184 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2015
    1. In this case, Holly played the role of running commentator, seem-ingly in hopes that some of her narration would prove useful to Brandon, but she showedlittle distress or frustration when he failed to follow her suggestions. The reciprocal impas-sivity that we observed across them in this arrangement was interesting; it may have beendue to the fact that Brandon was the better player and both knew that he was assessing thevalue of her suggestions and deciding on the basis of the in-game situation whether it wassensible to act upon or disregard his sister’s help.

      It is interesting here to see when Brandon followed and did not follow the suggestions given to him by Holly. He intently participated to her comments when he wanted to and ignored when he wanted to. Interesting dynamic here.

    2. our view, her emphasison control meant that she sought out the learning resource that allowed her the greatestcontrol over the learning experience. In this case, the learning resource was her brother

      This straight up, 100% reminds me of lpp and the concept of apprenticeship. Rachel is becoming a part of a community, but using the expertise of her brother to also become an expert in the game. I wonder if she began being exposed to the video game by just observing her brother?

    3. In particular, people wantto understand what young people learn playing games that they use, or adapt, in the rest oftheir lives. This question is the focus of our chapter.

      This question is embedded in some larger context, right? If we think about this, we need to understand that society has a view of video games and them not teaching children anything. Makes me wonder what kinds of questions we would be asking if society did not have this view.

    1. One might imagine that with over 30,000 faceparts for avatars, there would be no lack of diversity, but even virtual worlds are notthe color-blind utopia, they have often been portrayed to be in early media reports.Racial issues also come to the forefront in Whyville, as our article ‘‘‘Blacks deservebodies too!’ Diversity and Race in a Virtual World’’ illustrates (Kafai et al., 2010).

      This is so fascinating to me. Could it be due to the lack of wanting to look through all 30,000 faces? Although I think not, this is interesting when I think about figured worlds. When thinking of Whyville, you would think of it as its own figured world, but it is interesting to see how the Whyville avatar is created by the person. This would be influenced, I would think, by the real-life figured world. They are both overlapped.

    2. Forinstance, in the Solstice Safari, a group of players work together to collect data aboutthe sunrise and sunset at different locations around the world. This encourages col-laboration and social interactions among Whyvillians and teaches them about theEarth’s position in relation to the Sun, notions of time (days, years) and seasons,temperature, and geography (latitude and longitude).

      This is interesting. Reminds me of intent participation. The Whyvillians need to voluntarily sign up to work with basically strangers. Connecting it back with the earlier point about race, makes me wonder how Whyvillians determine if they want to sign up with a particular collaboration.

    3. Much less is known aboutyounger players who participate in equal, if not larger, numbers in virtual worlds

      Would a research expect to same similar trends as they see in World of Warcraft? Is that why it is not explored. When i think of this in the light of LPP i would see it as the same field of mastery (online life), just a different setting. In the end though, the same skills are learned in each setting.

    4. The presenceof these features affords us with the opportunity to study various aspects such asonline representation (see Kafai, Fields, & Cook, 2010) and issues about race (seeKafai, Cook, & Fields, 2010) covered in two articles included in this special issue.

      This is a very interesting way to study race. Could we say that we could assess the players' views of race from this online platform? Makes me wonder if people will respond the same way on an online platform as they would in a real-life setting.

    1. Iimaginethatitwouldbeinterestingtothinkabouthowcommunityandculturalnorms,valuesandideasarepasseddownfromoldtimerstonewcomers

      This makes me think of the "Learning in diversities of structures of social practice: Accounting for how, why and where people learn science" article. If you did not read it, I think you should because it talks about learnign across a lifespan and the history of learning.

    2. ArewomenlegitimateparticipantsinthecommunityofpracticeofOrthodoxprayerservicesiftheyarenotabletotakeonmeaningfulleadershiprolesandisthisthesameordifferentinthebroadercontextofOrthodoxcommunallife

      I think some insight on a Jewish woman, or rabbi would be able to provide you with clarity on your question.

    3. AtNYU,therabbiwhofacilitatesandleadsthecommunity,triestoincorporatefemaleleadershipasmuchaspossible.

      Would it be worth getting his opinion on the matter? I am sure he would be able to provide you insight on other rabbis.

    4. Or,theyhavetocreatetheirownmeaningfulwaystoengageinleadershiprolesandthentheystillhavetofightagainstcertaingendernormstoseeklegitimacyinthesenewwaysofparticipatinginthecommunityofpractice

      I love this idea! I think it is important to take into considering the cultural norms surrounding this idea. Do women feel they are taking a passive role, or is it normal to them?

    5. wouldliketofindsomeevidenceformyargumentthatwhatislearnedinanOrthodoxprayerserviceisappliedtothecontextofthebroadercommunity,particularlywithregardtogenderroles

      This would be super interesting to see if you could find a Jewish Orthodox club, or actually get the opportunity to interview someone who attends on a weekly basis.

    1. Only then will we be able to understand how conditions associated with educational privilege and inequality are produced within the contextual pragmatics of everyday life

      Nothing else to say other than the hashtag

    2. The following case study provides an example of how learning pathways can be shaped by aspects of place, positions, and the actions those positions afford.

      So definitely what individuals are exposed to. This is confined when thinking of where the child lives, goes to school etc. Things the child has no control over.

    3. A learner in a science classroom may be trying to pursue a personal learning agenda while the teacher is facilitating a competing learning agenda. Negative perceptions of a learner’s ability to pursue or succeed in certain activities can restrict or completely eliminate his/her access to desired opportunities, as documented in cases of students with learning disabilities.

      interesting to see how learning differs for people in the same context. I would think that the meaning people would create in connected different sites of knowledge as being different, but not what is actually being learned.

    4. It is important to realize that persons can, and often have to, exercise agency in these settings as they construct, leverage, repurpose, and transform social and mate-rial arrangements in order to provide meaningful, cross-setting connections related to their goals and concerns.

      Apologizing for my rant I think this is what is missing from schools, the ability to take the knowledge they are learning in the classroom and apply it across settings. Which would make someone support LPP, but really learning in the classroom is just as useful as learning outside the classroom. I just think the connection needs to be made between the two. Which also references Vossoughi & Gutiérrez ideas about multisited learning.

    5. Life-long learning is a fa mi l ia r not ion t hat refers to t he acqu isit ion of f u nda men-tal cultural, social, and cognitive abilities developed over the life course from infan-cy to old age

      I like the inclusion of old age. I feel western society sometimes feel that the older a person gets, the less you learn.

    6. An interdisciplin-ary group of scholars following a similar line of thinking distilled academic litera-tures related to learning in and out of school environments within diverse commu-nities, and they advanced 3 central concepts and associated learning principles [Banks et al., 2007]. The 3 conceptual ideas – life-long, life-wide, and life-deep learn-ing – highlight the foundational inf luence of temporal, spatial, and value-driven di-mensions of learning and development, respectively.

      I like this because it is highlight all the learning that exists across an individual's life. Similar to Vossoughi & Gutiérrez idea of multisited.

    7. ace, class, disability designation, etc. – as learners circulate across places and associated operating value systems over multiple timescales.

      Makes me so happy to see readings like this that are taking into account the larger society we live in.

  2. doc-0g-ag-prod-03-apps-viewer.googleusercontent.com doc-0g-ag-prod-03-apps-viewer.googleusercontent.com
    1. Multi-sited studies frequently employ approaches such as tracing, map-ping, threading, or constructing a chain of meaningful connections across sites

      I think it is most important to look at the connections across sites and how this influence the knowledge being gained. I keep thinking of the skatepark, and where else these skaters are learning tricks. Would watching youtube videos be a site?

    2. chapter: (1) a concern that the shift toward analytic breadth compromises (or makes difficult, practically speaking) the kind of depth that typically characterizes ethnographic research; and (2) a concern that multi-sited approaches risk reifying the very bounded and holistic defini-tions of culture they seek to disrupt by adding new sites and delimiting/constructing the field in ways that support comparative analysis, or drawing connections across settings based simply on the researcher’s a priori inter-ests

      I don't really understand this. Wouldn't multisited approach make it more "holistic"?

    3. the interpretive task is not merely to uncover what participants say or imply about their experience—but to do so in ways that illuminate how “all persons are busy, active and making sense

      makes me think of LPP and the role of internships. actually seeing how persons are busy, active and making sense" physical proof

    4. This approach offers a powerful set of tools for studying the depth and complexity of social practice in a single setting or community—the classroom, school, neighborhood, or educational program—particu-larly when research is historicized and connected to larger social structures and processes.

      interesting to me how they referenced "historical context". Also what larger structures?

    5. For young people whose experiences of schooling involve every-day encounters with racialization and its attendant demands for assimila-tion, taking up a teacher’s invitation to draw on the full range of linguistic, intellectual, and cultural tools within one’s repertoires of practice may in-volve varying degrees of risk and vulnerability

      This is putting emphasis on the earlier point of the role the culture plays. Also, thinking about the different types of knowledge that the children who are experiencing racialization are experiencing

    6. Similarly, Gutiérrez and Rogoff (2003) argue for grounding “observations across multiple settings and communities and [assuming] various vantage points to understand the complexity of hu-man activity” (p. 23).

      Which in the end is the point, right? TO understand the complexity of human activity. This is also referencing the fields of knowledge

    7. This mobile ethnography takes unexpected trajectories in tracing a cultural formation across and within multiple sites of activity that destabi-lize the distinction

      I really like this statement because it is taking into account the larger cultural society in which we all live in and become influenced from.

  3. Oct 2015
    1. In a sense, the pose can be understood as an embodied interpretive space that allows the pairto both perceive and find meaning in the work.

      To become fully engulfed in the art work. Is this done to try to understand what the other person was thinking? Would this be more to empathize than to learn? Would learning be considered empathizing?

    2. Another group discussed whether a depicted figure was runningor jumping by performing these actions themselves. Yet another member of a group posed withartwork by observing the gaze of the figures in a painting, and moving his own body to where hebelieved the artist must have been standing

      This reminds me of when I did my observation at the Whitney and the one observed was bobbing back and forth to one of the art forms that was a short film. Maybe this helped him (the person I observed) become completely engulfed in the art.

    3. Thus in looking at the data below, the ways in which avisitor describes a work or an image reflect not only what they are seeing but also how they areseeing and interpreting it.

      Would this not be the first step an observing would need to do BEFORE posing? This is why I said earlier internalizing and externalizing may be interconnected.

    4. posing with artwork involves the depictionand interpretation of a piece of art, which is itself a depiction of bodily motion by the artist

      Promotes understanding because you are interpreting what the artwork is symbolizing.

    5. metaphoricgesturespresent a perceptual relationship, but instead refer to an abstract object or content

      Does this metaphoric gesture in creating an abstract object/content support critical thinking which support understanding and learning of the piece of art?

    6. Posing occurs when a visitorattempts to mimic or re-create a figure from a piece of art with their body.
    7. However, such a focus on individual men-tal processes does not account for the social, institutional, and mediational role of other actors,contexts, and resources

      Which may aid in the knowledge attained by being at the museum.

    8. Posing with art is a largely unexplored yet significant aspect of the cultural practice of partic-ipation at museums. Around the world, we commonly see visitors and tourists posing in frontof statues, paintings, or other monuments or works of art.

      Is this something more recent, due to this increase in social media, smart phones and technology? Did this always exists? I think this is something important to look at how this "posing" evolved.

    1. For urban youth organizations that want to attract youth away from the seductive life of the streets or the violence and sexual exploitation pro­mOted in much commercial entertainment, the organization of insttuction and of performance stands at the center of the effectiveness of dance.

      The relationship between connection with the body and learning is one that I believe has the potential to foster positive well-being in at-risk youth. With that said, as we saw above there are many factors that need to be accounted for.

    2. This clowning feature included direct public threats to exclude individual youths from the forthcoming per­formance if they did not listen, remember routines, follow routines, and attend practices regularly, as well as direct responses to students' questions or comments during practice

      Maybe this also played a role in why there was a huge dropout rate from the beginning to the end of the year.

    3. "Some of them we'll reach-! don't care if they're going to be professional dancers or not. That's not the point. The point is that they're working close with a teacher, and that's going to reflect for all their lives.

      Establishing a mentorship. This makes me think of lpp, but I also think this is promoting a social well-being through the mentorship, not just expertise in the dance field.

    4. dance will help the youngsters aca­demically and personally.

      Dance will? Or being a part of an organization will?

    5. arents who suppott their youngsters in the Juniors see the dance troupe as one way both to keep their kids busy with friends "of their own kind" and to ensure that their children continue to see themselves as members of their own Old European immigrant group

      Influenced by the parent to stay involved in Juniors. This sparks my interest because of the balance that i feel exists with immigrant parents in promoting acclamation to new environment but also keeping true to the native traditions. I am curious to see what role this played in helping shape their child's identity.

    6. To continue in the group requires many hours of practice across the years; the youngsters must mem­orize their music; the words of their songs, and their dance steps, and they must practice, practice, practice.

      Intent participation--practicing in something they are interested in.

    7. Henri explains the philosophy as well as practices of Liberty as search­ing for ways "to make these kids proud of themselves as capable of doin' something good, really good. They need that, and they'll never come to do it unless we let them know they can."

      Connection with their body, i.e. performance of the arts also promotes a positive well-being.

    8. writing, speaking, dancing, and singing activities,

      The youth seem to become able to express themselves, regardless of what type of academic successes they may possess.

    9. he projects offered no safe recreational areas for youths and instead presented them daily with pain, violence, unpredictability, and death,

      Factors to think about. Although this performing of the arts is a positive thing for youth (what they are arguing, and I agree) many factors do influence this practice.

    10. ocus on workshops in African folk dance, oral his­tory, and innovative African American drama for the adults and youths of the neighboring housing projects

      Learning about their African heritage through performance.

    11. The per­forming atts of these groups came to be central to the entertainment of the folk festivals that had begun to flourish in the early 1970s. These festivals cel­ebrated immigrant ethnic groups,

      youth are able to learn about their culture through this performance of the arts. also with these festivals they are able to learn about cultures. their relationship with their own identity (body) allows them to learn about all the different identities that exist int he world.

    12. entertainment certainly did not appear to be a warranted goal of youth programs.

      Was this because maybe entertainment was defined only by "promiscuous" (as used on the previous page) activities

    13. youth leaders and community representatives who argued the value of the arts were performers from the neighborhoods or ethnic groups whose youngsters they wanted to involve in the arts. Many of these performers-particularly African Americans-had their beginnings in the 1960s and 1970s, in the height of ethnic pride movements centered in store­front theaters, galleries, bookstores, and social halls of local churches.

      In there past, I believe these leaders saw positive results in potnetially themselves and other youth, that made them value the arts.

    14. e problems of young people had been too persis­tently cast as needing direct and practical solutions rather than what many :. reg;1rded as the frivolity of the art

      I wonder where this mentality came from. Why was it seen that young people could not look to the arts for support?

    1. n what ways do the roles of newcomer and oldtimer apply to Tumblr as a community of practice?

      Are you talking about a Tumblr user focusing on social justice or just a Tumblr user? I think clarification with this will allow you determine newcomer to oldertime easier.

    2. My site is non-physical;it exists digitally on the Internet. When people are engaging with issues and interacting with each other at my site, it is not done face-to-face rather through messaging, liking, and reblogging on the Internet.

      I think this is fascinating. Such interesting area to look into because of it non-physical element. With this said, I think it will be challenging to determine newcomers to oldtimers because of the lack of face-to-face contact.

    3. My inclination at this time is to consider the person’s practice in liking, reblogging, or posting original content.

      This makes sense but make sure it will actually be focusing on social justice linking, re-blogging and posting original content. It is my understanding that that is the focus of your question.

    4. At this time, through a lens of legitimate peripheral participation it seems that these people are moving from newcomers to oldtimers. H

      In particular in the area of social justice on Tumblr, not necessarily as a Tumblr user, which my understanding is that is specifically what you want to focus on.

    1. While ground truthing involved critical reflectionon the adequacy of urban infrastructure for bicycling, the analysis of personal time geog-raphy invited stories about adolescent life and how acquiring a bicycle might create newopportunities for activity.

      Learning that mobility does influence critical reflection.

    2. Because many urban youth live in neighborhoods that provide little support for theirmobility, we took seriously the notion that youth engagement might become essential inprocesses of city planning, and their contributions to emerging practices of counter-mapping could benefit their futures as well as those of their neighbors in ongoing cycles ofurban development

      Learning about mobility and the role it plays on the youth's future.

    3. In contrast, highly critical, past time accounts of how the city neglected or even harmedWoodbridge (e.g., building an interstate highway through residential and commercialspaces) had little uptake in planning processes that were oriented towards analysis ofexisting conditions for future development.

      This is something that needed to be learned. You cannot create a solution if you do not know the context of the problem.

    4. Studies of how youthperceivespace are an important part of the children’s geographyliterature. These studies have been concerned with issues of young people’s environmentalexperience and mobility, looking at how and where young people spend their time acrossthe course of a typical day and what attributes of the geography are important to youth

      Critical thinking skills. Looking at how children percieve themselves in their given environment and then having them come up with what attributed is important to them and their future. I think more of this is needed in schools

    5. collecting information about community assets,•making maps or new map layers that reflect these assets and aspects of personal use ormobility, and•using these maps to make and justify claims for use and development of assets in thefuture.

      Learning about society. Learning how to explore and examine a context. Learning how to improve development.

    1. Fieldtripsallowyoungpeopletosocializewithoneanotherinnon-schoolspaces(andonthelongbusridestoandfromsites)and,throughthe`collectionofsigns’intheformofphotographs,postcardsorsouvenirs(Urry1992),tocarryhomebitsofthevisitedspacetoshowoÄtofriendsorparentsortouseasmemorytoolsinrelivingthetrip.

      Society has created it to be a sign of status rather than what it truly is which is a learning experience. This is frustrating because it takes away from the importance of the knowledge that is gained, even if it is just social interactions which influence social development.

    2. optionalratherthanintegralpartsofthecurriculum

      Not even mandatory, even though these field trips highlight huge methods of exploration for the child. So why is it not mandatory?

    3. TheytransportyoungpeopleoÄschoolgroundsforpartorallofthedayandallowthemtointeractinformallywithoutthestringentmonitoringandevaluationcharacteristicofregularschoolactiv-ities

      But again this is still very structured in that the field trip location is determined by the school and where the child can explore in that space is restrained to where the supervision will be.

    4. Forchildrenwhoselifespaceswereorganizedinandaroundsuchlocales,school®eldtripswouldhavesimplybeenbriefexcursionsthroughpublicspacesdiÄerentfromthefamiliaronekidsknewintheireverydaylives

      I think this goes to show how much society has changed over the years. Taking into account the interviewee's response and comparing it to what children experience today, it shows how much we have immobilized the spaces in which we allow children to explore in.

  4. doc-0s-bk-prod-01-apps-viewer.googleusercontent.com doc-0s-bk-prod-01-apps-viewer.googleusercontent.com
    1. “transformative learning isnot imposed upon the participants, but built into the very operating principles and everydaysocial textures of these activities”

      I really like this quote. I think that by thinking of learning as something that is just incorporated into day to day life it takes away and intimidation learners may feel.

    2. When the skaters incorporated different variations of 50-50 grinds into theirturns, she commented on them by cheering, asking them to repeat it, and comparing her ownabilities and recent attempts

      This is learning in its most simplest form. Just by conversing with one another they are able to learn different skate tricks

    3. . Several suggested that their school experiences were not positive (e.g., Karl,2ahigh school junior, reported that he was often kicked out of class), and many of the skaters spentlong hours at the skateparks or skating around town, especially during weekday afternoons andevenings.

      I think this can also be seen as a point of learning to observe because you can figure out why each of the skaters come to the skate park, i.e. what it does for them psychologically. How it helps them.

    4. We use the term “edited,” borrowing from Lave and her colleagues, to empha-size the reassembly of relevant aspects of the arena for the shopper for his or her purposes

      I think this looks at the difference between a veteran of a setting in comparison to a newcomer.

    5. These early skaters approximatedthe movement of surfing, looking for surfaces with curvature that emulated riding on waves. Theyused cement banks, treating them as waves by “carving” (skating wide curves) across them andexecuting turns reminiscent of surfing turns.

      For the early skaters, their context of learning also included surfing and the ocean.

    6. Skateboarding is a particularly rich site for the exploration ofthe relationship between learning and spatial production, as space is a highly salient aspect ofskateboarding both in its history of development as well as in activity.

      The context of learning includes not only their skateboard, but the spatial production and the integration of all the people around them.

    7. His microanalysis tracked how thestudents and teachers positioned themselves and each other, discursively and bodily, to jointlyachieve the silencing.

      This makes me think of the hierarchy in education. Also about guided participation as opposed to intent participation

    1. Some boys studied the rules and talked with their fathers and the coach about specific rules that applied to Little League or that offered guidance on interpreting umpires' judgments. Others chose to alternate batting as a right-hander or left-hander, to deviate from expected styles of pitching, or to make the most of the lack of balance between their talents (e.g., boys who did not have the highest batting averages were sometimes best known as fast runners).

      This is a different in identities, right? Some boys studied and talked about it with their peers and some boys discussed the skills with themselves.

    2. Often, after a sociodramatic play, he would ask the boys to analyze what had taken place within the action elicited from the set-up of the situation.

      This is teaching the boys how to be active listeners. The boys are being taught this skill that will them become a part of their identity as being observant.

    3. The observable context, plus prior norms of behavior and cause-and-effect events in the adult—child relationship, enables the child to interpret the "I'll pinch you" statement as a conditional meaning, "If you touch the gum, I'll pinch you

      This cannot be possible though if the child has not previously formed that connection, right? I mean the child cannot just form that link without having been taught that you cannot just take things that do not belong to you. A knowledge of the cause-and-effect relationship is needed prior, is it not?

    4. The town offers multiple types of neighborhood-based organizations, boasts more libraries per capita than any other city its size in California, and supports consistent news coverage of the athletic and artistic activities of its youth.

      All these factors of the community already have taken their role in shaping the parents identities, and then the parenting styles, and have thus been influenced onto the child.

    1. Through verbal and non-verbal interaction, everyone in the space around the sculpture engaged in co-creating shared experiences of learning as evidenced above

      Do you think it can ever be one and not the other, i.e. verbal interaction and non-verbal? Or do you believe both are always tied together?

    2. the physical space of the room and the visual space of the sculpture helped encouragenon-verbal shared experience interactions,

      Which in itself is a learning experience because each person entering to view the exhibit noticed it was more of a non-verbal environment. Individuals picked up in the social environmental cues.

    3. Therefore the experience, shared or individual, from interacting with the sculpture is crafted differently once you pull out your smartphone

      Fascinating! This of course if not limited to smartphones, but to any piece of technology you are interacting with at the moment you are viewing the sculpture. Great point!

    4. Another visitor-learner,who does not knowhim, sees and starts taking her own photos.

      An example of that non-verbal interaction and also learning from the other observer.

    5. This social interaction does not have to be speaking, but can simply be observing, and non-verbal communication between visitor-learners

      This is an interesting view on social interaction, i.e. the non-speaking part. Good point!

    6. t is located in the first room you must enter from the entrance of the museum, grabbing the attention of all visitor-learners who come through the museum.

      Maybe this was intentional? The initial grasping of attention from the viewer could maybe be what keeps them engaged throughout the rest of the museum.

    1. Young children are sometimes described as intuitive scientific thinkers with an instinct for seeking out evidence, noticing patterns, drawing con-clusions, and building theories. Yet, although children may engage natu-rally in collecting and organizing evidence in everyday settings, they do so in ways that are not necessarily consistent with formal definitions of good scientific thinking

      I am interested in understanding how this develops? Where do they learn it from? Can it be innate?

    2. ately from her "teacher" voice into a more excited and proud-sounding par-ent voice, implicitly praising the boy and asking how he knew what the ob-ject was.

      This would be intent participation, no? The mother is actively involving herself because the situation involves her son. Would the same type of engagement occur if it was a stranger?

    3. the focus of joint parent-child attention and thus they serve the function of providing children an online structure for parsing, storing, and making in-ferences about evidence as it is encountered.

      Is this not heavily influenced by the type of attachment the child has with their caretaker? I would think that An ambivalent or disorganized attachment would not lead to this type of functioning with parent-child.

    4. The facilitative effect of explanation,(also holds for children, although they are less likely than adults to spontaneously generate explanations in the course of exploration, categorization, or problem solving.

      Is this because of children's cognitive development not being fully developed? Who is to say that children who have been exposed to a particular problem more frequently than others and have become an expert at that situation are not able to generate a spontaneous explanation to a similar problem? Also what is defining spontaneous?

    5. Similarly, Chi's (1978) earlier work demonstrated that children skilled in chess were better able to recall configurations of chess pieces than a group of college students who were chess novices

      This only makes sense, right? Exposure to something is what creates for learning. Take into account the idea of mentorship and exposure to the field you want to become an expert at.

    6. If the boy's position on the repeated reading of the same books and the repeated watching of the same videos is anything like that of a typical 2-year old, the boy (and his parents) would have soon memorized lots of domain-specific knowledge. They would have learned labels such as firebox, tender, boiler, drive wheels, sanding gear, and steam dome. They would have ac-quired at least some general knowledge about mechanisms of locomO-tio

      I think this is related to intent participation. The boy may have not been paying attention to anything but just going through the routine of reading the book and watching the movie.

    1. Specifically, a lens oflines of practicesuggests that,given certainconditions of practice,people will weave all sorts ofpreferencesintoongoing and long-term activities of interest, thus sometimes deviating from theintended curriculum and its topical core, often in dramatic ways

      This point, being heavily influenced by the use of the resources for each individual. If everyone used the resources the same way, there would be know weaving of preferences.

    2. Sharing of resources is key here. Jackie had the most powerful scope in thegroup, and therefore it often served as the primary instrument for their observa-tions, especially when it came to the most faint objects on the list. By comparingviews across many scopes, astronomers could develop a better sense for theirobservations

      I wonder if using people as resources, in whatever case/way, is the most powerful resource tool? Do people really learn the most from human contact?

    3. consider that all amateur astronomers I met inthe field mentioned that completing theMessierlist was a past, present, or futureobservational goal. To be sure, each such individual would do (or did) this indistinct ways: Some observed the objects over a long period of time (say, becausethey pursued multiple simultaneousobservational goals,as was Mitchell’s case),whereas others focused on finishing the list in the least possible amount of time.6

      I think this is something found across all communities, the use of one specific resource.

    4. Notice that in many practices in which people participate intensively andextensively (e.g., work and school), at any given time individuals are likely tobe affiliated with a single such community of practice and/or institution

      I think the use of resources will allow for people to not be so heavily affiliated to a single community. For example in Mitchell's case he was able to build a telescope for his affiliation of the astronomy community. But, him building the telescope made he be a part of another community as well.

    5. the technological infrastructure that he importedinto his manyobservational linesof practice was clearly continuous with otherpractices beyond amateur astronomy and gave Mitchell’s hobby a flavor that wasdistinctively his.

      I think this plays into the idea of how individuals use different resources in different ways.

    6. Bothlines of practiceandconditions of practiceare shown as arrows because they change and evolveover time

      Which makes me wonder, do the resources change over time? Does the use of the resources change over time?

    7. Taking detailed observationalnoteswas thus a naturalextension of Mitchell’s many other daily practices, and it too shaped and sus-tained his astronomy practice

      In reading this point, it makes me understand the difference in resources individuals will have. Not all people will use the resource of notes like Mitchell will.

    8. comparing these notes to Mitchell’s would make very salient the multiple andspecific dimensions of Mitchell’s extended hobby participation.

      The notes posed as a resource to Mitchell and the individuals at Lake Countryside but also to Azevedo

    9. events such as eclipses, comets, and planet alignments are periodicbut relatively rare, and thus they always attracted Mitchell’s attention, as well asothers’. Likewise, one-time occurrences such as the birth of a nebula are also rareand thus Mitchell and others often took the time to observe them

      Does the rarity of certain instances within a given community of learning also pose as a resource? Mitchell's knowledge in know certain events were very rare engaged him to observe more in depth when the instance did occur.

    10. sites of practice themselves became a case, to be developed inreflexive relation to individual practice cases. In this manner, I hoped to documentidiosyncratic and shared forms of participation within the larger space of prac-tice made available by the hobby as a whole

      The individual site of practice, and the greater context of astronomy can also be seen as resources. When thinking about the actual site were is the knowledge is being learned, but then the application in the greater context of astronomy also supports this learning. It motivates the individual to take what they learned from the individual site and add their knowledge to the larger field.

    11. This calls for a theoretical framework that blendsinsights from sociocultural theories of learning and interest psychology, both ofwhich we began considering earlier.

      I like this becomes it confirms that theoretical frameworks need to focus on more than one area of theories. It is not just one theory, but many combined.

    12. developing a classroom practice in which par-ticipants (students and teacher alike) see themselves as a community that sharesthe endeavor of learning a discipline.

      Which also has the ability to pose as a resource, right? When fostering a classroom that functions as a community, the teacher is promoting an environment that students feel comfortable in, which in turn would probably increase their participation/engagement.

    13. An individual or personal interest, in contrast, refers to a person’s long-termdisposition to engage a topic or domain—such as world history, the physics ofmotion, or sports—and is usually associated with high knowledge and high valueof such a topic/domain

      Using the knowledge of what the individual's long-term disposition to a topic or domain proves to be a resource to support learning. In an undergrad class that I teach, I make sure to learn about my students' research interests to be able to provide them with readings that will engage them when learning about the material.

    14. ngaged participatio

      I am interested to see how the concept of engaged participation will play out. How will it be conceptualized and brought into real world terms.

    1. I define jointwork as a form of collaboration whereby adults participate alongside youth, likeapprenticeship. But, unlike apprenticeship or facilitation, in joint work the envi-ronment is not youth-centered. During this phase of the project there appeared tobe little effort to position youth as leaders of the project, distance adults from theproject, or operate as if one group or another were supposed to be in charge.

      I think the lack of wanting to make the youth members hold leadership roles, hinders their identity development. On the one side, I like that the environment is not altered to be youth-centered, but on the other I do not like the clear cut lines that is created when thinking about leadership roles. (By me, I am referring to how I have understood Kirshner's lens)

    2. adults sought to hand over progressively more re-sponsibilities to youth organizers. Although adults did not fade from active moni-toring to the same extent as those in YELL, they did invite youth to help shape thedirection of the campaign and play a variety of leadership roles.

      Is this more along the lines of what time of mutual involvement Kirshner was referring too? I feel like this is almost the perfect middle point in aiding in identity development of youth.

    3. Instead,adults shared political views with youth, pitched in to complete campaign tasks atkey points, and participated in most decisions. I describe this form of guidance asapprenticeship: Adults were veteran activists who participated in the same en-deavor as novices, while nevertheless structuring activities in ways that were sensi-tive to youths’ skill levels.

      Sometimes I read this and think of mutual involvement, and other times I read it and think more of leadership from the adults. I also don't know if I agree of the term apprenticeship as it makes me think of lpp.

    4. As one adult said, to a chorus ofagreement from others, in a debrief meeting, “I’d prefer for us to be like referees,help youth come to their own beliefs, rather than prod them towards ours.

      Is there much involvement from the adults to be like peers to the youth? I think Kirshner would want to focus on that .

    5. Youth-centered activities include team-builders designed to foster group belonging;workshops designed to improve youths’ skills or understanding; and participantstructures, such as small-group activities, designed to foster participation from allmembers. Activities in facilitation and apprenticeship were typically youth-cen-tered, unlike those in joint work.

      I don't know how much Kirshner would appreciate this, because it is an alteration in the context to make it youth-focused which doesn't necessarily promote mutual involvement with social partners, but only mutual involvement with their peers.

    6. Michelle, the program director, ex-plained that she saw her role as supporting youth in making decisions but not mak-ing decisions for them.

      Promoting an environment where children can make their own decisions

    7. Adults across the groups expressed their desire for youth to take ownership ofthe campaigns, in the sense that youth would care about the campaign goals andtake initiative to carry them out, rather than just follow the leadership and guidanceof adults.

      This is something I think Krishner would agree with because it encourages mutual involvement, and given youth members many times to participate and take ownership of the cause.

    8. In a youth empowerment context, adults are frequently viewed as obstacles toaccess rather than exemplars to emulate, for example by making decisions withoutthe input of youth (Hogan, 2002), creating only token opportunities for youth par-ticipation (O’Donoghue, Kirshner, & McLaughlin, 2002), or promoting punitivepolicies toward minors

      The identity development of youth in this aspect, how I view it, is VERY limiting. In this example, their social partners are not necessarily pushing the youth to accomplish more.

    9. Through interaction with public officials and community members, such groupschallenge social constructions of youth of color as apathetic or uninvolved

      This includes mutual involvement from the individual and their social partner, but does this limit minority youth to only thinking they can be involved in youth activism at this level?

    10. On the other hand,they lack access to the venues where policy decisions are made and are rarely takenseriously as legitimate participants in decision making

      Because of this lack of real life observation of that workforce, correct?

    1. In many communities that empha-size intent participation, adults expect children to watch and begin to take initiative

      Having the child know what the expectation is, and they work towards accomplishing that goal in their own way.

    2. In assembly-line instruction, assessment has the purpose of inspecting receipt andretention of transmitted information.


    3. Adult-child con-versation in many communities occurs primarily for the sake of sharing neededinformation in the context of ongoing activities, rather than serving as lessons toteach children about talk or to provide disconnected bits of knowledge

      Using language as a mediator to gaining more knowledge, not as a moderator

    4. with keen observation and listening. Learners observe to figure outprocesses they expect to engage in. They seek understanding far beyond that neededfor simple mimicry; their roles in shared endeavors often involve coordinating withothers, not simple imitation

      Which i think is what the problem is with learning in school, mimicry. Learning that goes beyond this turns into useful knowledge for the students

    5. Efforts to transform the structure of formal schooling have encountered chal-lenges related to adults’ difficulties in learning to engage in radically different par-ticipation structures.

      I feel like the end result are adults being more concerned on the education rather than the hierarchy.

    6. Likewise, in-tent participation can occur in innovative schools

      This is why they do not view it as dichotomous.

    7. The idea that learning occurs as a product of “transmission” of knowledge re-mains a common conceptualization of learning, although U.S. school reform effortscontinually attempt to move beyond the transmission model.

      transmission, not observation

    8. In a factory model the teacher strives for efficiency in the delivery of knowledgeand applies incentives (or punishments) to induce children to cooperate in the pro-duction process. The students cannot speak or help each other without permissionfrom the teacher. The teacher “delivers” the curriculum using specialized forms ofdiscourse, especially quizzing (in which the teacher asks questions to which sheknows the answer and evaluates the student’s response) to test the receipt of infor-mation.

      School learning in its most strict form. Comparing it to intent participation, you can see the lack of control students have in determining the knowledge they are learning

    9. If children are integrated in a wide range of community settings, they areable to observe and listen in on the ongoing activities of their community aslegiti-mate peripheral participants(Lave & Wenger 1991).

      The differing roles individuals play in society impacts how children are able to observe and accomplish intent participation.

    10. Kenyatta (1953) noted that Gikuyu parents took care to teach children to be goodobservers

      Each society/context has different ways about living their day to day life, which is why I can understand where the variation comes from.

    11. Inuit men of ArcticQuebec reported that as boys they learned to hunt from just watching the menand learned vocabulary and many other things by listening to stories that were notintended for them, staying as inconspicuous as possible

      Clear example of intent learning. The men were observing how to hunt, and listening to the terms used, and were able to learn from their adults.

    12. We focus explicitly onobservation as an aspect of participation. Our term “intent participation” refersto keenly observing and listening in anticipation of or in the process of engagingin an endeavor

      A definition in its simplest form

    13. Numerous studies in the behaviorist tradition have determined that observationcan be very effective for learning (Abravanel & Ferguson 1998). For example,children can learn complex concepts (such as conservation, rules of games, cate-gorization schemes, and rules of syntax) from modeled examples, without explana-tions (Zimmerman & Rosenthal 1974).

      Early developmental psychology is rooted in this idea that children learn through observation.

    14. observationand listening-in are important for all children

      listening and observing are important regardless of context, which I think is a good argument in focusing on intent participation.

    15. Learning through keen observation and listening, in anticipation ofparticipation, seems to be especially valued and emphasized in communities wherechildren have access to learning from informal community involvement.

      When reading this, I think of a more collectivist society. Learning through observations, and just being aware of your surroundings, a skill that is mostly taught in collectivists societies/contexts.

  5. Sep 2015
    1. e it put the visitor in a very active role as learner:experimenting, hypothesizing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions

      Something they get very little of in the in-school context. The only time I can think of people participating in this type of exploration is during science lab experiments. Even though this knowledge at the museum is not specific to something it still encourages critical thinking.

    2. It emphasized the aspects of science most easily and pleasurably learned in a physi-cally complex and chaotic environment, namely those involving exploration, physicalmanipulation, and experimentation

      I like how they included the pleasurable factor. This makes it appealing to others and makes the visitors WANT to learn and play with object.

    1. In particular, we wish toconsider the ways in which we can take ‘low-tech’, tangible objects andrefashion or augment them to engender interaction and co-participation

      Interested in doing this for what purpose? Is it to see how the viewer will change their participation? Is it to see the difference in participation among object that do not encompass this augmented fashion?

    2. the article isconcerned with the ways in which people, in interaction with each other, boththose they are with and others who happen to be in the same space, reflexivelyconstitute the sense and significance of objects and artefacts, how theengagement with the artefact emerges in different ways for differentparticipants, and the ways in which those material features, and the ecologyin which they lie, reflexively inform the production and intelligibility ofconduct and interaction

      The complexity of this, and what they are concerned with fascinates me. I think it is so interesting to explore this type of interaction. The interaction with an object and the viewer, and the subconscious participation of the viewer in the context that the object is being displayed in.

    3. Shearman powerfully demonstrates how the painters andsculptors of the High Renaissance were not only sensitive to the locationwhere the painting was sited, the placement of other artefacts in the localsetting and the likely positioning of the spectator, but also to the experience ofdifferent kinds of spectators as they approach the image and how throughengagement with the painting, familiarity and expectation, the spectator canunderstandthe ‘genealogy of the moment’.

      I think this is interesting because it highlights each individuals perspective on the artwork, not just the message the artist wanted the artwork to give off.

    1. The example alsoillustrates what La Fontaine (1986) has called the "fluid reality" ofthe households, the changes in household composition, residence,jobs, and social relations; it is within this fluidity that the experiencesof families must be understoo

      I think this term is genius, "Fluid Reality". I feel it encompasses the idea of the ever-changing household which is important for someone to consider. Because the world around us changes so much, it is important for us to understdood that the household changes as well.

    2. It is specific funds of knowledgepertaining to the social, economic, and productive activities of peoplein a local region or community, not "culture" in its broader, anthro-pological sense, that represent a strategic resource for classrooms

      How are you defining culture? Do people not bring in their own individualistic styles in a community, that are influenced from somewhere (i.e. culture)?

    3. From our perspective, both households and classrooms are con-ceptualized as culturally mediated systems of knowledge  systemsof living knowledge

      That are also socially constructed, and are different depending on what cultural context one lives in.

    4. The classroom functions through multiple, mediatedexchanges of knowledge, where the children, as well as the teacher,are active teachers and learners. It is this interdependence of adultsand children, and how they use social and cultural resources for de-veloping thinking, that make such classrooms informative case studiesof distributed cognition

      There is no mode of hiearachy, rather everyone working and learning together guided by a mediator (teacher)

    5. are organized flexibly to facilitate the creation ofdiverse and changing relationships among the participants. The roleof the teacher in these classrooms is that of a mediator, in the Vy-gotskian sense: to provide guidance, strategic support, and assistanceto help the children assume control of their own learning

      I love this idea of a classroom. I am interested though in what problems would come out of this type of classroom structure.

    1. these analyses have not accounted for the ways that these moments of teach-ing and learning were cumulative and over time came to define different trajectoriesof identity

      Do we think that this way of learning, if maintained across a longer amount of time would result in once certain way for all individuals (or majority)?

    2. Fundamental to Wenger's theory is the idea that identity is constructed at theintersection of the individual and the social world. By and large, both sociological andpsychological approaches have acknowledged that identity is simultaneously anindividual, social, and cultural phenomenon.

      Being of psychology background, these are the theories I learn and choose to explore more about and focus my research on

  6. newclasses.nyu.edu newclasses.nyu.edu
    1. We believe this key transition that occurs in both schemes is best recast as identification-the formation of a concept of self as an actor in the system.

      "culturally devised system" what everything seems to be coming down to

    2. piro with cognitive salience, Dreyfus with expert knowledge-both refer to the other dimensions, including identification.

      I like how this is split up between authors, but I believe both work together in creating identity.

    3. But 30 years old, that's old. I mean I'm 18 years old. I don't want to go out with someone who's 30. It's not that bad but-shucks, I don't want to go out with anybody but Howard. He's worth the wait. "7

      I think she uses and reacts the situation differently depending on the context she is in. When she wants to still have her freedom she will act in ways that show she is not too interested, but when she wants to stop someone from talking to her, she will act the opposite. She has learned how to use her relationship to her advantage...maybe?

    4. women came to col-lege proud of having done well in high school and then got upset when their university grades were not as good. They gradually became less involved with their schoolwork and switched their attention and time to romantic pursuits. Romance became an even more important world for them.

      Do they do this because they are better at romance than school? Do they make this switch to feel fulfilled?

    5. If culture is assumed to define and determine individual human needs, then the challenge is to explicate the form and nature of a particular figured world and so its power to dictate action.

      But doing this involves doing it for every culture, and every social context. Is it even possisble?

    6. how figured worlds come to engage people, to shape and be shaped by tlieir actior1s."

      social contexts

  7. newclasses.nyu.edu newclasses.nyu.edu
    1. The findings suggest that, over time, the individual develops his drinking history according to the AA structure, and as the AA identity is formed, the life story narrated comes to resemble the prototypical AA story more and more closely.

      So did the AA steps get developed from the comparison of other people?

    2. When AA members talk to outsiders who may be alcoholics in a one-to-one interaction, they are following the last of the Twelve Steps, "carrying the message to alcoholics who still suffer."

      This is inspiring because the AA members work together

    3. But becoming sober in AA involves much more than not drinking. Since drinking affected all areas of one's life, sobriety must also affect all areas of life. "Sobriety," when talked about by AA members, means a new way of life, with spiritual aspects of surrender to God or a Higher Power, humility, trust, honesty, and making amends for wrongs committed in the past or present.

      I like the emphasis here on the social context-one's life. It is not a single process affecting only one aspect, but a process that affects all aspects of one's life.

    4. It is a transformation of their identities, from drinkil1KJ1on-alcoholics to rion-drmldng alcofiO!ics·, a_�n:::d:_,:lt:.:a::l�le::;c:.:-ts::__. ���-�"--·--�·-'-" ·-----��.�-=---�----���·�� . --how they view and act in the world.

      Why does it need to be that way? Why label something that is unnecessary, especially when it will not produce positive result for the individual's identity?

    1. Figured worlds are evinced in practice through the artifacts employed by people in their performances.

      I think this is fascinating and very interesting, but also that it is missing the other people included in a given context. I think both, together, are what help form the identity

    2. We must also appreciate what social constructivism and practice theories tell us about the imagined worlds in which we conduct our lives.

      Because of social constructivism these imagined worlds are different for everyone

    3. These socially generated, culturally figured worlds, many linguists believe, are necessary for understanding the meaning of words.

      I read this and I think, "what came first the chicken or the egg?"

      Can you have worlds if you don't have words to define them? Can anyone have an identity if we have no words to use to describe our identities?

    4. nipnll!ted JQ__p..Q)nt to other social feelings

      It is being weird with the highlighting. What I want to highlight is "Meanings are manipulated to point...to participation in that scene. I think it is important to note here that a child's choice to engage in a particular environment/scene is also based on previous knowledge of the situation.

    1. ĖÑtĖĖ  Ė $¡þ  ĆĖĖ “Ėÿ ̧Ė ¢ôċ‹”vĖđÊËNăÍĖĒá›aŚĖ{? øĖQ¹Ė.©õ Û ĖĖ 0`"#$ag

      I enjoy the use of the word "interconnections"

    1. O7 ̈x|%/‰Q/7 ̈Q‰…?`E ̈ 4<QYqh ̈

      I wanted to highlight this paragraph but it did not let me. I think this has to do with the knowledge gained when learning about the language in that community. An apprentice will learn through the social tone of the context how to introduce new thoughts/ideas.

    2. but a deeper sense of the value of participa-tion to the community and the learner lies in becoming part of the community.

      Which takes me back to my earlier point about cultural knowledge.

    3. In the process, newcomers learn how to make (some-times difficult) repairs, they learn the skills of war-story tell-ing, and they become legitimate participants in the community of practice.

      This makes me believe that story telling allows apprentices to gain social knowledge on/about that community. Would this not be considered cultural learning?

    4. She points out that stories play a major role in decision making (1989). This has impli-cations for what and how newcomers learn. For apprenticeship learning is supported by conversations and stories about prob-lematic and especially difficult cases.

      By stories, is Jordan referring to stories by the masters? Who is saying these stories?

    5. Becoming a full partici-pant certainly includes engaging with the technologies of everyday practice, as well as participating in the social rela-tions, production processes, and other activities of communi-ties of practice.

      This is why i believe it is important to look at the social context of learning, because the surrounding people play a role in what knowledge is gained.

    6. In summary, rather than learning by replicating the perfor-· mances of others or by acquiring knowledge transmitted in instruction, we suggest that learning occurs through centripetal participation in the learning curriculum of the ambient com-munity.

      I like this statement because it takes into account both learning by instruction and learning within a given context.

    7. Claims about the definition of a community of practice and the community of practice actually in process of reproduction in that location may not coincide -a point worth careful consideration.

      Is this because of the possibility that a community of practice may not always be in the process of reproduction? Or, can this also have to do with the idea that the process of reproduction may not always be successful?

    8. The effectiveness of the circulation of infonnation among peers suggests, to the contrary, that engag-ing in practice, rather than being its object, may well be a condition for the effectiveness of learning .

      Each form of learning has its benefits in regards to different things. To say one form of learning is better than another, in my opinion, is wrong.

    9. It should be clear that, in shaping the relation of masters to apprentices, the issue of conferring legitimacy is more important than the issue of providing teaching.

      Focusing on the legitimacy is what will aid in the apprentices gaining of knowledge, which is why it SHOULD be the main focus

    1. It is a transformation of their identities

      This goes back to the earlier point that I made, that apprenticeship is also a way in forming your identity.

    2. The physical layout of a work setting is an impor-tant dimension of learning, since apprentices get a great deal from observing others and being observed.

      I think this goes back to the point about context.

    3. mov-ing from peripheral to full participation in communities of practice through either formal or informal apprenticeship

      In these contexts, it is almost as if apprenticeship has become a way in helping individuals identify their identity. Apprenticeship in these two examples is spoken as a way of life.

    4. It connotes both outmoded production and obsolete education.

      When did the view of apprenticeship change, and why? By saying it cannot be the only way to gain knowledge, I understand, but to say all together it is irrelevant is to say too much.

    1. the sustained participation of newcomers, becoming old-timers, must involve conflict between the forces that support processes of learning and those that work against them.

      In what ways do they work against each other? In the end, in a newcomers evolution of becoming an old-timer, they are gaining extreme amounts of knowledge.

    2. This focus in tum promotes a view of knowing as activity by specific people in specific cir-cumstances.

      Which to some extant I believe dictates how much a person allows themselves to know. By this I mean the expansion of one's knowledge

    3. This view also claims that learning, thinking, and knowing are relations among people in activity in, with, and arising from the socially and culturally structured world.

      Can we say that this captures all aspects of knowledge? Does all the knowledge an individual gain come from this type of form?

    4. ''cultural'' interpretation construes the zone of proximal de-velopment as the distance between the cultural knowledge pro-vided by the sociohistorical context -usually made accessible through instruction-and the everyday experience of individ-uals

      The cultural interpretation would be something that needs to be considered when discussing "out of school" knowledge, because one's knowledge at a young age (or even throughout their entire life) will be limited to their cultural surroundings. Therefore, my question is how can we expand one's cultural interpretation?

    1. The no­tion of situated learning now appears to be a transitory con­cept, a bridge, between a view according to which cognitive processes (and thus learning) are primary and a view according to which social practice is the primary, generative phenome­non, and learning is one of its characteristics.

      A combination of both views is what is needed. With social development being a huge parts of a human's development, how can it be ignored when discussing education?

    2. By this we mean to draw attention to the point that learners inevitably participate in communities of practitioners and that the mastery of knowledge and skill requires newcom­ers to move toward full participation in the sociocultural prac­tices of a community.

      Thinking of how learners become educated in the real world is something that needs more attention.

    3. Preexisting structures may vaguely determine thought, learn­ing; or action, but only in an underspecified, highly schematic way.

      Why would preexisting structures play an underspecified role? Preexisting structures is the baseline from where to start from

    4. ave and Wenger reject this view of un­derstanding insofar as they locate learning not in the acquisi­tion of structure, but in the increased access of learners to par­ticipating roles in expert performances.

      Which goes back to the application of knowledge in an out-school context

    5. The common element here is the premise that meaning, understanding, and learning are all defined relative to actional contexts, not to self-contained structures.

      In my opinion, both actional contexts and self-contained structures are crucial to pay attention to

    6. It takes as 1ts 1oc� the relationship betwee� learning and the social situationSln which it occurs. Rather than defining it as the acqUiSifiOJFc,f propositional knowledge, Lave and Wenger situate learning in certain forms ofsoc!� coparticipation. Rather than asking what kinds of cognitive processes and conceptual structures are in­volved, they ask what kinds of social engagements provide the proper context for learning to take place.

      The social aspect of learning is something that is missing from how society thinks about education. Thinking of the social engagements is what will enhance a student's learning.

    1. he above analysis has as its chief implication that schools are lousy places to learn, precisely because we establish them without considering the circum­stances under which other ways of proceeding, perhaps less organized, might be more efficient, more humane, or both.

      Just ironic that thoughts like these existed in 1972, yet we proceed to have a very similar education system.

    2. Teaching is no one's job in particular, so it is no one's fault if no learning occurs

      This contradicts what is said earlier when Becker speaks of hierarchy in that the student learns whatever the teacher knows

    3. heir desire may reflect an uncertainty of the curriculum itself, but more likely reflects a concern with their own abilities. They think a normal student should be able to learn what the curriculum proposes ·in the time allotted. Are they normal? Have they learned what they should? Do they just think they learned it. while in truth they missed the point or are doing it the wrong way?

      What defines normal?

    4. They insist on having the upper hand in the relationship, searching for ways to augment and solidify control when it is disputed

      I believe this is a crucial component of the education system. Why is it that this hierarchy drives the field of education?

    5. Finally, while educators readily admit the shortcomings of schools, they do not conceive that anything in the essence of a school might produce those shortcomings or that any other institutional form might do the job better.

      This is upsetting because in order to fix something, or aid its success, the individuals apart of it must be aware of the faults it has.

    1. At least implicitly then, school is an institution that values thought that proceeds independently, without aid of physi- cal and cognitive tools. In contrast, most mental activities outside school are engaged intimately with tools, and the resultant cognitive activity is shaped by and dependent upon the kinds of tools available.

      Realistically, how we need to function in an outside world is not what we are tested on during the inside (school) world.

    2. For example, one study (Lesgold et al., in press) has demonstrated that expert radiologists interpret X-rays us- ing mental processes different from those taught in medical courses, textbooks, and even hospital teaching rounds.

      Can this be something that ties hand in hand with experience? Can we say that in this example, expert radiologists will require more on the knowledge of their experiences in the medical field than their actual knowledge from courses and textbooks?

    3. Schooled people do better, although they rarely use the supposedly general algorithms taught in school. Instead, they invent new methods specific to the situation at hand.

      This makes me wonder how can we examine the application of what we learn in-school to outside-school contexts and situations. Will we then be able to structure in-school learning better?

    4. I propose that, while school is probably an ineffective setting for job training, most cur- rent on-the-job training solutions do not work very well either. More effective forms of vocational and professional preparation than now exist are needed-forms more close- ly linked to job performance than those now customary

      Can it be that there is nothing that will effectively prepare an individual for their job, except from experience?

    5. The story is much the same in management training. Cor- porate America, it is estimated, spends at least $40 billion per year on educating and training its employees, mostly for management functions.

      I am curious to see what this number is now. I feel that although we may not have "apprenticeships" we do have internships that are now required in many programs. These internships also give interns the opportunity to receive a full-time job from the company, thus allowing to spend less money on training.

    6. Cognitive research demonstrates that people work best with and within a complex system if they have a "mental model" (cf. Gentner & Stevens, 1983) of the system-that is, an idea of all its parts, what each does and how they work together, how changes in one part of the system cause changes in other parts.

      Is this what we learn how to do in school? Is teaching students the "why?" question the important link and common ground between the in-school and out-school contexts?