6. Locating the bleeding site:

      7. Chest radiograph can provide clues by showing new opacities, helping to localize the side or site of bleeding.
      8. CT angiography can aid in localizing active extravasation.
      9. Flexible bronchoscopy may be used to identify the side of bleeding, although it has a 50% chance of locating the site.
      10. Bronchoscopy is not recommended in certain cases (e.g., cystic fibrosis) as it may delay definitive management.
      11. Angiography can be considered as a direct approach, providing both diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities.

      12. Controlling the bleeding:

      13. Three approaches can be used: from the airway lumen, from the involved blood vessel, or by surgical resection of both the airway and vessel.
      14. Bronchoscopic measures are usually temporary:
        • Flexible bronchoscope can be used to suction clot and insert a balloon catheter or bronchial blocker to occlude the involved airway.
        • Rigid bronchoscopy, performed by an interventional pulmonologist or thoracic surgeon, allows therapeutic interventions such as photocoagulation and cautery for bleeding airway lesions.
      15. Bronchial artery embolization is the preferred procedure for controlling bleeding, as most life-threatening cases arise from the bronchial circulation:
        • Bronchial artery embolization has a >80% success rate in immediately controlling bleeding but may have complications like embolization of the anterior spinal artery.
        • Recurrence of bleeding can occur if the underlying disease is not treated.
      16. Surgical resection is considered when initial measures fail and bleeding persists:
        • Surgical resection has a high mortality rate (15-40%) and should only be pursued in ideal candidates with localized disease and otherwise normal lung parenchyma.

      Note: The interventions mentioned above should be performed by qualified healthcare professionals and individualized based on the patient's specific condition and available resources.

    2. Hemoptysis

      Apologies for any missing information earlier. Here's a revised version with more details:

      I. Anatomy and Physiology of Hemoptysis A. Location of Bleeding 1. Hemoptysis originates in the respiratory tract from the glottis to the alveoli. 2. The most common source of bleeding is the bronchi or medium-sized airways. B. Dual Blood Supply of the Lungs 1. The lungs receive blood supply from two sources: pulmonary circulation and bronchial circulation. 2. Pulmonary circulation is a low-pressure system responsible for gas exchange. 3. Bronchial circulation is a higher-pressure system that supplies blood to the airways. C. Importance of Bronchial Circulation 1. The majority of hemoptysis cases stem from the bronchial circulation. 2. Bleeding from this higher-pressure system makes it challenging to control and manage.

      II. Etiology of Hemoptysis A. Infections 1. Viral bronchitis is a common cause of blood-tinged sputum. 2. Bacterial superinfection can occur in individuals with chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis. 3. Tuberculosis can lead to hemoptysis, particularly in cases of cavitary disease or erosion of pulmonary artery aneurysms. 4. Fungal infections, such as those caused by Aspergillus species, Nocardia, or nontuberculous mycobacteria, can result in hemoptysis. 5. Paragonimiasis, an infection caused by a lung fluke, is endemic in Southeast Asia and China and can cause hemoptysis. B. Vascular Causes 1. Cardiac diseases, pulmonary embolism, and arteriovenous malformations can contribute to hemoptysis. 2. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a condition associated with bleeding into the alveoli but is not commonly linked to hemoptysis. C. Malignancy 1. Bronchogenic carcinoma is a primary cause of hemoptysis. 2. Carcinoid tumors, often involving the proximal airways, can lead to hemoptysis. 3. Pulmonary metastases originating from distant tumors can cause hemoptysis. 4. Kaposi's sarcoma, commonly associated with advanced AIDS, may result in hemoptysis. D. Mechanical and Other Causes 1. Pulmonary endometriosis can lead to catamenial hemoptysis. 2. Foreign body aspiration can cause hemoptysis. 3. Procedures such as pulmonary vein stenosis or pulmonary artery rupture can result in hemoptysis. 4. Hemoptysis may also occur in individuals with thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, or those on anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy.

      III. Evaluation and Management A. History 1. Assess the amount and severity of bleeding in order to determine the urgency of the situation. 2. Life-threatening hemoptysis is defined as bleeding exceeding 400 mL in 24 hours or 100–150 mL at one time. 3. Common causes of non-life-threatening hemoptysis include viral bronchitis, bronchiectasis, and malignancy. B. Physical Examination 1. Check vital signs and evaluate for signs of hemodynamic instability. 2. Examine the nasal and oral cavities for potential sources of bleeding. 3. Auscultate the lungs and

      assess for abnormal breath sounds. C. Diagnostic Workup 1. Chest X-ray can help identify potential causes of hemoptysis. 2. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest provides detailed imaging and helps identify underlying lung pathology. 3. Bronchoscopy is essential for visualizing the airways, obtaining biopsies, and potentially controlling bleeding. 4. Laboratory tests, including complete blood count, coagulation profile, sputum culture, and cytology, can aid in diagnosing the underlying cause. D. Management of Life-Threatening Hemoptysis 1. Secure the airway and administer supplemental oxygen. 2. Establish intravenous access and initiate large-bore intravenous lines. 3. Consult interventional radiology for potential embolization of bleeding vessels. 4. Surgical intervention, such as bronchial artery ligation or resection, may be necessary in severe cases. E. Management of Non-Life-Threatening Hemoptysis 1. Treat the underlying cause with appropriate interventions (e.g., antibiotics for infections, bronchodilators for bronchial conditions, antifungals for fungal infections). 2. Provide supportive care, including hydration and cough suppression. 3. Monitor the patient for resolution or progression of symptoms.

      Note: This information serves as a general overview and should not substitute professional medical advice.

    1. SYMPTOM

      I. Empiric Treatment of Chronic Idiopathic Cough: A. Inhaled corticosteroids B. Inhaled anticholinergic bronchodilators C. Macrolide antibiotics

      II. Narcotic Cough Suppressants: A. Codeine B. Hydrocodone C. Morphine D. Limitations and side effects 1. Drowsiness 2. Constipation 3. Potential for addictive dependence

      III. Dextromethorphan: A. Over-the-counter centrally acting cough suppressant B. Fewer side effects compared to narcotic cough suppressants C. Less efficacy than narcotic cough suppressants D. Can be used in combination with narcotic cough suppressants if necessary E. Different site of action in the brainstem

      IV. Benzonatate: A. Inhibition of neural activity of sensory nerves in the cough-reflex pathway B. Generally well-tolerated with minimal side effects C. Variable and unpredictable effectiveness in suppressing cough

      V. Inhaled Lidocaine: A. Inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels B. Provides transient cough suppression C. Risk of oropharyngeal anesthesia and aspiration

      VI. Treatment Approaches for Cough Hypersensitivity Syndrome: A. Off-label use of gabapentin B. Off-label use of pregabalin C. Off-label use of amitriptyline D. Potential benefits from small case series and randomized clinical trials

      VII. Behavioral Modification Techniques: A. Specialized speech therapy techniques B. Promising results in recent studies C. Practical limitations for widespread application

      VIII. Novel Cough Suppressants: A. Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists B. Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel antagonists C. P2X3 channel antagonist (gefapixant) D. Novel opioid and opioid-like receptor agonists

    2. Cough

      Subheadings for the explanation of the cough mechanism:

      1. Initiating the Cough Reflex
      2. Chemical and mechanical stimuli as triggers
      3. Sensory neuronal receptors (cationic and ATP-activated channels)
      4. Transmission of signals via Aδ and C fibers
      5. Innervation of pharynx, larynx, airways, and other areas

      6. Processing of Sensory Signals

      7. Travel of sensory signals via vagus and superior laryngeal nerves
      8. Brainstem region involved: nucleus tractus solitarius
      9. Integration of input leading to the "urge to cough"

      10. Efferent Limb of the Cough Reflex

      11. Involuntary muscular actions during cough
      12. Potential input from cortical pathways for voluntary cough
      13. Contraction of vocal cords and upper-airway occlusion
      14. Generation of high intrathoracic pressures
      15. Rapid release of laryngeal contraction and expiratory flows
      16. Contraction of bronchial smooth muscles and dynamic airway compression

      17. Importance of Expiratory Flow in Cough

      18. Exceeding the normal maximal expiratory flow
      19. Narrowing of airway lumens and maximizing velocity
      20. Dislodging mucus from airway walls using expiratory airflow velocity

      21. Optimization of Cough Function

      22. Deep breath preceding a cough for expiratory muscle function
      23. Repetitive coughs at successively lower lung volumes

      Subheadings for Impaired Cough:

      1. Causes of Impaired Cough
      2. Weakness or paralysis of expiratory muscles
      3. Chest wall or abdominal pain
      4. Examples of impaired cough causes Respiratory muscle weakness Chest wall or abdominal pain Chest wall deformity (e.g., severe kyphoscoliosis) Impaired glottic closure or tracheostomy Central respiratory depression (e.g., anesthesia, sedation, or neurologic disease) Abnormal airway secretions Ciliary dysfunction Tracheobronchomalacia Bronchiectasis Tracheal or bronchial stenoses
      5. Assessment of Cough Strength
      6. Qualitative assessment of cough strength
      7. Surrogate markers for cough strength

      8. Improving Cough Efficacy

      9. Assistive devices and techniques for improved cough
      10. Range from simple methods to complex mechanical devices
      11. Failure to clear secretions despite normal expiratory velocities

      Subheadings for Symptomatic Cough:

      1. Cough in the Context of Other Respiratory Symptoms
      2. Cough accompanied by wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness
      3. Suggestive of asthma or allergen exposure

      4. Duration of Cough and Etiology

      5. Acute cough (<3 weeks) and common causes
      6. Subacute cough (3-8 weeks) and tracheobronchitis
      7. Chronic cough (>8 weeks) and various diseases
      8. Identifiable causes of chronic cough

      9. Chronic Cough Hypersensitivity Syndrome

      10. Increased frequency and neurologic signaling
      11. Chronic cough without identifiable etiology

      Assessment of Chronic Cough:

      1. Historical Questions
      2. Circumstances surrounding cough onset
      3. Factors improving or worsening the cough
      4. Production of sputum by the cough

      5. Physical Examination

      6. Clues suggesting cardiopulmonary disease
      7. Examination of auditory canals, nasal passageways, nails
      8. Importance of a thorough general examination

      9. Chest Radiograph and Further Evaluation

      10. Chest radiograph as a necessary evaluation step
      11. Persistent cough without other symptoms or abnormalities
      12. Associated diseases and abnormal chest findings
      13. Examination of expectorated sputum for mucus hypersecretion

      14. Special Considerations

      15. Purulent-appearing sputum and bacterial/mycobacterial culture
      16. Cytologic examination of mucoid sputum for malignancy
      17. Blood in expectoration and its assessment and management
    1. GLOBIN

      Globin Gene Switching is a process of sequential activation and inactivation of globin genes during development. Here's how it works:

      1. Transcription factors along with epigenetic elements such as DNA methyltransferases and demethylases interact with enhancers "upstream" of the β-globin gene cluster that contact globin gene promoters.
      2. This process silences the embryonic and fetal genes.
      3. Activation of fetal globin gene repressors during development allows expression of the adult genes.
      4. Developmental factors such as RNA-binding factors and microRNAs also impact hemoglobin switching.

      β-Globin Gene Switching:

      1. An upstream super-enhancer called the β-globin locus control region (LCR) binds erythroid-specific and ubiquitous transcription factors.
      2. The LCR interacts directly with globin gene promoters.
      3. Transcription factors that silence and activate genes also interact with elements of the globin genes.
      4. Competition among the β-like genes for the LCR and autonomous silencing of the embryonic and fetal globin genes depends on transcription factors.
      5. Silencing, first of HBE and then of HBG2 and HBG1, favors the interaction of the LCR with HBB.
      6. When HBG2 or HBG1 is upregulated by rare point mutations in their promoters, expression of the linked HBB is downregulated.
      7. Deletions of the HBB promoter remove competition for the LCR, increasing the expression of HBG2, HBG1, and HBD.
      8. The transcription factors BCL11A and ZBTB7A silence the HbF genes.
      9. BCL11A binds to the HbF gene promoters, repressing them and silencing transcription; ZBTB7A binds upstream of BCL11A with similar repressive effects.
      10. Mutations in these binding sites abolish the normal silencing of the HbF genes, leading to hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH).
      11. Disruption of the BCL11A regulatory elements or the binding sites for BCL11A by gene editing is a prime therapeutic target for HbF induction.

      α-Globin Gene Switching:

      1. A less complex switch takes place in the α-globin gene cluster.
      2. A regulatory locus of four elements termed R1-R4 is present within introns of the gene NPRL3 that is upstream of HBA2.
      3. A developmental switch from embryonic ζ- to adult α-globin gene expression occurs at about 6 weeks’ gestation.

      Modulation of HbF Level:

      1. Variations in three quantitative trait loci (QTL), BCL11A, MYB, and a locus linked to the HBB cluster, account for a major portion of HbF variation among normal individuals and patients with sickle cell anemia and β thalassemia.
      2. BCL11A, a zinc finger protein that represses HbF genes, binds TGACCA motifs, the most important at position –115 in the promoter of each γ-globin gene.
      3. ZBTB7A binds 85 nucleotides upstream of these BCL11A binding sites; its binding also represses γ-globin gene transcription.
      4. When binding of either BCL11A or ZBTB7A is disrupted, silencing of HBG2 and HBG1 is abrogated.
      5. The MYB gene is essential for hematopoiesis and erythroid differentiation.
      6. MYB inhibits HbF expression directly by activation of KLF1 and other repressors and indirectly through alteration
    2. GLOBIN

      Here are the major points summarizing the text on globin gene clusters and hemoglobin:

      Globin Gene Clusters:

      • Globin is encoded in two nonallelic gene clusters: β-globin gene cluster on chromosome 11 and α-globin gene cluster on chromosome 16.
      • The β-globin gene cluster contains an embryonic ε-globin gene, two fetal γ-globin genes, a major adult β-globin gene, and a minor adult δ-globin gene.
      • The α-globin gene cluster contains an embryonic ζ-globin gene and duplicated α-globin genes with identical proteins.
      • Hemoglobin production begins with embryonic hemoglobins: Gower I, Gower II, Portland I, and Portland II.
      • Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) production starts at 6-8 weeks of gestation, peaks during mid-gestation, and falls to <1% of total hemoglobin during the first 6 months of extrauterine life.
      • Adult hemoglobin A (HbA) production follows a pattern reciprocal to that of HbF.
      • Hemoglobin composition of normal adults is >95% HbA, ~1% HbF, and 2-3% HbA2.
      • Hemoglobin is subject to posttranslational modifications, the most important being the nonenzymatic glycosylation of HbA forming the adduct HbA1c.

      Hemoglobin Structure:

      • All globin polypeptides have similar but not identical primary structures. α-Globins contain 141 amino acids, and β-like globins have 146 amino acids.
      • The primary structure dictates the secondary structure of globin into α-helical sections joined by small nonhelical stretches.
      • Each globin chain folds into a tertiary conformation known as the globin fold, where charged amino acid residues face the exterior of the molecules and uncharged residues face the hydrophobic interior.
      • The iron-containing tetrapyrrole heme moiety is protected from oxidation and located between two of the helical segments; O2 loading and unloading occur when heme iron is in its reduced ferrous form.
      • Globin gene mutations affecting critical heme-binding amino acid residues allow iron to be oxidized, forming methemoglobin, which has high O2 affinity and does not release O2 in tissues.
      • Dimers of α- and non-α-globin chains reversibly assemble into tetramers, forming a quaternary structure.

      Hemoglobin Function:

      • Hemoglobin transports O2 from lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide (CO2) from tissues to lungs.
      • Hemoglobin is a nitrate reductase that releases nitric oxide (NO) from nitrite to promote vasodilation.
      • Oxygen binding is defined by the sigmoidal shape of the hemoglobin-O2 dissociation curve.
      • The P50 is a point on this curve that indicates the partial pressure of O2 where hemoglobin is half saturated.
      • The P50 is influenced by the binding of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, pH, and temperature.
      • The conformation of hemoglobin fully saturated with O2 is known as the R or relaxed state; desaturated hemoglobin is in the T or tense state.
      • Hemoglobin variants that decrease P50 are characterized by isolated erythrocytosis as compensation for hypoxia.
      • Variants with increased P50 sometimes are accompanied by cyanosis and anemia as hemoglobin becomes unsaturated and O2 delivery is enhanced.
      • Mutations of residues critical for heme binding, R-T transitions, or tetramer stability cause hemoglobinopathies characterized by hemolytic anemia
    1. therapeutic

      Here are the detailed points based on the given text:

      • A therapeutic trial can be highly cost-effective when a specific diagnosis is suggested on the initial physician encounter.
      • Examples of conditions that may warrant a therapeutic trial include chronic watery diarrhea, bloating and diarrhea after a mountain backpacking trip, and postprandial diarrhea following the resection of the terminal ileum.
      • Persistent symptoms require additional investigation.
      • Additional focused evaluations may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis and characterize the severity or extent of disease so that treatment can be best guided.
      • Patients suspected of having irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) should be initially evaluated with flexible sigmoidoscopy with colorectal biopsies to exclude inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or microscopic colitis.
      • Patients with normal findings might be reassured and treated empirically with antispasmodics, antidiarrheals, or antidepressants.
      • Any patient who presents with chronic diarrhea and hematochezia should be evaluated with stool microbiologic studies and colonoscopy.
      • In about two-thirds of cases, the cause for chronic diarrhea remains unclear after the initial encounter, and further testing is required.
      • Quantitative stool collection and analyses can yield important objective data that may establish a diagnosis or characterize the type of diarrhea as a triage for focused additional studies.
      • Additional stool analyses should be performed if stool weight is >200 g/d, which might include electrolyte concentration, pH, occult blood testing, leukocyte inspection (or leukocyte protein assay), fat quantitation, and laxative screens.
      • For secretory diarrheas (watery, normal osmotic gap), possible medication-related side effects or surreptitious laxative use should be reconsidered.
      • Microbiologic studies should be done, including fecal bacterial cultures (including media for Aeromonas and Plesiomonas), inspection for ova and parasites, and Giardia antigen assay (the most sensitive test for giardiasis).
      • Small-bowel bacterial overgrowth can be excluded by intestinal aspirates with quantitative cultures or with glucose or lactulose breath tests.
      • Upper endoscopy and colonoscopy with biopsies and small-bowel x-rays are helpful to rule out structural or occult inflammatory disease.
      • When suggested by history or other findings, screens for peptide hormones should be pursued.
      • Further evaluation of osmotic diarrhea should include tests for lactose intolerance and magnesium ingestion, the two most common causes.
      • Low fecal pH suggests carbohydrate malabsorption.
      • If fecal magnesium or laxative levels are elevated, inadvertent or surreptitious ingestion should be considered and psychiatric help should be sought.
      • For those with proven fatty diarrhea, endoscopy with small-bowel biopsy should be performed.
      • If small-bowel studies are negative or if pancreatic disease is suspected, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency should be excluded with direct tests.
      • Chronic inflammatory-type diarrheas should be suspected by the presence of blood or leukocytes in the stool.
      • Stool cultures, inspection for ova and parasites, C. difficile toxin assay, colonoscopy with biopsies, and small-bowel imaging studies may be warranted for such cases.


      1. Take a careful history: Include onset, duration, pattern, aggravating factors (especially diet), relieving factors, and stool characteristics. Ask about the presence or absence of fecal incontinence, fever, weight loss, pain, exposures (travel, medications, contacts with diarrhea), and common extraintestinal manifestations (skin changes, arthralgias, oral aphthous ulcers). A family history of IBD or celiac disease may also be noted.

      2. Perform a physical examination: Look for clues such as a thyroid mass, wheezing, heart murmurs, edema, hepatomegaly, abdominal masses, lymphadenopathy, mucocutaneous abnormalities, perianal fistulas, or anal sphincter laxity.

      3. Order routine blood studies: Evaluate fluid/electrolyte and nutritional status. Look for peripheral blood leukocytosis, elevated sedimentation rate, or C-reactive protein which suggests inflammation; anemia reflects blood loss or nutritional deficiencies; or eosinophilia may occur with parasitoses, neoplasia, collagen-vascular disease, allergy, or eosinophilic gastroenteritis. Blood chemistries may demonstrate electrolyte, hepatic, or other metabolic disturbances. Measuring IgA tissue transglutaminase antibodies may help detect celiac disease.

      4. Perform simple triage tests: If initial evaluation is unrevealing, simple triage tests are often warranted to direct the choice of more complex investigations. For example, a screening blood test (serum C4 or FGF-19), measurement of fecal bile acids, or a therapeutic trial with a bile acid sequestrant (e.g., cholestyramine, colestipol or colesevelam) can help confirm or rule out bile acid diarrhea.

      5. Consider referral to a specialist: If the above evaluation is unrevealing or if there are additional concerning symptoms or signs, referral to a gastroenterologist may be appropriate for further evaluation and management.

    3. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome

      Cronkhite-Canada syndrome is a rare and serious gastrointestinal disorder characterized by the development of multiple polyps throughout the digestive tract, particularly in the colon and stomach. The polyps are usually benign, but they can cause a range of symptoms such as chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and malnutrition. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome is also associated with nail and skin abnormalities, such as hyperpigmentation and alopecia. The cause of this syndrome is not yet fully understood, but it is thought to be an autoimmune disorder. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and nutritional support.

    4. Secretory

      Sure, here's a summary of the causes of secretory diarrhea presented in the text:

      Causes of secretory diarrhea:

      1. Medications: Regular ingestion of drugs and toxins, including prescription and over-the-counter medications, may produce diarrhea. Stimulant laxatives and chronic ethanol consumption may also cause secretory-type diarrhea.

      2. Bowel resection, mucosal disease, or enterocolic fistula: These conditions may result in secretory-type diarrhea because of inadequate surface for reabsorption of secreted fluids and electrolytes.

      3. Partial bowel obstruction, ostomy stricture, or fecal impaction: These may paradoxically lead to increased fecal output due to fluid hypersecretion.

      4. Hormones: Secretory diarrhea may be caused by hormones, including those released by metastatic gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, gastrinomas, VIPomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, and systemic mastocytosis.

      5. Bacterial infections: Certain bacterial infections may occasionally persist and be associated with a secretory-type diarrhea.

      6. Environmental toxins: Inadvertent ingestion of certain environmental toxins (e.g., arsenic) may lead to chronic rather than acute forms of diarrhea.

      7. Idiopathic bile acid malabsorption (BAM): Reduced negative feedback regulation of bile acid synthesis in hepatocytes by fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19) produced by ileal enterocytes results in a degree of bile-acid synthesis that exceeds the normal capacity for ileal reabsorption, producing BAD. An alternative cause of BAD is a genetic variation in the receptor proteins (β-klotho and fibroblast growth factor 4) on the hepatocyte that normally mediate the effect of FGF-19.

      8. Colonic transit: Genetic variation in the bile acid receptor (TGR5) in the colon may result in accelerated colonic transit.

      It's worth noting that some of these causes may overlap or occur in conjunction with each other.

    5. The


      The cornerstone of diagnosis in those suspected of severe acute infectious diarrhea is microbiologic analysis of the stool.

      Workup includes cultures for bacterial and viral pathogens; direct inspection for ova and parasites; and immunoassays for certain bacterial toxins (C. difficile), viral antigens (rotavirus), and protozoal antigens (Giardia, E. histolytica).

      Clinical and epidemiologic associations may assist in focusing the evaluation.

      If a particular pathogen or set of possible pathogens is implicated, either the whole panel of routine studies may not be necessary or, in some instances, special cultures may be appropriate.

      Molecular diagnosis of pathogens in stool can be made by identification of unique DNA sequences, and evolving microarray technologies have led to more rapid, sensitive, specific, and cost-effective diagnosis.

      Persistent diarrhea is commonly due to Giardia, but additional causative organisms that should be considered include C. difficile, E. histolytica, Cryptosporidium, Campylobacter, and others.

      Flexible sigmoidoscopy with biopsies and upper endoscopy with duodenal aspirates and biopsies may be indicated if stool studies are unrevealing.

      Structural examination by sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, or abdominal computed tomography (CT) scanning may be appropriate in patients with uncharacterized persistent diarrhea to exclude IBD or as an initial approach in patients with suspected noninfectious acute diarrhea.

      Fluid and electrolyte replacement are of central importance to all forms of acute diarrhea.

      Oral sugar-electrolyte solutions (iso-osmolar sport drinks or designed formulations) should be instituted promptly with severe diarrhea to limit dehydration, which is the major cause of death.

      Profoundly dehydrated patients, especially infants and the elderly, require IV rehydration.

      In moderately severe nonfebrile and nonbloody diarrhea, antimotility and antisecretory agents such as loperamide can be useful adjuncts to control symptoms.

      Such agents should be avoided with febrile dysentery, which may be prolonged by them, and should be used with caution with drugs that increase levels due to cardiotoxicity.

      Bismuth subsalicylate may reduce symptoms of vomiting and diarrhea but should not be used to treat immunocompromised patients or those with renal impairment because of the risk of bismuth encephalopathy.

      Judicious use of antibiotics is appropriate in selected instances of acute diarrhea and may reduce its severity and duration.

      Many physicians treat moderately to severely ill patients with febrile dysentery empirically without diagnostic evaluation using a quinolone, such as ciprofloxacin (500 mg bid for 3–5 d).

      Empirical treatment can also be considered for suspected giardiasis with metronidazole (250 mg qid for 7 d).

      Selection of antibiotics and dosage regimens are otherwise dictated by specific pathogens, geographic patterns of resistance, and conditions found.

      Newer agents such as nitazoxanide may be required for Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections because of resistance to first-line treatments.

      Antibiotic coverage is indicated, whether or not a causative organism is discovered, in patients who are immunocompromised, have mechanical heart valves or recent vascular grafts, or are elderly.

      Bismuth subsalicylate may reduce the frequency of traveler’s diarrhea.

      Antibiotic prophylaxis is only indicated for certain patients traveling to high-risk countries in whom the likelihood or seriousness of acquired diarrhea would be especially high.

      Use of ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, or rifaximin may reduce bacterial diarrhea in such travelers by 90%, though rifaximin is not suitable for invasive disease but rather as treatment for uncomplicated traveler’s

    6. The
      1. Most infectious diarrheas are acquired by fecal-oral transmission or via ingestion of contaminated food or water.

      2. Antibiotic use can lead to disturbances of gut flora, resulting in diarrhea.

      3. Diarrhea occurs when the ingested pathogen overwhelms or bypasses the host's mucosal immune and non-immune defenses.

      4. Specific enteropathogens may cause characteristic clinical associations.

      5. Infectious diarrhea is more common in certain high-risk groups, including travelers, consumers of certain foods, immunodeficient persons, daycare attendees and their family members, and institutionalized persons.

      6. Profuse, watery diarrhea is associated with ingestion of preformed bacterial toxins, enterotoxin-producing bacteria, and enteroadherent pathogens.

      7. Diarrhea associated with marked vomiting and minimal or no fever may occur abruptly within a few hours after ingestion of certain types of pathogens.

      8. Cytotoxin-producing and invasive microorganisms cause high fever and abdominal pain.

      9. Invasive bacteria and Entamoeba histolytica often cause bloody diarrhea (dysentery).

      10. Yersinia invades the terminal ileal and proximal colon mucosa, causing severe abdominal pain with tenderness that mimics acute appendicitis.

    7. Infectious

      Sure, here are some additional sub points for each category of infectious agents:

      1. Travelers:
      2. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC)
      3. Campylobacter
      4. Shigella
      5. Aeromonas
      6. Norovirus
      7. Coronavirus
      8. Salmonella
      9. Vibrio cholerae

      10. Consumers of certain foods:

      11. Salmonella (from chicken, eggs)
      12. Campylobacter (from undercooked hamburger)
      13. Shigella (from undercooked pork)
      14. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7 (from undercooked hamburger)
      15. Bacillus cereus (from fried rice or other reheated food)
      16. Staphylococcus aureus (from mayonnaise or creams)
      17. Listeria monocytogenes (from fresh or frozen uncooked foods, mushrooms, or dairy products)
      18. Vibrio species (from seafood, especially if raw)

      19. Immunodeficient persons:

      20. Mycobacterium species
      21. Cytomegalovirus
      22. Adenovirus
      23. Herpes simplex virus
      24. Cryptosporidium
      25. Isospora belli
      26. Microsporidia
      27. Blastocystis hominis
      28. Neisseria gonorrhoeae
      29. Treponema pallidum
      30. Chlamydia

      31. Daycare attendees and their family members:

      32. Shigella
      33. Giardia
      34. Cryptosporidium
      35. Rotavirus
      36. Adenovirus
      37. Norovirus

      38. Institutionalized persons:

      39. Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile)
      40. Norovirus
      41. Rotavirus
      42. Adenovirus
      43. Salmonella
      44. Shigella
      45. Campylobacter
      46. Vibrio cholerae

      Additionally, some infectious agents may cause specific clinical features: - Small-bowel hypersecretion: preformed bacterial toxins, enterotoxin-producing bacteria, and enteroadherent pathogens (resulting in profuse, watery diarrhea) - Marked vomiting and minimal or no fever: preformed bacterial toxins and enterotoxin-producing bacteria - Abdominal cramping or bloating, higher fever: enteroadherent pathogens - High fever and abdominal pain: cytotoxin-producing and invasive microorganisms - Bloody diarrhea (dysentery): invasive bacteria and Entamoeba histolytica - Severe abdominal pain with tenderness mimicking acute appendicitis: Yersinia invades the terminal ileal and proximal colon mucosa


      Sure, here are the main points from the passage:

      • Diarrhea is defined as the passage of abnormally liquid or unformed stools at an increased frequency, with a stool weight of over 200g/day on a typical Western diet considered diarrheal for adults.
      • Pseudodiarrhea and fecal incontinence are two conditions that must be distinguished from diarrhea as they have different diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms. Pseudodiarrhea is associated with rectal urgency, tenesmus, or feeling of incomplete evacuation and often accompanies IBS or proctitis, while fecal incontinence is the involuntary discharge of rectal contents.
      • Acute diarrhea is often caused by infectious agents, with more than 90% of cases caused by such agents, and typically accompanied by vomiting, fever, and abdominal pain. The remaining cases are caused by medications, toxic ingestions, ischemia, food indiscretions, and other conditions.
      • Most infectious diarrheas are acquired by fecal-oral transmission or via ingestion of food or water contaminated with pathogens from human or animal feces. Five high-risk groups are recognized in the United States: travelers, consumers of certain foods, immunodeficient persons, elderly individuals, and patients in healthcare settings.
      • Acute infection or injury occurs when the ingested agent overwhelms or bypasses the host’s mucosal immune and nonimmune defenses.
      • Established clinical associations with specific enteropathogens may offer diagnostic clues, and a careful history and physical examination are key to distinguishing pseudodiarrhea and fecal incontinence from true diarrhea.
      • Diarrhea may be further defined as acute if <2 weeks, persistent if 2–4 weeks, and chronic if >4 weeks in duration.
    9. SMALL

      Small-Intestinal Motility: - During fasting, the small intestine exhibits cyclical motility called migrating motor complex (MMC) - MMC clears nondigestible residue from the small intestine and occurs every 60-90 minutes, lasting an average of 4 minutes - After food ingestion, the small intestine exhibits irregular mixing contractions of low amplitude, except in the distal ileum where more powerful contractions occur intermittently and empty the ileum by bolus transfers

      Ileocolonic Storage and Salvage: - The distal ileum acts as a reservoir, emptying intermittently by bolus movements to allow for salvage of fluids, electrolytes, and nutrients - Segmentation by haustra compartmentalizes the colon and facilitates mixing, retention of residue, and formation of solid stools - Intestinal flora in the colon is necessary for the digestion of unabsorbed carbohydrates, providing a vital source of nutrients to the mucosa and keeping pathogens at bay - Ascending and transverse regions of the colon function as reservoirs, while the descending colon acts as a conduit - The colon conserves sodium and water, which is particularly important in sodium-depleted patients, and alteration in colon function can result in diarrhea or constipation

      Colonic Motility and Tone: - The small-intestinal MMC rarely continues into the colon, but short duration or phasic contractions mix colonic contents - High-amplitude (>75 mmHg) propagated contractions (HAPCs) are sometimes associated with mass movements through the colon and normally occur approximately five times per day - Increased frequency of HAPCs may result in diarrhea or urgency - Colonic tone is important for capacitance and sensation

      Colonic Motility After Meal Ingestion: - After meal ingestion, colonic phasic and tonic contractility increase for approximately 2 hours - The initial phase is mediated by the vagus nerve in response to mechanical distention of the stomach, while the subsequent response requires caloric stimulation and is mediated, at least in part, by hormones (e.g., gastrin and serotonin)

      Defecation: - Tonic contraction of the puborectalis muscle maintains continence, while relaxation facilitates defecation - Distention of the rectum results in transient relaxation of the internal anal sphincter via intrinsic and reflex sympathetic innervation - Sigmoid and rectal contractions, as well as straining, increase pressure within the rectum, causing the rectosigmoid angle to open by >15° - Voluntary relaxation of the external anal sphincter permits evacuation of feces, while its contraction delays defecation.

      • Indigestion can be treated with lifestyle and dietary changes.
      • Patients with mild indigestion may not need any intervention, but drugs that cause gastroesophageal reflux or dyspepsia should be stopped if possible.
      • GERD patients should limit ethanol, caffeine, chocolate, and tobacco use and can ingest a low-fat diet, avoid snacks before bedtime, and elevate the head of the bed.
      • Functional dyspepsia patients can be advised to reduce intake of fat, spicy foods, caffeine, and alcohol. Dietary lactose restriction is appropriate for lactase deficiency, while gluten exclusion is indicated for celiac disease. Low FODMAP diets are effective for gaseous symptoms in IBS.
      • Drugs that reduce or neutralize gastric acid are often prescribed for GERD, such as histamine H2 antagonists and PPIs. Up to one-third of GERD patients do not respond to standard PPI doses, and complications of long-term PPI therapy include diarrhea, small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth, nutrient deficiency, hypomagnesemia, bone demineralization, interstitial nephritis, and impaired medication absorption.
      • Antacids are useful for short-term control of mild GERD but have less benefit in severe cases.
      • H. pylori eradication is indicated for peptic ulcer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue gastric lymphoma. The benefits of eradication therapy in functional dyspepsia are limited but statistically significant.
        • Agents that modify gastrointestinal motor activity, such as baclofen, can be used in patients with refractory acid or nonacid reflux. Prokinetic drugs may be effective for functional dyspepsia, but publication bias and small sample sizes raise questions about reported benefits. 5-HT1A agonists and acotiamide may improve some functional dyspepsia symptoms.
      • The GABA-B agonist baclofen reduces esophageal exposure to acid and nonacidic fluids by reducing TLESRs by 40%, making it useful in patients with refractory acid or nonacid reflux.
      • Agents that stimulate gastric emptying have shown a 33% relative risk reduction in functional dyspepsia, but publication bias and small sample sizes raise questions about their reported benefits.
      • The newer 5-HT4 agonist prucalopride was reported to reduce symptoms in patients with idiopathic gastroparesis, but no similar studies have been conducted in functional dyspepsia.
      • The 5-HT1A agonists buspirone and tandospirone may improve some functional dyspepsia symptoms by enhancing meal-induced gastric accommodation.
      • Acotiamide stimulates gastric emptying and augments accommodation by enhancing acetylcholine release via muscarinic receptor antagonism and acetylcholinesterase inhibition, and it is approved for functional dyspepsia in Japan and India.
      • Some patients with refractory functional heartburn may respond to antidepressants in the tricyclic and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) classes, although studies are limited.
      • In a controlled trial in functional dyspepsia, the tricyclic drug amitriptyline produced symptom reductions, whereas the SSRI escitalopram had no benefit in a three-way comparison with placebo. In another controlled trial in functional dyspepsia, the antidepressant mirtazapine produced superior symptom reductions versus placebo.
      • Antireflux surgery (fundoplication) to enhance the barrier function of the LES may be offered to GERD patients who are young and require lifelong therapy, have typical heartburn, are responsive to PPIs, and show acid reflux on pH monitoring. Surgery also is effective for some cases of nonacidic reflux.
      • Gas and bloating are bothersome in some patients with indigestion and are difficult to treat. Simethicone, activated charcoal, and alpha-galactosidase provide benefits in some cases. One trial suggested possible benefits of the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin in functional dyspepsia, while another reported improvement with the probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri.
      • Herbal remedies like STW 5 (Iberogast, a mixture of nine herbal agents) and formulations of caraway oil and menthol are useful in some dyspeptic patients.
      • Psychological treatments (e.g., behavioral therapy, psychotherapy, hypnotherapy) may be offered for refractory functional dyspepsia; a meta-analysis of four trials reported benefits in patients with persistent dyspepsia.
    2. History and Physical Examination ++ Managing indigestion requires a thorough interview. GERD classically produces heartburn, a substernal warmth that moves toward the neck. Heartburn often is exacerbated by meals and may awaken the patient. Associated symptoms include regurgitation of acid or nonacidic fluid and water brash, the reflex release of salty saliva into the mouth. Atypical symptoms include pharyngitis, asthma, cough, bronchitis, hoarseness, and chest pain that mimics angina. Some patients with acid reflux on esophageal pH testing note abdominal pain instead of heartburn. ++ Dyspeptic patients report symptoms referable to the upper abdomen that may be meal-related (postprandial distress syndrome) or independent of food ingestion (epigastric pain syndrome). The history in functional dyspepsia may also report symptoms of GERD, IBS, or idiopathic gastroparesis. ++ The physical exam with GERD and functional dyspepsia usually is normal. In atypical GERD, pharyngeal erythema and wheezing may be noted. Recurrent regurgitation may cause poor dentition. Dyspeptics may exhibit epigastric tenderness or distention. ++ Discriminating functional from organic causes of indigestion mandates excluding certain historic and exam features. Odynophagia suggests esophageal infection. Dysphagia is concerning for a benign or malignant esophageal blockage. Other alarm features include unexplained weight loss, recurrent vomiting, dysphagia, occult or gross bleeding, nocturnal symptoms, jaundice, palpable mass or adenopathy, and a family history of gastrointestinal neoplasm. Patients with an abdominal wall source of upper abdominal pain may exhibit a positive Carnett’s sign of increased tenderness with tensing of abdominal muscles upon lifting the head from the exam table. +++ Diagnostic Testing ++ Because indigestion is prevalent and most cases result from GERD or functional dyspepsia, it is generally recommended to perform no more than limited and directed diagnostic testing in most individuals. ++ After excluding alarm factors (Table 45-3), patients with typical GERD do not need further evaluation and are treated empirically. Upper endoscopy is indicated only in cases with atypical symptoms or these alarm factors. For heartburn >5 years in duration, especially in patients >50 years old, endoscopy is advocated to screen for Barrett’s metaplasia. Endoscopy is not needed in low-risk patients who respond to acid suppressants. Ambulatory esophageal pH testing using a catheter method or a wireless capsule endoscopically attached to the esophageal wall is considered for drug-refractory symptoms and atypical symptoms like unexplained chest pain. High-resolution esophageal manometry is ordered when surgical treatment of GERD is considered. A low LES pressure predicts failure of drug therapy and provides a rationale to proceed to surgery. Poor esophageal body peristalsis raises concern about postoperative dysphagia and directs the choice of surgical technique. Nonacidic reflux may be detected by combined esophageal impedance-pH testing in medication-unresponsive patients.

      [Start: History and Physical Examination]

      • Does the patient complain of heartburn?
        • Yes:
          • Does heartburn worsen after meals or awaken the patient?
            • Yes: GERD is likely. Proceed to treatment empirically.
            • No: Consider atypical GERD. Check for pharyngeal erythema, wheezing, and poor dentition.
        • No:
          • Does the patient have upper abdominal pain?
            • Yes:
              • Is the pain meal-related (postprandial distress syndrome) or independent of food ingestion (epigastric pain syndrome)?
                • Postprandial distress syndrome: Likely functional dyspepsia. Check for GERD, IBS, or idiopathic gastroparesis.
                • Epigastric pain syndrome: Further evaluation needed.
            • No: Proceed to next question.
      • Does the patient exhibit any alarm features? (unexplained weight loss, recurrent vomiting, dysphagia, occult or gross bleeding, nocturnal symptoms, jaundice, palpable mass or adenopathy, family history of gastrointestinal neoplasm)
        • Yes: Further evaluation needed.
        • No: Proceed to next question.
      • Does the patient exhibit any historic or exam features concerning for organic causes of indigestion?
        • Yes: Further evaluation needed.
        • No: No further evaluation needed. Treat empirically for GERD or functional dyspepsia.

      [End: History and Physical Examination]

      [Start: Diagnostic Testing]

      • Typical GERD:
        • No further evaluation needed. Treat empirically.
      • Atypical symptoms or alarm factors present:
        • Upper endoscopy is indicated.
      • Heartburn >5 years in duration, especially in patients >50 years old:
        • Endoscopy is advocated to screen for Barrett's metaplasia.
      • Low-risk patients who respond to acid suppressants:
        • Endoscopy is not needed.
      • Drug-refractory symptoms and atypical symptoms like unexplained chest pain:
        • Ambulatory esophageal pH testing using a catheter method or a wireless capsule endoscopically attached to the esophageal wall is considered.
      • Surgical treatment of GERD is considered:
        • High-resolution esophageal manometry is ordered.
          • Low LES pressure predicts failure of drug therapy.
          • Poor esophageal body peristalsis raises concern about postoperative dysphagia and directs the choice of surgical technique.
      • Nonacidic reflux may be detected by combined esophageal impedance-pH testing in medication-unresponsive patients.

      [End: Diagnostic Testing]

    3. Other

      Here's a simplified list of causes of different types of gastrointestinal symptoms:

      1. Heartburn: Opportunistic fungal or viral esophageal infections, GERD, hiatal hernia, peptic ulcer disease, and gastritis.

      2. Odynophagia (painful swallowing): Opportunistic fungal or viral esophageal infections.

      3. Upper abdominal pain: Biliary colic, pancreatic disease (chronic pancreatitis, malignancy), hepatocellular carcinoma, Ménétrier’s disease, infiltrative diseases (sarcoidosis, mastocytosis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis), mesenteric ischemia, thyroid and parathyroid disease, and abdominal wall strain.

      4. Nausea and vomiting: Gastroparesis, viral or bacterial gastroenteritis, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, motion sickness, and vestibular disorders.

      5. Gas, bloating, and discomfort: Intestinal lactase deficiency, intolerance of other carbohydrates (e.g., fructose, sorbitol), and small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

      6. Dyspepsia (indigestion): Peptic ulcer disease, gastritis, GERD, celiac disease, nonceliac gluten sensitivity, pancreatic disease (chronic pancreatitis, malignancy), hepatocellular carcinoma, Ménétrier’s disease, infiltrative diseases (sarcoidosis, mastocytosis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis), mesenteric ischemia, thyroid and parathyroid disease, and abdominal wall strain.

      7. Other causes of indigestion: Congestive heart failure and tuberculosis.

    4. Analgesics cause dyspepsia, whereas nitrates, calcium channel blockers, theophylline, and progesterone promote gastroesophageal reflux.
    5. Intraperitoneal

      Sure, here are some variants and examples of the conditions mentioned in the text:

      Intraperitoneal Disorders: - Ulcers: peptic ulcers, stress ulcers - Malignancy: stomach cancer, colon cancer - Benign or malignant tumors: intestinal tumors, colon polyps - Inflammatory diseases: Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis - Superior mesenteric artery syndrome: Wilkie's syndrome - Median arcuate ligament syndrome: Dunbar syndrome - Biliary colic: gallstones, cholecystitis - Enteric infectious causes: norovirus gastroenteritis, bacterial food poisoning (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus), cytomegalovirus enteritis

      Gut sensorimotor dysfunction: - Gastroparesis: diabetic gastroparesis, idiopathic gastroparesis, postsurgical gastroparesis - Intestinal pseudoobstruction: Ogilvie's syndrome, chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudoobstruction, secondary pseudoobstruction (e.g. from scleroderma, amyloidosis, small-cell lung carcinoma) - Gastroesophageal reflux: GERD - Irritable bowel syndrome: IBS - Chronic constipation: functional constipation, slow-transit constipation

      Other functional gastroduodenal disorders: - Chronic nausea vomiting syndrome: functional nausea vomiting disorder - Cyclic vomiting syndrome: CVS - Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome: CHS - Rumination syndrome: regurgitation disorder

      Extraperitoneal Disorders: - Myocardial infarction: heart attack - Congestive heart failure: CHF - Postoperative emesis: postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) - Increased intracranial pressure: intracranial hypertension, pseudotumor cerebri - Anorexia nervosa: restrictive eating disorder - Bulimia nervosa: binge-eating disorder

      Medications and Metabolic Disorders: - Analgesics: opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) - Antibiotics: macrolides, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines - Cardiac antiarrhythmics: amiodarone - Antihypertensives: calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, beta blockers - Oral hypoglycemics: sulfonylureas, meglitinides - Antidepressants: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) - Smoking cessation drugs: varenicline, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) - Contraceptives: combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestin-only contraceptives (POCs) - Cancer chemotherapy: cisplatin, carboplatin, paclitaxel, docetaxel, doxorubicin - Metabolic disorders: pregnancy (nausea of pregnancy, hyperemesis gravidarum), uremia, diabetic ketoacidosis, Addison's disease, hypoparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism - Circulating toxins: fulminant liver failure, enteric bacterial infections (e.g. Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli), ethanol intoxication.


      Start | |---Brainstem nuclei (including the nucleus tractus solitarius; dorsal vagal and phrenic nuclei; medullary nuclei regulating respiration; and nuclei that control pharyngeal, facial, and tongue movements) | |---Coordinate initiation of emesis | |---Neurokinin NK1 pathway | |---Serotonin 5-HT3 pathway | |---Endocannabinoid pathway | |---Vasopressin pathway | |---Activators of emesis | |---Emetic stimuli act at several sites | | | |---Unpleasant thoughts or smells (brain) | | | |---Motion sickness and inner ear disorders (labyrinthine pathways) | | | |---Gastric irritants and cytotoxic agents (gastroduodenal vagal afferent nerves) | | | |---Nongastric afferents (bowel obstruction and mesenteric ischemia) | | | |---Bloodborne stimuli (area postrema) | |---Neurotransmitters mediating vomiting are selective for different sites | |---Vestibular muscarinic M1 and histaminergic H1 receptors (labyrinthine disorders) | |---5-HT3 receptors (vagal afferent stimuli) | |---5-HT3, M1, H1, and dopamine D2 subtypes (area postrema) | |---NK1 receptors in the CNS (nausea and vomiting) | |---Cannabinoid CB1 pathways (cerebral cortex and brainstem) | |---Somatic and visceral muscles respond stereotypically during emesis | |---Inspiratory thoracic and abdominal wall muscles contract | |---Distally migrating gut contractions are abolished | |---Orally propagating spikes evoke retrograde contractions to facilitate expulsion of gut contents | |---Therapies for vomiting act on receptor-mediated pathways End

    7. ausea is the feeling of a need to vomit. Vomiting (emesis) is the oral expulsion of gastrointestinal contents resulting from gut and thoracoabdominal wall contractions. Vomiting is contrasted with regurgitation, the effortless passage of gastric contents into the mouth. Rumination is the repeated regurgitation of food residue, which may be rechewed and reswallowed. In contrast to emesis, these phenomena exhibit volitional control. Indigestion encompasses a range of complaints including nausea, vomiting, heartburn, regurgitation, and dyspepsia (symptoms thought to originate in the gastroduodenal region). Some individuals with dyspepsia experience postprandial fullness, early satiety (inability to complete a meal due to premature fullness), bloating, eructation (belching), and anorexia. Others report predominantly epigastric burning or pain. Nausea, vomiting, and dyspepsia have been correlated with a condition now called avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder.
      • Nausea: the sensation or feeling of an urge to vomit.
      • Vomiting (emesis): the act of expelling the contents of the stomach through the mouth due to the contraction of the gastrointestinal and thoracoabdominal muscles.
      • Regurgitation: the effortless movement of food or liquid from the stomach back into the mouth without the forceful contractions seen in vomiting.
      • Rumination: the repeated regurgitation of food residue, which may be rechewed and reswallowed voluntarily.
      • Indigestion: a collection of symptoms that includes nausea, vomiting, heartburn, regurgitation, and dyspepsia. Dyspepsia is a group of symptoms that originate in the gastroduodenal region and include postprandial fullness, early satiety, bloating, eructation, and anorexia. Epigastric burning or pain may also be present.
      • Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder: a condition in which individuals have difficulty consuming certain types of food or food in general, leading to weight loss or nutritional deficiencies. Nausea, vomiting, and dyspepsia have been associated with this disorder.
    1. History

      Symptoms of dysphagia ↓

      Localization of dysphagia: - Suprasternal notch: oropharyngeal or esophageal etiology - Chest: esophageal etiology ↓

      Nasal regurgitation and tracheobronchial aspiration: oropharyngeal dysphagia ↓

      Hoarseness: - Precedes dysphagia: laryngeal primary lesion - Develops after dysphagia: compromise of the recurrent laryngeal nerve ↓

      Type of food causing dysphagia: - Intermittent dysphagia with solid food only: structural dysphagia - Constant dysphagia with both liquids and solids: esophageal motor abnormality - Scleroderma: mild dysphagia for solids only - Oropharyngeal dysphagia: greater difficulty with liquids than solids ↓

      Progression of dysphagia: - Over weeks to months: neoplasia - Unchanged or slowly progressive over years: benign disease process ↓

      Food impaction: structural dysphagia ↓

      Chest pain: motor disorders, structural disorders, or reflux disease ↓

      History: - Prolonged heartburn: peptic stricture or esophageal adenocarcinoma - Prolonged nasogastric intubation, surgery, ingestion of caustic agents or pills, radiation or chemotherapy, mucocutaneous diseases: isolate the cause of dysphagia - Odynophagia: ulceration, infectious or pill-induced esophagitis - AIDS or other immunocompromised states: opportunistic infections or tumors - Atopy: eosinophilic esophagitis - Medication use: pill esophagitis and opioid-induced esophageal dysmotility ↓

      Physical examination: - Signs of bulbar or pseudobulbar palsy, generalized neuromuscular disease: oral and pharyngeal dysphagia - Thyromegaly or lymphadenopathy: esophageal dysphagia - Inflammatory or infectious lesions in the mouth and pharynx: oral and pharyngeal dysphagia - Changes in the skin and oral mucosa: scleroderma or mucocutaneous diseases involving the esophagus ↓

      Diagnostic procedures: - Oral or pharyngeal dysphagia: fluoroscopic swallow study, otolaryngoscopic and neurologic evaluation - Esophageal dysphagia: upper endoscopy, mucosal biopsies

    2. Severe cough with swallowing may also be a sign of a tracheoesophageal fistula.


    3. Oral

      summary Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: - Poor bolus formation and control, drooling, and difficulty initiating swallowing are characteristic signs. - May result in premature spillage of food into the hypopharynx, aspiration into the trachea, or regurgitation into the nasal cavity. - Causes include neurologic, muscular, structural, iatrogenic, infectious, and metabolic factors, with iatrogenic, neurologic, and structural pathologies being the most common. - Iatrogenic causes include head and neck cancer treatments such as surgery and radiation. - Neurogenic dysphagia resulting from cerebrovascular accidents, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a major cause of morbidity related to aspiration and malnutrition. - Asymmetry in the cortical representation of the pharynx provides an explanation for the dysphagia that occurs as a consequence of unilateral cortical cerebrovascular accidents. - Structural lesions causing dysphagia include Zenker’s diverticulum, cricopharyngeal bar, and neoplasia. - Rapid-sequence fluoroscopy is necessary to evaluate for functional abnormalities. - Adequate fluoroscopic examination requires that the patient be conscious and cooperative. - Timing and integrity of pharyngeal contraction and opening of the UES with a swallow are analyzed to assess both aspiration risk and the potential for swallow therapy. - Structural abnormalities of the oropharynx should be assessed by direct laryngoscopic examination.

      Esophageal Dysphagia: - The adult esophagus measures 18-26 cm in length and is anatomically divided into the cervical esophagus and the thoracic esophagus. - Solid food dysphagia becomes common when the lumen is narrowed to <13 mm. - The most common structural causes of dysphagia are Schatzki’s rings, eosinophilic esophagitis, and peptic strictures. - Propulsive disorders leading to esophageal dysphagia result from abnormalities of peristalsis and/or deglutitive inhibition, potentially affecting the cervical or thoracic esophagus. - Rapid-sequence fluoroscopy is necessary to evaluate for functional abnormalities. - Adequate fluoroscopic examination requires that the patient be conscious and cooperative. - High-resolution manometry is used to measure pressure changes along the length of the esophagus during swallowing. - Structural abnormalities of the esophagus should be assessed by endoscopic examination.

      Here's a table summarizing the information:

      | Category | Oropharyngeal Dysphagia | Esophageal Dysphagia | | --- | --- | --- | | Signs and Symptoms | Poor bolus formation and control, drooling, difficulty initiating swallowing | Solid food dysphagia, potentially accompanied by altered esophageal sensation, reduced distensibility, or motor dysfunction | | Causes | Neurologic, muscular, structural, iatrogenic, infectious, metabolic | Structural causes include Schatzki’s rings, eosinophilic esophagitis, and peptic strictures; propulsive disorders due to abnormalities of peristalsis and/or deglutitive inhibition | | Iatrogenic Causes | Head and neck cancer treatments such as surgery and radiation | N/A | | Diagnosis | Rapid-sequence fluoroscopy, direct laryngoscopic examination | Rapid-sequence fluoroscopy, high-resolution manometry, endoscopic examination |

    4. Physiologically, the UES consists of the cricopharyngeus muscle, the adjacent inferior pharyngeal constrictor, and the proximal portion of the cervical esophagus. UES innervation is derived from the vagus nerve, whereas the innervation to the musculature acting on the UES to facilitate its opening during swallowing comes from the fifth, seventh, and twelfth cranial nerves. The UES remains closed at rest owing to both its inherent elastic properties and neurogenically mediated contraction of the cricopharyngeus muscle. UES opening during swallowing involves both cessation of vagal excitation to the cricopharyngeus and simultaneous contraction of the suprahyoid and geniohyoid muscles that pull open the UES in conjunction with the upward and forward displacement of the larynx. ++ The neuromuscular apparatus for peristalsis is distinct in proximal and distal parts of the esophagus. The cervical esophagus, like the pharyngeal musculature, consists of striated muscle and is directly innervated by lower motor neurons of the vagus nerve. Peristalsis in the proximal esophagus is governed by the sequential activation of the vagal motor neurons in the nucleus ambiguus. In contrast, the distal esophagus and LES are composed of smooth muscle and are controlled by excitatory and inhibitory neurons within the esophageal myenteric plexus. Medullary preganglionic neurons from the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus trigger peristalsis via these ganglionic neurons during primary peristalsis. Neurotransmitters of the excitatory ganglionic neurons are acetylcholine and substance P; those of the inhibitory neurons are vasoactive intestinal peptide and nitric oxide. Peristalsis results from the patterned activation of inhibitory followed by excitatory ganglionic neurons, with progressive dominance of the inhibitory neurons distally. Similarly, LES relaxation occurs with the onset of deglutitive inhibition and persists until the peristaltic sequence is complete. At rest, the LES is contracted because of excitatory ganglionic stimulation and its intrinsic myogenic tone, a property that distinguishes it from the adjacent esophagus. The function of the LES is supplemented by the surrounding muscle of the right diaphragmatic crus, which acts as an external sphincter during inspiration, cough, or abdominal straining.

      Start Preparation phase - Food is masticated - Food is mixed with saliva Transfer phase - Bolus is pushed into the pharynx by the tongue Pharyngeal swallow response - Bolus entry into the hypopharynx initiates the response - Larynx is elevated and pulled forward - Upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening facilitated - Tongue pulsion propels bolus through UES - Peristaltic contraction clears residue from pharynx and esophagus Primary peristalsis - Peristaltic contractions elicited in response to a swallow - Sequenced inhibition followed by contraction of the musculature along the entire length of the esophagus Deglutitive inhibition - Inhibition that precedes the peristaltic contraction Secondary peristalsis - Activated by local distention of the esophagus - Begins at the point of distention and proceeds distally Tertiary esophageal contractions - Nonperistaltic, disordered esophageal contractions

      Musculature and innervation - Striated musculature of the oral cavity, pharynx, UES, and cervical esophagus - Lower motor neurons carried in cranial nerves innervate muscles - Oral cavity muscles innervated by the fifth (trigeminal) and seventh (facial) cranial nerves - Tongue innervated by the twelfth (hypoglossal) cranial nerve - Pharyngeal muscles innervated by the ninth (glossopharyngeal) and tenth (vagus) cranial nerves - UES innervation derived from the vagus nerve - Innervation to musculature acting on the UES to facilitate its opening during swallowing comes from the fifth, seventh, and twelfth cranial nerves - UES closed at rest owing to both its inherent elastic properties and neurogenically mediated contraction of the cricopharyngeus muscle - Cervical esophagus consists of striated muscle and is directly innervated by lower motor neurons of the vagus nerve - Distal esophagus and LES composed of smooth muscle and are controlled by excitatory and inhibitory neurons within the esophageal myenteric plexus - Medullary preganglionic neurons from the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus trigger peristalsis via these ganglionic neurons during primary peristalsis - Neurotransmitters of the excitatory ganglionic neurons are acetylcholine and substance P; those of the inhibitory neurons are vasoactive intestinal peptide and nitric oxide - Peristalsis results from the patterned activation of inhibitory followed by excitatory ganglionic neurons, with progressive dominance of the inhibitory neurons distally - LES relaxation occurs with the onset of deglutitive inhibition and persists until the peristaltic sequence is complete - LES is contracted at rest because of excitatory ganglionic stimulation and its intrinsic myogenic tone, a property that distinguishes it from the adjacent esophagus - Function of the LES is supplemented by the surrounding muscle of the right diaphragmatic crus, which acts as an external sphincter during inspiration, cough, or abdominal straining.


    1. Cheilosis

      Angular cheilitis (angular stomatitis, also known as cheilosis) is inflammation of one or both of the corners (angles) of the mouth.[11] It is a fairly common condition, and often affects elderly people.

      There are many possible causes, including nutritional deficiencies (iron, B vitamins, folate), contact allergies,[13] infections (Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus or β-hemolytic streptococci) and edentulism (often with overclosure of the mouth and concomitant denture-related stomatitis), and others.

    2. iron-bearing transferrin interacts with its receptor
      1. Iron is transported in the blood by the iron-transferrin complex.
      2. The complex interacts with specific transferrin receptors on the surface of cells that express transferrin receptors, such as developing erythroblast cells.
      3. The iron-bearing transferrin is internalized via clathrin-coated pits and transported to an acidic endosome.
      4. Iron is released from the transferrin at the low pH of the endosome.
      5. Iron is made available for heme synthesis.
      6. The transferrin-receptor complex is recycled to the surface of the cell.
      7. The bulk of the transferrin is released back into circulation, and the transferrin receptor re-anchors into the cell membrane.
      8. Iron in excess of the amount needed for hemoglobin synthesis binds to a storage protein, apoferritin, forming ferritin.
      9. Senescent red cells are recognized by the cells of the reticuloendothelial system and undergo phagocytosis.
      10. Hemoglobin is broken down, and the iron is shuttled back to the surface of the RE cell.
      11. Iron is presented to circulating transferrin via the iron export channel, ferroportin.
      12. Iron is then available for reutilization for hemoglobin synthesis